Skip to main content

Full text of "Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on Hbrary shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http : //books . google . com/| 





/^; 



/ 



cL ( z. 




mmmm 



PROCEEDINGS 



or THB 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



ov 



PHILADELPHIA. 



18 8 4. 



GOMMITTEE OF PUBLICATION: 

Joseph Leidy, M. D., Geo. H. Hobn, M. D., 

Edwabd J. Nolan, M. D., Thoicas Mbehan, 

John H. Redfield. 

Editob : EDWARD J. NOLAN, M. D. 



PHILADELPHIA : 

AOADESIT OF NATURAL SGIENOES, 

8. W. Oomer Nineteenth and Baoe Streets. 

18 8 5. 



I here^ certify that printed copies of the Proceedings for 1S81 have been 
presented at the meetingB of the Academ]', as follows : — 



ages 9 to 34 . 


. April 


1,1884. 


" 25 to 40 . 


. April 


15,1884. 


41 to 72 , 


. April 


23,1884. 


78 to 88 . 


. April 


29, 1884. 


89 to 104 . 


. May 


30, 1884. 


" 105 to 136 . 


. June 


3,1884. 


137 to 168 . 


. August 


13.1884. 


" 169 to 184 . 


. August 


19, 1884. 


" 186U>a00 . 


. August 


28, 1884. 


" SOI to 216 . 


. November 4, 1884. 


" 217 to 233 . . 




238to2«4 . 


. November 18, 1881. 


" 265 to 280 . . 


. December 2,1884. 


281 to 296 . 


. January 


13,1885. 


" a»7to8a8 . 


. February 


8,1885. 



EDWARD J. NOLAM, 

lUeording SeerttoTTf. 



LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS. 

With reference to the several a/rtieles contributed by each. 



For Verbal GommunicationB see General Index. 



Araugo, Rafael. Description of new Species of Terrestrial MoUasca 

of Caba 211 

Brinton, D. G., M. D. On the Cuspidiform Petroglyphs, or so-called 

Bird track Rock-sculptures of Ohio 275 

Carter, Henry J. Catalogue of Marine Sponges collected by Mr. Jos. 

Willcox on the West Coast of Florida . . 202 

Chester, Frederick D. Preliminary Notes on the Geology of Delaware 

— Laurentian, PalsBOzoic and Cretaceous Areas (Plate V.) 287 

Fordice, Morton W. A Review of the American Species of Stroma- 

teidae 811 

Foulke, Sara Gwendolen. Some Phenomena in the Life-history of 

Clathnilina elegans 17 

On a new Species of Rotifer of the Genus Apsilus (Plate I.) 87 

Gill, Theodore. On the Mutual Relations of the Hemibranchiate 

Fishes 1 54 

On the Anacanthine Fishes 167 

Gray, Asa. Notes on the Movements of the Androecium in Sun- 
flowers 287 

Heilprin, Angelo. On a Carboniferous Ammonite from Texas.* 58 

On a Remarkable Exposure of Columnar Trap near Orange, N. J. 

(Plate VIII.) 818 

Notes on some new Foraminifera from the Nummulitic Formation 

of Florida 321 

Jordan, David S. List of Fishes from Egmont Key, Florida, in the 

Museum of Tale College, with Description of two new Species.. 42 
Notes on Species of Fishes improperly ascribed to the Fauna of 

North America 97 

McCook, Rev. Henry C, D. D. The Rufous or Thatching Ant of 

Dakota and Colorado 57 

Meehan, Thomas. Catalogue of Plants collected in July, 1888, during 

an Excursion along the Pacific Coast in Southeastern Alaska. .. 76 



8 LIST OF 0ONTBIBUTOB8. 

PAGX. 

Meek, Beth E. A Review of the American Si>ecie8 of the Genus 

Synodus 180 

Meek, Seth E., and David E. Goss. A Eeview of the American 

Species of the Genus Trachynotus 121 

A Review of the American Species of the Genus Hemiramphus. .. 221 

Meek, Seth E., and Martin L. Hoffman. A Review of the American 

Species of the Genus Teuthis 227 

Meek, Seth E., and Rohert G. Newland. A Review of the American 

Species of the Genus Sphyrsena 67 

A Review of the American Species of Scomberomorus. 282 

Meyer, Otto. Notes on Tertiary Shells 104 

Osborn, Henry F. Preliminary Observations upon the Brain of Meno- 

poma (Plate VI.) 262 

Potts, Edward. On a Supposed New Species of Gristatella (Plate IV.) 198 

Randolph, N. A., M. D. On the Behavior of Petrolatum in the 

Digestive Tract.. 281 

Ringueberg, Eogene N. S. New Fossils from the Four Groups of the 

Niagara Period of Western New York (Plates II and III.) 144 

Scribner, F. Lamson. Observations on the Genus Cinna, with Descrip- 
tion of a New Species (Plate VII.) 289 

Sharp, Benjamin. On Semper's Method of Making Dried Preparations. 24 
Homologies of the Vertebrate Crystalline Lens 800 

Strecker, Herman. Descriptions of New Species of North American 

Heterocera 283 

Swain, Joseph, and Seth E. Meek. Notes on a Collection of Anchovies 
from Havana and Key West, with an Account of a New Species 
(Stolephorus eury stole) from Wood*s HoU, Mass 34 

Willcox, Jos. Notes on the Geology and Natural History of the West 

Coast of Florida 188 




PROCEEDINGS 



or THB 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 



Ol" 



PHILADELPHIA. 



1884. 



January 1, 1884. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Fourteen persons present. 

Ant infected mth a Fungus, — Prof. Leidy exhibited an ant, 
Camponotus pennsylvanicus, which was rigid, with limbs and 
antennae extended, as in life, in which condition it was found 
under the bark of a decaying tree. It was infected with a fungus 
which spread through every part of the body. 

Gassiterite from Black Hills, Dakota, — Prof. Leidy exhibited 
specimens of tin ore submitted for examination by Mr. Eltonhead, 
who reports them to have been obtained at Black Hills, Dakota. 
They consisted of a mass of granite containing cassiterite, a 
fragment of quartz with the same, and a mass of pure cassiterite 
of about one pound weight. Prof. Leidy said he had also seen 
several pounds of large grains obtained from gold washings. 
From among these he had picked out several characteristic 
crystals. 



January 8. 

Mr. Geo. Y. Shoemaker in the chair. 
Ten persons present. 

A paper entitled ** Some Phenomena in the Life-History pf 
Clathrulina elegans," by Miss S. Q, Foulke, was presented for 
publication. 



10 PBOOEEDINQS OF THE ACADEBiY OF [1884. 

Visual Organs of Lamellihranchs. — Dr. Benjamin Sharp re- 
ported on his work on the lamellibranch eye. He had examined 
the edge of the mantle of Ostrea virginica and Mitilis edulis of 
the Asiphonata, and the siphons of Venus mercenaria, Mya 
arenaria, Mactra solidissima, besides the forms already described 
for Solen ensis and S. vagina (Proc. of Academy of Nat. Sciences 
of Phila., 1883, pp. 248-9). The pigmented cells found in these 
parts are essentially the same as those found in Solen ensis and S. 
vagina. The smallest of all the cells were found in Ostrea and 
the largest in Venus, . Experiments on these forms show their 
sensitiveness to light and shadow, and the cells showing the 
retinal character described leaves little doubt as to the power 
of vision. No nerves could be demonstrated passing direct to 
these cells, and probably those distributed to the general 
epidermis serve in transmitting the impressions. The visual 
power is so low that nerves have not been yet specialized for 
this purpose. 



January 15. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty persons present. 

A Phosphorescent Variety of Limestone, — Professor Lewis gave 
a description of a remarkable substance found in one of the 
mountain mines of Utah, near Salt Lake City, sent to him some 
months ago by Professor Cope. It is a white rock which phos- 
phoresces with a lurid red light whenever struck or scratched 
with a hard substance, and on that account has been called by 
the miners. Hell-fire rock. 

It proves upon examination to be an almost perfectly pure car- 
bonate of lime, containing occasionally slight impurities of iron, 
etc. It is a loose grained, white, crystalline limestone, the grains 
of which are but slightly coherent, giving the rock the appear- 
ance of a soft sandstone. Upon slight abrasion in the hand, it 
crumbles to form a coarse, calcareous sand. Under the micro- 
scope the rock appears as a loose mass of irregular, angular 
grains, which are nearly transparent, and which have a lustre 
resembling that of alum. Portions of the rock are colored slightly 
yellow by oxide of iron. 

Its phosphorescent properties are very remarkable, entitling it 
to rank as a new variety of limestone. It was long ago noticed 
by Becquerel that some limestones were slightly phosphorescent 
after heating or insolation, but so far as known, no other lime- 
stone possesses this property in a degree at all approaching that 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 11 

now described, the phosphorescence of which is nearly as strong 
as that of fluor spar. 

Phosphorescence is developed when the rock is either struck, 
scratched or heated. Upon using metal, glass or any other hard 
substance to strike or to scratch it, a deep red light is emitted, 
which continues sometimes for several seconds after the blow. 
Kubbing with other fragments or grinding in a mortar developed 
a white light. The most remarkable phosphorescence is devel- 
oped by heating a fragment of the limestone in a glass tube over 
a flame. It then glows with a deep red light which lasts for a 
minute or more after withdrawing the flame. The color of the 
light emitted resembles that of a red-hot body. Several seconds 
before dying out, the light becomes white or bluish white. Upon 
cooling and subsequent heating, phosphorescence is again devel- 
oped in the same fragment, but much more feebly and for a 
shorter period, and afcer two or three such heatings, its phos- 
phorescence is destroyed. 

Experiments made by the speaker upon the temperature at 
which " Hell-fire rock " became phosphorescent, showed that 
phosphorescence occurred at a temperature somewhat under 
500° F. Small fragments phosphoresced much more quickly 
than large ones. The lurid red light produced by a blow from a 
hammer varied in duration of visibility according to the strength 
of the blow. The phosphorescence produced by a slight touch 
lasted only half a second, while a sharp blow produced a light 
which remained more than twenty seconds after the blow was 
given. Doubtless, a blow with a miner's pick upon the rock 
would cause still longer phosphorescence. 

It was found that the phosphorescence developed by heating 
occurred nearly contemporaneously with the decrepitation of the 
calcite, and this fact may be of value in theoretical considerations. 

A search through the collection of the Academy for limestones 
having similar properties resulted in finding a limestone from 
Kaghberry, India, which glowed with a strong yellow phosphor- 
escent light when heated. No phosphorescence was produced by 
friction alone, as in the case of the Utah limestone. It was of 
great interest to find that this Indian limestone, and this one 
alone of all in the collection, had the precise external characters 
of that from Utah. It had the same crystalline structure and 
state of aggregation, crumbling readily in the fingers, and resem- 
bling a sandstone. It was labeled " Phosphorescent Sandstone,*' 
although containing no siliceous sand. 

This similarity of external characters between the two phos- 
phorescent limestones is certainly more than a ooinoidence. It 
confirms Becquerel's view that phosphorescence depends upon 
physical rather than chen^ical conditions. He has shown that 
when Aragonite is calcined, fused with sulphur and then heated^ 
it phosphoresces with a green light ; whereas calcite, similarly 



12 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

treated, gives a yellow light ; from which he concludes that the 
diflPerent colors depend upon different crystalline states, the com- 
position remaining the same. 

The speaker had been fortunate enough to observe the rare phe- 
nomenon of the phosphorescence of snow, having seen a snow- 
covered Alpine mountain shining at night as though illuminated 
by moonlight. This beautiful appearance lasted for about half 
an hour only, and was confined to a single mountain. Here again 
the phosphorescence, although of quite a difierent kind from 
either of those mentioned above, was purely physical, depending 
upon the assumption of a certain crystalline condition of the 
snow. 

In general, the phosphorescence of a substance may be said to 
depend upon an alteration in its molecular state of aggregation. 
In the case of " Hell-fire rock " it appears to be the result of a 
disturbance of its loosely aggregated crystalline particles, whether 
such disturbance be produced by percussion, friction, heat or 
decrepitation. 

The New Jersey Coast after the storm of Jav. 8, 188 Jf, — Pro- 
fessor Leidy stated that, in company with Dr. Sharp and Mr. 
Ford, he had made a trip to Atlantic City, N. J., to observe the 
result of the recent storm on the marine animals of our coast. 
The shore at the highest line reached by the tides was for miles 
covered with incalculable numbers of the Beach-clam, Mactra 
solidissima. These in many places formed extensive patches 
actually closely paved with the clams. Besides those visible, it 
is probable as many or * more were covered by the sand thrown 
up with the clams. Until this evidence of the storm, he had no 
suspicion that the mollusk was so exceedingly abundant on the 
coast, though he had been well aware that it was very common, 
and had repeatedly seen large quantities thrown oil shore under 
similar circumstances. With the Mactra were other mollusks, 
and, though numerous enough, they appeared to be few compared 
with the former. These were Fulgur carica and F, canaliculata, 
Natica heros and N, duplicnta, and Nassa obsoleta. Hermit 
crabs were also numerous, Eupagurus pollicaris in shells of 
Natica and Fulgur, and E, longicarpus in shells of Nassa The 
former shells had attached abundance of Crepidula unguiformis, 
and occasionally on the outside a C. fornicata. Of other crabs, 
the Spider-crab, Libinia canaliculata and Flatyonichus ocellatus 
were frequent. A few half-grown Horse-shoe crabs, Limvlus 
polyphemus^ were also observed. A few bunches of Mytilus 
edulis were occasionally met with. 

It seemed remarkable that certain common m- Husks were con- 
spicuously absent, as the Oyster, Ostrea virginiana^ the Clam, 
Venus mercenaria, the Squirt-clam, Mya arenaria^ and the Horse 
mussel, Modiola plicatula. Scarcely any annelides were observed, 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 13 

except masses of dead Serpula invested with Eschara variabilis. 
There were also no echinoderms, except one, the Gaudina arenata^ 
which occurred in some places in considerable numbers. This, 
it was believed, is the first time the animal has been observed on 
the coast of New Jersey. The specimens presented were collected 
by Mr. Ford. They usually range from three to four or five 
inches in length ; but several were upwards of six inches, and 
over an inch at the thicker portion of the body. 

It is an interesting question as to what becomes of the vast 
quantities of Mactra and other shells incessantly cast on shore. 
Storms annuall}'^ oblige the ocean to contribute from its inex- 
haustible stores, multitudes of moUusks and other animals to the 
sandy beach. By exposure to the influence of the weather, the 
air, the sun, the rain, frosts and other violence, the calcareous 
shells are broken and decomposed, and in a comparatively few 
years entirely disappear. Carbonic acid, of the rain-water, must 
be a potent agent in their ultimate solution as it percolates 
through the sands. While the beach receives its constant sup- 
plies of shells, no trace of these is to be found in the sands 
immediately back of the shore; which sands in former times 
received the same incessant contributions. For similar reasons, 
no doubt, calcareous fossils are comparatively rare in sandstones^ 
though in many cases their impressions are well preserved. 

Flora of North America, — At the meeting of the Botanical 
Section of the Academy, held on January 14, Dr. Asa Gray 
spoke of the progress of the forthcoming portion of the Synop- 
tical Flora of North America, and of the occasions which had led 
to the publication of the middle portions in advance of the earlier. 
It had seemed important now to secure the results of the many 
years of study which he had given to the large and difficult order 
of Compositfle, which will form the bulk of the forthcoming part. 
He spoke of the perplexities attendant upon the accurate defini- 
tion of generic divisions in this order, and especially of properly 
discriminating the .species of such genera as Aster and Solidago. 
He had no idea that he had really solved the difficulties of this 
kind, or that any one would entirely solve them; but he had done 
his best. He could himself name the species of Solidago^ and he 
could namec.a good many Asters ; but he doubted whether he 
had enabled other botanists to name them. Being asked whether 
his views respecting the limitation of species had not under- 
gone some change, in the direction of admitting more species now 
than formerly, he admitted that this was probably the case. He 
still held to what might be termed t'ue Linnsean conception ot 
species, that they were to be taken in a broad sense and expected 
to comprise various forms, which might or might not be classi- . 
fied into varieties. But whereas, in his j^ounger days, species 
were thought to be independent creations, and the real differences, 



14 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACADEMY OP [1884. 

if we could find them, supposed to be absolute, we now look upon 
allied species as having descended from a common ancient stock, 
of which intermediate forms have died out, and therefore do not 
expect that allied forms, on the whole distinct and definable^ 
should be completely unconnected by certain links or vestiges of 
links. Moreover, it used to be thought that hybrids were neces- 
sarily sterile, but it is now known that some hybrids are fertile, 
and that their offspring, fertilized by either parent, are generally 
fertile ; that in this way intermediate forms between two species 
may originate ; and it is clear that the two species ought not to 
be reduced to one on account of such intermediate forms. Dr. 
Gray referred to Eosa^ Ruhus and Hieracium, in the Old World, 
as genera in which no two botanists who had studied them could 
agree as to what were species ; one school reducing them to very 
few, which they can define only b}' disregarding certain interme- 
diate forms ; the other multiplying them by hundreds, and char- 
acterizing them by distinctions which might serve for the speci- 
mens in hand, but which failed with every new collection. This 
necessitated either the formation of a still finer-drawn set of species, 
or the falling back to the broader Linnsean conception of a species. 
The latter alternative had been generally followed in this country, 
and Dr. Gra}'^ hoped that the coming Anverican botanists would 
incline to this view in the treatment of our critical genera. 

Relation of Medullary Rays to the Strength of Timber, — Dr. 
RoTHROCK called attention to some experiments made by Mr. 
Frank Day, in the laboratory of the University of Penna., on the 
relation of the medullary ray to the strength of timber. Mr. 
Day had found that it required just about twice as much force 
(say 1130 pounds) to pull apart a square inch of live oak, if 
the force ran parallel to these rays as if the force were applied 
at right-angles to them. 

What is true of the live oak was also largely true of other 
timbers. The buttonwood (Platanus occidentalis) was remark- 
able for the development of its medullary rays, and also for the 
diflSculty in splitting that wood at right-angles to them. 

Mr. Day's experiments also proved that there existed great 
differences in the quality of the material of the woody fibre ; for 
in timber where the relative proportion of wood and ducts could 
well be compared, and where the fibres were of equal size through- 
out, differences in strength were to be found. 

Botanical Notes. Double Flowers in Gelsemium nitidum; 
Euonymus Japonicvs; Development of Fruit of Opunlia; Helian- 
thus tuberosus; Carya glabra, — Mr. Meehan exhibited two speci- 
mens of double flowers of Gelsemium nitidum ^ one found wild 
in Georgia, the other in Alabama. One was straw-colored, the 
other deep yellow. He remarked that many double flowers in 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 16 

gardens, credited to the florists' skill, were wildlings which had 
been taken into cultivation. 

Mr. Meehan also remarked that Euonymus radicans, under 
culture from Japan, is believed by some modern botanists to be 
but a variety of £, Japonicus. He exhibited branches of the 
latter which had been produced by the former. They were not 
varieties, but simply frutescent and radicaut forms of each other. 

The speaker exhibited specimens of Opuntia frutescenSj var. 
longiapina, in which fruit had formed, though no flowers had 
appeared, the scarcely developed sepals and petals having been 
thrown off the apex in infancy. A regular gradation from perfect 
branches to these fruits was exhibited, some of those most 
closely related to perfectly formed fruit having a tendency to the 
red coloring which marked the fruits. Occasion was taken to 
emphasize the morphological doctrine, that fruits like apples 
and pears are but arrested branches. 

In continuation, Mr. Meehan reintroduced specimens exhibited 
at a former meeting, showing that the roots of a supposed 
Jerusalem artichoke, wild near Philadelphia, and supposed 
to have been in some past time an escape from gardens, had 
characteristics somewhat different from the form now under 
culture in the vicinity, and inquired whether this might be what 
has been hitherto known as Helianthus doronocoides^ which Dr. 
Gray had demonstrated some years ago in Silliman's Journal, to 
be the parent of H. tuber onus. If so, it might prove that this 
species was indigenous to Eastern Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Asa Gray did not think the species was indigenous here. 
He rather suspected that the form now wild had once been the 
cultivated one, and that the ones now in use had been introduced 
since. He remarked that he had been working among the roots 
of different species of the genus, during the past autumn, some 
of which he found had merely fleshy roots, like those of Dahlia^ 
making no runners; others had runners developed into true tubers. 

Mr. Meehan also exhibited some nuts of Gary a glabra Torr. 
(C porcina Nutt.) which had been brought in by one of his 
seed collectors from a tree in the woods in the vicinity of 
Philadelphia. They had two or sometimes three nuts in a single 
exocarp, as in the manner of Caatanea vesca^ the common 
chestnut. The collector was under the impression that all the 
nuts borne by the tree were of a similar character. 

Dr. Asa Gray remarked that this occurrence of two or three 
nuts of Garya within the same husk, either separate or parti}'' 
coherent, was of much morphological significance. Specimens 
like these had been sent to him several years ago, said to have 
been collected in Montgomery Co., Penna., with the remark that 
the tree bore a good many such abnormal fruits ; Dr. Gray 
believed that the conclusion to which they inevitably pointed had 



18 PE0CEECING8 OP THZ AOABEUY OF [1881. 

not yet been published. It Tras, however, communicated to Dr. 
EDgelmann, along with a portion of his Bpecimens, at least five 
years ago. The conclusion drawn was the following : The husk, 
or Bo-called exocarp, of Carya, is an involucre, usually containiDg 
a single female flower, and connate with its ovary ; its true mor- 
phology is revealed when, as in this case, it contains two or three 
flowers. The stone or shell of the nut is the whole pericarp in 
Cori/o as much as in Corylua. In the foi'mer genus it becomes 
free from the four-valved involucre at maturity ; in Jvglana the 
congenital union is more permanent, forming a drupaceous acces- 
sory fruit, of which the fleshy part is involucre, the bony part is 
pericarp. . This view directly homologizes the Juglandacex with 
the Cupuliferae. 

The following was ordered to be printed ; — 



1884.] NATT7BAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 17 



SOME PHEKOMEKA IN THE LIFE-HISTOBT OF CCATHBTJLINA ELE0AN8. 

BY SABA GWENDOLEN FOULKE. 

While collecting infusoria among Lemna and the leaves of 
the yellow pond-lily, in a ditch on Brandywine Creek, Chester 
county, Pennsylvania, the writer was so fortunate as to secure 
large numbers of that beautiful Heliozoan, Clathrulina elegans. 

This rhizopod was attached in myriads to the roots of the 
Lemna, the groups in many cases being composed of above 
twenty-five colony -stocks, so matted together by the twisting of 
the pedicels, and so surrounded by waste matter, as completely 
to conceal at that point the supporting root-fibre. 

The animals were in a most active condition, feeding by means 
of their characteristic pseudopo4ial rays, and multiplying so 
freely by self-division, that the water was full of the Actinophrys- 
like bodies, and almost ever^"^ capsule supported from one to ten 
young individuals. 

-After being kept in captivity for two weeks, the large social 
groups had decreased in number, although solitary individuals 
were much more numerous. Reproduction was still going on, 
but not so freely, and by more varied methods. The phenomena 
exhibited during the act of reproduction are the subject of this 
communication. 

The modes of reproduction are four in number, two of these 
being slightly similar, while the others essentially differ in char- 
acter. These four modes are : firsts by division ; second, by the 
instantaneous throwing off of a small mass of sarcode ; third, by 
the transformation of the body into flagellate monads ; and 
fourth, by the formation and liberation of minute germs. By the 
first mode, and this is the most common, the sarcode mass within 
the capsule withdraws its rays, constricts, and divides into from 
two to four granular masses, which, after a varying period of 
rest, pass out from the capsule and instantly shoot forth pseudo- 
.podial rays on all sides, thus assuming the appearance of an 
Actinophrys sol. These Actinophrys-like bodies after a time 
develop a protoplasmic stalk, or pedicel, by which they attach 
themselves, usually to the parent capsule. A thin film of proto- 
plasm is then thrown out and subtended by the rays, at a short 
distance from the body, and this, by development and secretion. 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

becomes the latticed siliceous capsule. The pedicel also becomes 
more rigid, though always retaining a degree of flexibleness. 
This manner of reproduction was first described by Cienkowski, 
the great Russian observer, and discoverer of Glathrulina elegans 
(see Leidy's Rhizopods of North America). 

In the second mode of reproduction, the rays are not withdrawn, 
nor does the body divide, but the sarcode becomes finally vacu- 
olate, presenting knob-like projections. Suddenly a small mass of 
sarcode, usually one of the knob-like projections, detaches itself, 
and, passing out of the capsule, shoots out rays and develops, 
though more slowly, in the manner described above. This con- 
tinues until the parent body is much reduced in size, when the 
rays again protrude and the animal returns to its normal condition. 

The third mode of reproduction is by the formation and liber- 
ation of minute germs. In this state, also, the rays are not 
withdrawn, but the body of the Glathrulina becomes filled with 
minute green particles, which, even before liberation, exhibit 
active motion. A number of these are expelled, enclosed in a 
thin protoplasmic film or globular sac, which bursts shortly, and 
the liberated germs swim away. The development of these germs, 
after this point, is yet to be followed. 

The fourth mode is still more remarkable, and is also signifi- 
cant in bringing to light a new phase in the life-history of the 
Heliozoa. The Glathrulina in which these phenomena were first 
observed, withdrew its rays and divided into four parts, as in the 
ordinary method ; but the sarcode, instead of becoming granular 
and of a rough surface, grew smoother and more transparent. 
Then followed a period of quiescence ; — in this case of ii\e or six 
hours duration, although in other instances lasting three days 
and nights ; after which one of the four parts began slowly to 
emerge from the capsule, a second following a few moments later. 

While passing through the capsule, these masses of sarcode 
seemed to be of a thicker consistence than the similar bodies, 
which, in the ordinary method, instantly assume the Actino- 
phrj's form. After both had passed completely through, for 
nearly a minute they lay quiet, graduall}'^ elongating meanwhile. 
Then a tremor became visible at one end, and a short prolonga- 
tion of the sarcode appeared waving to and fro. This elongated 
at the same time into a flagellum, the vibrations becoming more 
rapid, until at the same moment both the liberated monads darted 
away through the water. They were followed for about ten 



\ 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 19 

minutes, when both were lost to sight among a mass of sediment, 
and the fear of mistaking one of the common monads for them 
led the observer to abandon the search. Returning to the parent 
capsule, a third monad was found to have escaped in the mean- 
time. After twenty-four minutes quiescence, the fourth body in 
its turn approached the wall of the capsule, emerged, developed 
a flagellum, and swam away, a free monad. With a one-half 
inch objective this one was closely watched, and the following 
details noted : body oval, transparent ; nucleus present, dark- 
colored and situated near the centre ; a pulsating pink vesicle, 
situated posteriorly ; and a flagellum slightly longer than the body. 

For one hour and fifty-eight minutes the monad swam in all 
directions, usually in concentric, ever widening circles, then 
suddenly darting off at a tangent to begin again in a new spot. 
At the end of this time, in its course it touched one of the free 
young Glathrulina^ and, to prevent it being used as food by its 
cannibal relation, the glass cover of the live-box was tapped, so 
that the current produced carried the monad a short distance 
away, where it remained almost motionless several seconds. 

By a change to a power of three hundred and fifty diameters, 
the monad was shown to attach the top of its flagellum to the 
glass and revolve swiftly for a few moments, when instantly the 
whole body became spherical, rays were shot out, and the trans- 
formed monad was in no point, except that of size, to be distin- 
guished from its Actinophrys-like cousin, whose career had been 
so different. In some cases the monads remained attached by 
the flagellum, using it as a pedicel. The whole development, from 
the time when the monad began its free life, occupied two hours 
and some seconds. 

This mode of reproduction secures a more widespread distri- 
bution of the young than would be possible did this depend on 
the sluggish Actinophrys form. It seems reasonable to suppose 
that this is a wise provision for the perpetuation of the species, 
should adverse conditions of life arise ; and also to prevent an 
undue accumulation of the animals within a circumscribed space. 

The tendency of these rhizopods to attach themselves to the 
parent capsule, a result of the inertness of the Actinophrys form 
of young; together with the fact that this mode of reproduction 
was apparently induced by a lengthened captivity, necessarily 
the source of adverse conditions, would point to the reasonable- 
ness of the above conclusions. 



20 PBOCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1884. 



January 22. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-eight persons present. 

The death of James C. Hand, a member, was announced. 

A paper entitled " On Semper's Method of Making Dried 
Preparations,'^ by Dr. Benj. Sharp, was presented for publication. 

Indian Mounds on the Miami River. — Mr. F. W. Putnam, Curator 
of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology, 
Cambridge, Mass., gave an account of the explorations now in 
progress by himself and Dr. C. L. Metz, of an interesting group 
of earthworks in the Little Miami valley. It consists of twelve 
mounds enclosed by an embankment of earth which runs across 
the lowland and connects by a graded way with a circular embank- 
ment on a hill thirty feet high, within which are two other 
mounds. The mounds have proved to be very important, as 
several are constructed in a peculiar manner. In two of the 
mounds circular stone walls were found, and from these walls 
stones have been laid, covering in the central portions of the 
mounds. Several of the mounds were stratified, and contained 
basins, or " altars," of burnt clay, upon which were thousands of 
objects more or less injured hy fire. Burnt human remains were 
found in several of the mounds, and in others were skeletons, 
showing that both methods of disposing of the dead were resorted 
to. Many interesting objects were found with the skeletons. 
The most important discoveries were made on the " altars," which 
contained, among other things, many works of art, including small 
terra-cotta figures representing men and women, carved stone 
dishes in the form of animals, and various objects cut from mica, 
among them a serpent and a grotesque human face. 

There were also found a large number of objects made of native 
copper, and several of native or meteoric iron. This is the first 
time that native iron has been found in the mounds. Several 
copper ornaments were covered with silver, and a few fragments 
of a thin sheet of hammered native gold were also obtained. 
Over fifty thousand pearls were found on one of the altars, with 
thousands of other ornaments made of bone, shell, and the teeth 
of animals. Among the latter were large canine teeth of bears, 
which may prove to be those of the grizzly bear, or some species 
larger than the black bear. Several chipped points of obsidian 
and a number of singular pendants made in a peculiar manner 
from a micaceous schist, were on one of the altars. 

Another important discovery was mentioned as having just 
been made, but not yet worked out. This consisted of a series 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 21 

of large pits, six or seven feet deep, in the natural clay below the 
burnt clay layer of one of the moulds. These pits had long clay 
tubes, or flues, extending from them, and there is some evidence 
that these pits were used as places of cremation, but this must 
be determined by further and careful study. A number of photo- 
graphs were exhibited, illustrating the structure of the mounds 
and the objects found in them. 

Note on Manayunkia speciosa, — Mr. Enw. Potts reported 
having found specimens of Manayunkia speciosa Leidy, amongst 
material collected in the Schuylkill River, above Fairmount dam ; 
thus determining what had previously admitted of a shade of 
doubt, the strictly fresli-water habitat of this species. In contin- 
uation he narrated some points within his. own observation, 
supplementary to Dr. Leid^^'s description. 

The branchial organs (tentacles) appeared to him to be grouped 
upon two processes on each of the lateral lophophores, eight each 
in the upper or more dorsal groups, and six or possibly more in 
each of the others. Beside these, there is a single pair placed 
centrally upon the dorsal portion of the head, and a similar pair 
opposite, which do not seem to be connected with either of these 
groups. The whole number is therefore 32-36. The alternating 
contractions and dilatations of the vessels conveying the green 
blood through the dorsal pair above mentioned are very conspic- 
uous. 

While the general appearance of this crown of tentacles, when 
expanded, is somewhat similar to that of a poly zoan, there is a 
noticeable difference in the effect produced by the motion of their 
cilia. In the latter a powerful incurrent bears food particles, 
etc., towards the mouth as a vortex ; in the former case, while 
the motion draws these particles from without or behind the 
circle towards the tentacles, the moment they pass between them 
they are influenced by an excurrent bearing them forcibly away. 

This outflowing current is further shown by the fact that 
excrementitious matters are drawn rapidly forward through the 
tube, and ejected at its anterior extremity. 

As food, therefore, cannot be sucked into the mouth of the 
worm, we find that it is carried in. Acceptable particles which 
touch the tentacles are grasped b}' the cilia, and rapidly passed 
down amongst them in near contact with the tentacle into grooves 
at the base of the above-mentioned processes, and thence into the 
digestive tract. 

Beside the specimens above mentioned from the Schuylkill 
River, Mr. Potts has had recently under observation a consider- 
able number, say fifteen or twenty, from the pond near Absecom. 
One of these, to which most of his time had been devoted, had 
been kept for many days isolated in a microscopic stage tank. 
While in this situation it, for some reason, left its old tube and 
formed another, giving him the opportunity to observe the 



S2 PB0CEEDIN08 OF TBE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

character of the latter, and the method of its construction. In 
its earliest stages it is a transparent, smooth, and homogeneous 
alime-like excretion, within which the worm may be very clearly 
seen, as it works its way forward or drags itself backward by means 
of its podal hooks and spines. Later on, the anterior extremity 
thickens and becomes more and more opaque, and, as Dr. Leidy 
has observed," feebly annuliited," presumably from the adherence 
of effete particles, and thuir compression by the repeated with- 
drawal of the ciliated tentacles into the mouth of the tube. This 
method of prolongation must continue during the residence of 
the worm, and in consequence, if supported, it may sometimes 
reach a length which is several times that of its inhabitant. 



The President, Dr. Leidt, in the chair. 

Thirty-three persons present. 

Fossil Bones from Louisiana. — Prof. Leidy directed attention 
to a collection of fossil bones, which have been submitted to his 
examination by the Smithsonian Institution. They were obtained 
by Mr. William Crooks, at the mine of the American Salt Com- 
pany, near New Iberia, La. They chiefly consist of remains of 
Mastodon americanun, of Equus nia;'or, of £guus, not distinguish- 
able from those of the domestic horse, and of Mylodnn karlani. 
Of Mastodon the collection contained well preserved molar teeth, 
and characteristic fragments of bones. Of the Equus major, 
there are vertebrse, fragments of long bones, and a number of 
teeth. The molars are characterized by their comparatively targe 
size and complexity of arrangement in the enamel folding, espe- 
cially of the upper molars. Of Mylodon there are several molar 
teeth, vertebrse and other bones, mostly fragments. Among the 
bones are two mature and well-preserved tibise, the best specimens 
yet discovered of the species. They are identical in form and 
size with those of M. robaslus; indicating M.harlani to have 
been a species of the same size as the former. The extreme 
length of the tibia internally is nine inches; breadth across the 
•""■■ ' "" "sn inches; across the distal extremity, five and one-half 
F'urther collections were anticipated from the same 



'nifera in the Drift of Minnesota. — Prof Leidy stated 
ad recently received for examination, from Mr. B. W. 
>f Chicago, several glass slips with mounted specimens 
These were obtained by washing clay from the boulder 
Leeker Co., Minnesota. In the specimens, Prof. Leidy 



! 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 23 

recognized some well-preserved and characteristic foraminifera, 
of which two forms appeared identical with Textularia globulosa 
and Rotalia glohulosa, now living in the Atlantic Ocean. The 
fossils Mr. Thomas supposes to be derived from a soft yellow 
rock, cretaceous shale and lignite, forming part of the drift. He 
also reports the finding of fragments of marine diatomes in the 
clay. 

The following were elected members : — 

Benjamin R. Smith, Rev. Wayland Hoyt, Wm. Thomson, M.D., 
H. W. Stelwagon, M. B., John Struthers, D. G. Brinton, M. D., 
Thomas H. Fenton, M. D., and Miss Helen Abbott. 

The following were elected correspondents : — 

Karl A. Zittel, of Munich ; Marquis de Gaston de Saporto, of 
Aix ; Quintino Sella, of Rome ; August Daubrie, of Paris ; and 
Albert Gaudry, of Paris. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



PROCEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 



OK BEKPEBS KBTHOS OF HlEINa DBIZD PKEPASATIOITS. 
BY DR. BENJAMIN SHARP. 

Although this admirable method has been known and published 
for a Qamber of years, it does not seem to have met with general 
acceptance. Many persons, indeed, with whom I have spoken 
do not seem to know of it at all, and for that reason I do not 
think it amiss to give an account of it here. 

I have had the pleasure of working under Professor C. Semper, 
the discoverer of this method, for two years, and have seen, as 
well as prepared, many specimens. I have seen some specimens 
that have been prepared by this method over ten years ago, and 
not the slightest change has taken place in them, and they look 
as beautiful as those just finished. 

The method requires close attention at certain stages, and the 
result depends upon the amount of care bestowed ; the end, when 
successful, fully repays any amount of care that has been taken. 

Nearly any animal or animal tissue may be prepared by this 
method ; some require naturally more care than others— of fish, 
where there is a large quantity of fatty substance present, the 
greatest care is to be taken. 

Dissections of animals are especially adapted for this method, 
and most of Prof. Semper'a preparations are in this form. If 
desirable, when finished, the different systems of organs may be 
colored and thus serve as beautiful specimens for demonstration. 

The object to be prepared is first placed in a solution of 
chromic acid of about j to ^ per cent., or even 1 per cent. 
In the case of dissections, tiiese are to be prepared after the 
animal is killed and then placed in a dissecting tray, the bottom 
of which is filled with wax, so that different parts may be pinned 
out and thus better exposed to view ; the tray may be then filled 
with the chromic acid solution. 

The size and consistency of the object determines the length 
of time that it should remain in the solution ; Annelides, small 
" tropoda or Lamellibranchiata, small organs, as kidneys, etc., 
mall vertebrates, as frogs, mioe, birds, etc., should remain in 
a six to eight hours ; larger animals or organs from eight to 
Qty-four. 
be chromic acid is merely to kill the tissues, and at the same 



1884.] NATURAL 8GIEN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 25 

time hardens them somewhat. Any other of the hardening fluids 
may be used, and for theses I can refer the reader to Dr. C. 0. 
Whitman's paper on this subject, which appeared in the Amer- 
ican Naturalist^ (vol, xvi, 1882, pp. 69t, t72). Chromic acid, 
however, is the reagent that Prof. Semper always uses, and it 
seems to answer every purpose. 

After the object has been left a sufficient length of time in the 
fluid, this is poured ofl* and the vessel filled with water, which 
should be constantly changed until there is no yellow color either 
in the object or in the water. In other words, as much of the acid 
must be withdrawn as possible. This part of the process is 
considerably shortened by allowing a current of water to flow 
through the vessel. This stage takes from ten to twenty hours, 
or even more. 

After this is completed the object is placed in weak alcohol, 
from 30 i6 40 per cent., for at least a day ; when the specimen is 
quite small, ten or fifteen hours are sufficient. Then the alcohol 
may be strengthened to 60 or TO per cent., and the object remain 
in this for two or three days (with larger objects, a week). 

The object may now be placed in strong alcohol, from 90 to 
95 per cent., for about the same length of time as with the tO 
per cent. It may, indeed, remain here for weeks or months. 
I have often taken specimens that had been well preserved, 
after having been for a year in 90 per cent, alcohol, with as 
good a result as if freshly prepared. 

In cases of dissections where parts have been pinned apart, 
after passing through the tO per cent, alcohol stage, they mAy be 
taken carefully out of the traj'^s, and the rest of the process gone 
through with in closely stopped bottles, for they are at this point 
quite stiff. 

When objects have remained a sufficient length of time in the 
strong alcohol, they are placed in absolute alcohol. If the strong 
alcohol be changed once or twice, it will necessarily save the 
absolute alcohol to some extent. 

This stage of absolute alcohol is the most critical part of the 
whole process. Absolutely every particle of the water inust be 
removed, and the secret of the whole success depends on this one 
point. If any water be left in the tissue, it will become spotted 
and eventually spoil. I feel positive that those who have tried 
this method and have failed to produce satisfactory results, have 



26 PBOCEEDINQB OF THB AOADElfT OF [1884. 

not been careful enough to remove every particle of water. I 
always take the precaution of changing the absolute alcohol once 
or twice, especially in moist climates. 

After all the water has been withdrawn by the absolute alcohol, 
by remaining in it for three days to a week, the object is placed 
in turpentine, the best that can be procured. In this it is allowed 
to remain until it becomes thoroughly saturated — ^with large 
objects it is best to change the turpentine once. Two or three 
days are required for this stage. When saturated the object is 
quite stiff, and when the process is successful little or no contrac- 
tion has taken place. The object is then placed in the air and 
protected carefully from the dust, and the turpentine allowed to 
evaporate. The object then soon presents a very beautiful 
appearance ; it becomes white, resembling the whitest kid. It is 
light, stiff and, on account of the resin it contains, is perfectly 
insect-proof. 

In annelides the iridescence is perfectly kept ; hair and feathers 
retain their original colors. 

If hollow organs, as the stomach, bladders, lungs, etc., are to 
be prepared, they may be blown up after they have been a short 
time in the turpentine ; by so doing much space, and consequently 
much alcohol, are saved. 

This is the practical part of the method, and I may add in a 
few words the whole principle. The object is to carefully and 
slowly harden the tissue and to remove every particle of water , 
the place of which is taken by the resin. 

If the process be hurried contractions are apt to occur, and 
consequently bad-looking specimens result. 

The advantages of this method are great. We have a perfectly 
dry object, with the perfect form kept ; it is far preferable to 
handle than alcoholic dissections or preparations. It will last 
indefinitely and is insect-proof. 

Prof. Semper keeps his preparations in glass boxes which are 
perfectly dust-proof, and by this both sides of the preparation 
can be distinctly seen. 

An addition to this process was discovered by Prof. Semper 
about two years ago, which I do not think has yet been published. 
It is to place the prepared object in a solution of glycerine and 
sugar. In some objects this brings back almost entirely the 
original color of the animal ; one disadvantage of this is, however, 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 27 

that unless kept in dust-proof cases they would become spoiled 
by the dust collecting on them. 

As absolute alcohol is so expensive in this country, the cost of 
a large specimen would be considerable, and therefore the process 
is better adapted for smaller objects. 

A cheap method of making absolute alcohol, from the strong 
(96 per cent.) spirit, used in Prof. L. Rauvier's laboratory in 
Paris, would not, I think, be out of place to be mentioned here. 

The details of this process were given me by my friend, Dr. 
W. Vignal, the assistant of Prof. Rauvier. A wide-mouthed 
bottle is taken, holding about a litre, and a three-quarters filled 
with the strong alcohol. 

A mass of pulverized cupric sulphate (CuSO^ + 5 Aq.) is 
heated to a red heat in order to drive off the water of crystalliza- 
tion. This is poured, when cool, into the alcohol, the mouth of 
the bottle quicklj'^ closed, and the whole shaken. The cupric 
sulphate is insoluble in alcohol, but has an affinity for the water 
contained in it, and the water is consequently taken up, and the 
cupric sulphate becomes bluish. When this has stood — with 
occasional shakings — for a day or so, decant, and repeat the 
operation, especially if there is very much of a blue color in the 
sediment. 

When finished a drop of alcohol can be mixed with a drop of 
turpentine on an object-glass, and if there be no particles of water 
to be seen under the microscope, the alcohol is fibsplute enough 
for all practical purposes. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF ri884. 



Febbuabt 6. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-seven persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

" Notes on a Collection of Anchovies from Havana and Key 
West, with an account of a new species, Stolephorus eurystole, 
from Wood's HoU, Mass.," by Jos. Swain and Seth E. Meek. 

" On a new species of Rotifer, of the Genus Apsilus," by 
Sara Gwendolen Foulke. 

The death of Wm. T. Haines, a member, was announced. 



February 12. 

Rev. H. C. McCooK, D. D., in the chair. 

Thirty persons present. 

A paper entitled '' List of Fishes from Egmont Key, Florida, 
in the museum of Yale College, with descriptions of two new 
species," by David S. Jordan, was presented for publication. 

Fresh-water Spongest as improbable causes of the pollution of 

river-water Mr. Potts reported that on the 9th of February 

he had visited and partially examined the forebay at Fairmount 
Water-works, on the Schuylkill River, from which the water had 
been temporarily withdrawn, with a view to discover the winter 
condition of the fresh-water sponges and the other inhabitants 
of that locality. He found far the larger part of the wall surface 
below the water-line inaccessible on account of a thick deposit 
of mud upon the bottom, and much water remaining in the fore- 
bay. Wherever reached, however, and so far as the eye could 
detect in other places, it was covered by a mud -colored incrusta- 
tion of considerable thickness, which a more minute examination 
showed to be composed almost wholly of the statoblasts and 
spicules of the sponge Meyenia Leidyi. Some few fragments 
of Meyenia Jluviatilis and Spongilla fragilis were seen, but the 
first-named was clearly the prevailing species. 

A sluiceway which formerly supplied the last of the old " breast 
wheels " used in pumping into the reservoir, but from which the 
water had been for many months excluded, was entered and 
examined. Here the remaining incrustation (much having doubt- 
less crumbled and fallen away) was from one-fourth to one-half 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADEIiPHIA. 29 

an inch thick, of the appearance of crumbling plaster, and, as in 
the other cases, it consisted of the sponge before named, with 
but a small proportion of intruded material. 

While considering the effect of the presence of so large a 
sponge-growth at the very inlet to the supply-pumps, Mr. Potts 
stated that this particular species was conspicuous among the 
known North American sponges by its great relative density 
and the small proportion of its sarcode or flesh. Its decay, there- 
fore, at the termination of its period of summer growth would 
be a less cause of pollution to the water-supply than that of any 
other sponge 

Moreover, from recent investigations into the life-history of 
these low organisms, he was inclined to believe that decay was 
not the normal or necessary result of the close of each season's 
growth. The fragile branches of some species inhabiting exposed 
situations may, of course, be broken off and destroyed while the 
sarcode still covers them ; but in the sessile portions, and in all 
when suflflciently protected, the cells of the sarcode at the period 
of full maturity, forsaking their places along the lines of the 
skeleton framework, gather together by simultaneous amoeboid 
movements into dense groups, where they' are soon covered by 
a tough chitinous "coat," which, in time, generally becomes 
surrounded by a " crust " of minute granular cells, and arpior- 
plated by a series of protective spicules. These groups are now 
recognized as the statoblasts, gemmules or winter-eggs of the 
sponge — eggs only in appearance — in reality the resting spores 
or protected germs which conserve the life of the individual 
through the cold and storms of winter, and awake very early in 
the springtime into new life — ^yet a continuance only of the 
same existence which was seen a few months before nestling into 
this winter's sleep. 

If this is the ordinary course with these organisms there seems 
no reason , to regard them as serious causes of the pollution of 
our streams, though violent freshets before this resting period is 
reached may tear them to pieces, and their decay may give a 
temporary taint to the water. 

Continuing the narrative of his exploration, Mr. Potts described 
the iron pipes which had lain for many years upon the bottom of 
the fore-bay, as covered in some places to the depth of an inch 
or more, with a crust richly colored by iron-oxide, but principally 
composed, as were the others, of the spicules and statoblasts of 
M. Leidyi. Upon the surface of this crust in places, he found 
the remains of large colonics of Urnatella gracilis Leidy. In 
the absence of any positive knowledge of the winter condition of 
this curious polyp, Mr. Potts had examined with much interest 
a novel form of statoblast, which was frequent upon the same 
pieces of sponge ; but he was unsuccessful in associating it with 
the polyzoan. It is most probable that the life is continued as 
suggested by Dr. Leidy, within th,e urn-like joints of this crea- 



30 PB0CSEDING8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

ture, and that they put oot buds and a new growth in the spring. 
To discpver if this be the case he had placed some fragments in 
water, and while awaiting results he had been surprised at the 
appearance within a few days amongst the fragments of Urnatella^ 
of numbers of the recently described chsetobranch-worm, Mana- 
yunkia speciosa^ of Leidy, as well as several living cells of a 
species of Paludicella^ probably F, elongata, of the same author. 
The persistence and tenacity of life in these apparently delicate 
creatures, overcoming not only the severity of a hard winter, but 
an exposure of several days in the open air, were further com- 
mented upon. 



Febbuaby 19. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-seven members present. 

The deaths of Dr. Geo. Engelmann and Prof. Arnold Guyot, 
correspondents, were announced. 

Indian use of Apocynum cannabinum as a textile fibre. — At 
the meeting of the Botanical Section held on the 18th inst., Mr. 
Thomas Meehan stated that while it was well known that the 
fibre of Apocynum canaabinum was used by the Eastern Indians 
in the manufacture of baskets, mats and other articles, he had 
heard it doubted whether the same plant was used by the Indians 
in the West. He had interested a lady in Washoe Valley, West- 
ern Nevada, to get direct from the Indians of that section stems 
of the plant used by them. She had done so, and he now exhib- 
ited them. They proved to be the same plant, Apocynum can- 
nabinum. 

The Longevity of Trees — Professor Sheafer, of Pottsville, Pa., 
reading an abstract of Mb. Meehan's remarks, in Proceedings of 
the Academy, had cut and sent for the inspection of members some 
specimens from Schuylkill county, remarkable for slow growth, 
of a black oak, Quercus tinctoria^ in which the annual growths 
showed in a little over two inches from the centre an average of 
36 circles to an inch ; one of hemlock spruce, Abies Canadensis, 
51 to an inch; and one of the common chestnut, Castanea vesca 
Americana, 24 to an inch. Though only four inches in diameter, 
the oak stem was seventy-six years old ; the hemlock one hun- 
dred and four years and in diameter four inches ; and the chestnut 
four and a half inches in diameter in sixty years. 

With a struggle for life either from poverty of the soil, eleva- 
tion, or close growth of trees, which the small annual growths 






1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 31 

indicated, Mr. Meehan believed the atmospheric conditions, as 
regards, shelter from wind or from drying atmospheric currents, 
must be very favorable to induce longevity under such circum- 
stances. There seemed to be no reason why these trees might 
not reach the full average duration of two hundred years, which 
he had before named as about the duration of most trees of the 
Eastern United States. 

Prof. Sheafer gave some instances indicating that the average 
might be higher than the figures he had offered. 

Parasitism in Boschniakia glabra, E. Meyer. — Mr. Meehan 
exhibited a specimen of this Orobanchiaceous plant collected by 
him last summer, growing among alders in the track of the 
retreating Davidson Glacier, near Pyramid Harbor, lat. 59°, in 
Alaska, and remarked that the life-histories of this class 
of parasitic plants were but imperfectly known, and every 
new fact of interest. In the Yosemite Valley last year, with Mr. 
John M. Hutchings and Dr. Charles Shaffer, of the Academy, 
they had carefully dug out masses of earth with the snow plant 
of the Sierras, Sarcodes sanguinea, and then tenderly washed 
out every particle of earth in a stream near by. There was not 
the slightest sign of attachment to any root, and no root of any- 
thing to be found in the mass of earth. There were not even the 
slightest remains of any dead vegetation which could suggest 
that the plant was even a saprophyte, as was generally found in 
the case of Monotropa unifiora. There was nothing but a huge 
mass of coralline fleshy matter, out of which the inflorescence 
rose. The origin of this fleshy mass was yet the unsolved mys- 
tery. From analogy with the behavior of other plants, he 
was inclined to believe that there was some parasitic attachment 
in the early life of the plant, and that it stored up in this coralline 
mass enough nutrition in one season to support the inflorescence 
of another, and, after this was done, severed the connection, 
leaving no trace by the time the mass was large enough to 
support the heavy drain of the large and juicy inflorescence. In 
Boschniakia^ somiething of this sort had evidently taken place. 
The plants were in an early flowering stage, and all, when drawn 
out of the ground, had a single threadlike root depending from 
the centre of the pseudo-bulbous base of the plant, as in the speci- 
men exhibited. These threads, now hard and wood-like, broke off 
very easily at the time, and it did not occur to the collector that 
they might be alder roots, as the densit}'^ of the substance might 
now suggest. The desire to botanize over as large a tract as 
possible in the six hours given by the commander of the ship, 
did not admit of time to dig down and ascertain directly whether 
these threads were alder roots, and in direct connection with the 
living alder plants ; but it would be remarkable, if they should bd 
alder roots, and the Boschniakia sessile on them, that the plants 
should all select roots of the same slender size, and so nearly 



33 .PROCIEDlNOB.Or THt AtiADEHT Or [1884. 

exactly Klike as the twelve or eighteen Bpecimena examined in this 
way indicated. Mr. Meeban stated that be had, id his FUncerit 
and Ferrm of the United Stales, series ii, vol, ii, p. 95, noted the 
existence of a similar thready attachment at the base of Epipke- 
gvt Virginiana, evidently connecting the plant with a foster- 
parent in early life— a fact since confirmed by Mr. Fergus, of 
West Chester, Pa.; and a fuller examination of these cases might 
aflbrd the clae to all. 

Variati(m in ffalegia. — Mr. Meehan exhibited dry leaves and 
fruit of Balesia diplera, If. telraptera, and of a remarkable 
departure raised from the last-named species some years ago. 
This appeared in a bed of seedlings all raised from seed gathered 
from one tree growing in a garden 
in OermantowD. It attracted atten- 
tion when one year old by the leaves 
bearing a resemblance to those of an 
apple-tree. The parent tree had 
leaves narrowly lanceolate and acu. 
minate, rather thin, 
pale green on the upper 
surface, and with no 
particularly prominent 
veins. The plant in 
question had broadly 
ovate leaves, scarcely 
pointed, very dark 
green and rugose on 
the upper surface, and 
strongly veined and 
hirsute below. It was 
planted to see what it 
would come to. i< 

The flowers were open cup-shaped, 
instead of being drawn into a narrow 
tube at the base, as in the parent 
plant and the pistil was wholly 
enclosed and not exserted. For 
1. B, ttinpitra. several years the plant was sterile, 

and many good botanists, whose attention was called to it, 
regarded the plant as a hybrid, and the sterility as a proof 
thereof. It seemed of no avail to point out that there was no 
other species with which the parent could have obtained pollen 
within many miles, nor to show that hybrids were not neces- 
sarily sterile. This season the plant produced fruit for the first 
time, some of which were now exhibited to the Academy. 
They are very small, not much over a quarter of an inch in diam- 
eter, and the four equal wings were comparatively large and of a 
strongly coriaceous character. The fruit which had been cut 



1884.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



33 




open were found to have perfect seeds. If the plant with these 
leaves, flowers and fruit had been found in a state of nature, the 
botanist would surely have made a new species of it, if indeed he 
would not have had some doubts of a new genus. 

Mr. Meehan then referred to his contributions in the past, 
tending to show that there was an innate tendency in plants to 
vary; that this natural tendency was at the foundation of all 
theories of evolution, and that environment had not near the 
influence on variation some good botanists claimed for it. If we 
were to take environment as a serious element of change, there 
would be no certainty in the direction of change ; but a glance at 
the palseontological and other evidences showed that change had 

been always in the direction of certain uni- 
form lines, and evidently in accord with a pre- 
determined plan, which the accidents of envi- 
ronment had not been able to override. At 
any r^te, such illustrations as this of 
the Halesia showed a remarkable 
change with which certainly environ- 
ment had nothing to do. The seeds 
were all from one tree, with not even 
another individual of its own species 
near it. The seedlings all came tip ^. fetrap- 
in one bed together, and yet out of '«*•*» ^^*'- 
many hundred seedlings, all with the same 
exact conditions of environment, there was 
. 2. H, ietraptera, var. jjq^j qj^q ^j^Jj even an approach to the 

singular peculiarities of this. 

In regard to the sterility or fertility of plants, what we would 
call environment had evidentl}"^ much to do, and this also he had 
endeavored to point out in former botanical contributions. In 
his paper before the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science, at Detroit, in 1875, he had shown that Mr, Darwin's 
experiments in keeping bees from clover, and which in England 
led to sterility, did not so prove in Philadelphia, the protected 
plants there being fertile; and he there made the suggestion that 
the different conditions of environment led to the different results. 
He had also since then shown that Linum perenne in Philadelphia 
was self-fertile, though in England Mr. Darwin had found that 
one might as well apply so much inorganic dust to a pistil as the 
flower's own pollen. Here we have another illustration. The 
exuberance of vegetative growth being checked by age, or some 
other circumstance of climate or season, acting against the vege- 
tative and in favor of the reproductive principles— principles we 
know by many illustrations were antagonistic — gave us this 
season an environment for the first time favorable to fertility. 

The figures are two-thirds the actual size. 




The following were ordered to be published : — 



34 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 



KOTES OK A COLLECTIOK OF AHCHOVISS FBOX HAYAKA AND KEY WEST, 
WITH AK ACCOinrT OF A NEW SPECIES (STOLEPHOBUS EUBYSTOLE) 
FBOK WOOD'S HOLL, XASS. 

BY JOSEPH SWAIN AND SETH £. MEEK. 

The present paper is based on a large collection of Anchovies, 
made by Professor Jordan at Havana, Cuba, and at Key West, 
Fla. We recognize two species of Stolephorus in this collection 
from Havana. Both of these species occur in the collection from 
Key West, as also Stolephorus miarchuSj a species hitherto re- 
corded only from Mazatlan and Panama on the Pacific Coast. 

We are indebted to Professor Jordan for the use of his library 
and for valuable suggestions. 

1. Stolephomi perfaioiatui (Poey) Swain and Meek. 

JSngraulis perfasdatus Poey, Memorias Cuba, ii, 313, 1858 (Havana); 
Poey, Syn. Pise. Cuba, 421, 1868 (Havana) (not of Poey, Synopsis, 
p. 460); Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., vii, 391 (Cuba) (not of 
Swain, BuU. U. S. Fish Comm., 1882, 55, nor of Jor. and Gilb., Syn. 
Fish. N. A., 273). 

Head 4 to 4^ in length to base of caudal. Depth 5} to ^^« 
Dorsal 12 to 18. Anal 14 to 16. 

Body oblong, somewhat compressed. Snout shorter than eye, 
compressed and painted. Top of head with a slight keel. Eye 
about 3^ in head. Mouth slightly oblique. Maxillary and lower 
jaw finely toothed. The posterior end of maxillary rounded, not 
extending quite to margin of preopercle. Gill-rakers numerous, 
rather weak and toothed on under side, the longest about 1^ in 
eye. Pectoral fins about 1| in head, their tips not reaching 
ventrals by about diameter of eye. Ventrals short, their tips not 
reaching anal by length of fin. Caudal forked. Origin of anal 
below last ray of dorsal. Origin of dorsal midway between root 
of caudal and pupil. Scales deciduous. Color as in Stolephorus 
brownij without dark punctulations except on base of caudal 
and often on base of anal. Sides with a well-defined silvery 
band, its width about | eye, being rather narrower than usual in 
S. browni. 

This description is taken from numerous well-preserved speci- 
mens, about 2 J inches in length, obtained by Prof. Jordan with 



Id34.] NATURAL 80IEN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 35 

a seine at Key West. Five specimens, tlie largest about 3 inches 
in length, were also obtained at Havana. 

Stolephjorus perfasciatuB Jordan and Gilbert, Syn. Fishes North 
America, p. 273, and Swain, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1882, p. 55, 
is a different species, apparently without a name. It differs 
chiefly in a greater number of anal rays, and in having a wider 
and less silvery lateral band. No specimen of the true perfas- 
ciatus is known to reach the size of the specimen from Wood's 
HoU, Mass. This species from Wood's HoU may stand as 
Stolephorus eurystole Swain and Meek. Specimens of this species, 
perhaps mixed with others, have been distributed by the U. S. 
National Museum under the following numbers, 19,003 to 19.017. 
The one originally described by Mr. Swain and by Jordan and 
Gilbert was destroyed in the burning of the Museum of the 
Indiana University, but others like it exist in the IT. S. National 
Museum. 

2. Btolephonii browni (Gmelin^ Jordan and Qilbert. 

This species is by far the most common of the Anchovies, both 
at Key West and Havana. For synonymy and description see 
Swain, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1882, 56. Engraulis perfasciatus 
Poey, Syn. Pise. Cuba, 1868, 460, is apparently not a true 
perfasciatus^ and is probably this species. 

3. Stolephomt miarohui Jordnn and Gilbert. 

StolepTiorus miarchus Jordan and Gilbert, Proceed. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1881, 334 (Mazatlan). 

Four specimens from Key West. We are unable to detect any 
discrepancy between these specimens and the descriptions pub- 
lished by Jordan and Gilbert of the types of this species from 
Mazatlan. 

i. Cetengraolii breyii CPoey) Swain and Meek. 

Bngratdis brevis Poey, Repert. Fis. Nat. Cuba, i, 379, 1866 (Cuba) ; 
Poey, Syn. Pise. Cuba, 422, 1868 (Cuba); Gunther, Cat. Pishes 
Brit. Mus., yii, 383, 1868 (no specimen). 

Head in length to base of caudal, 3^ (4^ in total) ; greatest 
depth 3 (3f ) ; about 40 scales in lateral line, and 11 scales in a 
transverse series beginning at origin of anal fin. Anal 33 to 25. 
Dorsal 15. 

Body deep, compressed ; belly compressed, not serrate. Head 
rather short. Snout short and sharply pointed, 1} in eye, which 



36 PBO0EEDINO8 OF THE AOADEBfT OF [1884. 

equals the width of interorbital area and is contained 4 times in 
the length of head. 

Mouth somewhat oblique ; mandible extending little in front 
of anterior part of orbit. Maxillarj^ slender, very finely toothed 
on posterior two-thirds only, not quite reaching root of mandible. 
Lower jaw toothless. Gill-rakers close-set, longer than diameter 
of eye, 3^ in head. Cheeks triangular, longer than high. 

Scales rather firm, not caducous. Pectoral fin not reaching 
base of ventral, 2 in head. Yentrals short, 3 in head. Caudal 
deeply forked, minutely scaled, l^ in head. Base of anal contained 
1| times in head. Dorsal and anal fins with dense basal sheaths, 
which entirely hide the fin when depressed. 

Color in spirits plain silvery on sides, darker above. A dark 
band beneath the scales about as broad as eye, extending from 
upper angle of opercle to caudal. 

This description is based on specimens about 4^ inches in 
length, obtained by Prof. Jordan in the Havana Market. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 37 



OV A VXW SPE0IS8 OF BOTIFEB, OF THE OSHITB APSILXTB. 

BY SARA GWENDOLEN FOULKE. 

Among Spirogyra and Anacharis, gathered in Fairmount Park, 
were noticed numbers of large rotifers, attached to filaments and 
leaves of the plants. Though resembling in some respects the 
forms, Dictyophora^ of Leidy; Apsilus, of Meczinchow, and 
Cupelopagus, of Forbes, this rotifer still possesses sufficiently 
striking difTerences to warrant its being regarded as a distinct 
species. The size of the specimens examined varied greatly, 
the maximum size being one-fiftieth of an inch, from the top of 
the extended net to the end of the body. 

The ventral outline of the body is ovoid ; the lateral outline is 
crescent-shaped ; while the dorsal outline is similar to the ventral. 
Instead of rotatory organs, this rotifer possesses a membraneous 
cup or net, near the base of which, on the ventral side, are two 
lateral antennae, as in Apsilus lentiformis. 

When the net is retracted, the antennae are also withdrawn into 
the body, and concealed from view. This is an unusual habit 
among the Rotatoria, the antennae being usually situated upon 
the body, and remaining exposed so as to act as sentinels 
when the rotatory organs are retracted. This net is used for 
the capture of food, consisting of the larger infusoria closing 
over any organism which is attracted into it. After capture, the 
food passes through the oral aperture into a large, sac-like 
passage-way, and thence into a second pouch, which extends across 
the body in the form of a much-wrinkled bag. The two ends of 
this bag widen into sacculated pouches, which are used as store- 
houses for the food while softening. This organ may be regarded 
as the stomach proper, being filled with a greenish granular fluid, 
which performs the office of a true gastric juice, softening the 
tissues of the contained food, in preparation for the action of the 
mastax. When this maceration has been sufficiently prolonged, 
the food is forced, by muscular contraction, out of its recess, 
along the narrow central portion, past the mastax and into the 
opposite pouch. As the stream of food passes, the mastax, 
which is situated centrally at the bottom of the stomach, turns 
so as to face the stream of mingled food and gastric fluid ; and 
works actively, chopping and bruising such portions as come 



38 PB00EEDING8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

within reach. The mastax exactly resembles that of the three 
other known species, being composed of two ctrved major unci, 
near the base of each of which are situated four minor unci. After 
being acted upon by the mastax, the food passes between the 
unci into the oesophagus whence it is absorbed or thrown off by 
the system. The ventral view of these organs is usually obscured 
by large numbers of embryo, in various stages of development. 
In front of the digestive sac, and apparently connected with it, 
are two curved, pear-shaped sacs, of a transparent greenish hue. 

This rotifer, in common with all members of its genus, has 
an unarticulated body, which is incapable of contraction. 

The net, which takes the place of rotatory organs, is shaped 
like a hood, the ventral portion being elevated into an obtuse 
lobe. In order to strengthen and support the long, curved, dorsal 
outline of the net, there is, covering about two-thirds of it, a 
membraneous shield, made doubly strong by two wide, arched, 
muscular bands running around it. At the base of this shield is 
a pointed projection, which is of still firmer composition. The 
necessity for such an arrangement is obvious, when it is remem- 
bered that the normal position of the animal is a semi-recumbent 
one ; so that the weight of the net, which is about three-quarters 
the area of the body, would be very considerable at these care- 
fully strengthened points. 

The whole muscular system of this species is strongly marked 
and powerful. Focussing downwards from the outside of the 
dorsal view of the net, two gradually narrowing ridges or fiaps 
are seen extending up the inside of the hood. These flaps are 
fringed with quite long cilia, and there are also shorter diagonal 
lines of more minute cilia, the exact number of which lines could 
not be accurately determined. This is the first instance in which 
cilia have been discovered in any member of the genus, all 
those species previously described, being stated to be totalhj den- 
titute of these organs. In this case, their presence was first 
detected while focussing through the dorsal side of the net, 
although they could afterwards be plainly seen in a ventral view. 
It was only by careful placing of the mirror that the cilia were 
visible. 

Attached to the inside walls of the rotifer were the enigmatical 
transparent bodies common in the Rotatoria ; and also a number 



1884.] NATURAL SGIENOES OF ^PHILADELPHIA. 39 

of purplish brown bodies, varying in intensity of tint, whose 
character is as yet unknown. 

The rotifer, in the adult state, is tailless, eyeless, and attached 
in a semi-recumbent position, from which it is incapable of 
detaching itself, and without the power of re-attaching itself 
when displaced. 

In the young state it has two red eye-spots ; a clumsy telescopic 
tail, terminating in a broad , cup-shaped sucker ; and is so actively 
free swimming that no accurate drawing could be obtained. In 
this undeveloped state the rudimentary net is a thick fleshy 
triangle, the truncated apex of which is inserted into the body, 
while the base is surrounded by a wreath of cilia, on the closed 
space within which the eye-spots are set. There is in this stage 
no opening to admit nourishment. 

The development of this form into that of the very dissimilar 
adult state is most interesting, and well worth the time and 
patience necessary to observe it. 

It is proposed to unite the three forms, Dictyophora vorax, 
Apailus lentiformisj Cupelopagus bucinedax, and the form 
described above, in one genus under the name Apsilua, The name 
Dictyophora would have the first claim for adoption, but it is 
already in use in two other branches of science, so that the choice 
must fall upon the next in order of priority. The specific names 
given to the forms by their discoverers are retained. The history 
of the genus is as follows: In 1857, Dr. Jos. Leidy discovered 
and described a form which he named Dictyophora vorax. In 
1866, Meczinchow described and named a similar form which he 
named Apsilus lentiformis, the difTerences from Dictyophora 
being as follows: shape of the cup; presence of two lateral 
antennse ; and presence of a conspicuous ganglion of the pouch. 

In 1882, S. A. Forbes described a form which he named Cupel- 
opagus bucinedax, designating it as a new genus. The differences 
between this and the two forms previously described are as 
follows: Cupelopagus differs from Dictyophora in the shape 
of the net, and in the general shape of the body, the difference 
in these particulars being very marked. It differs from Apsilus 
in the absence of the ganglion of the pouch, in the absence of the 
lateral antennse, and in other minor particulars. 

The species described by the author varies from the foregoing 
in the following respects : it differs from Dictyophora in the 



40 PROCEEDING^ OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

8hai>e of the cup, as Well as that of the body ; in the presence 
of two lateral antennae ; in the possession of a second crop or 
stomach situated below the ordinary crop ; in the marked muscu- 
lar system, and in the ciliation of the net. 

The points of dissimilarity between this form and ApMus 
are as follows : The shape of the cup ; the absence of the gan- 
glion ; the presence of a second stomach, and in the ciliation 
of the cup. It differs from Gupelopagusx in the shape of 
the cup ; in the construction of the cup ; in the two lateral 
antennae ; in the presence of a secondary stomach ; and in the 
ciliation of the net. 

The presence of the secondary stomach distinguishes this 
species from the rest of the genus. The presence of cilia is not 
so certain a distinction, as by dexterous management of illumi- 
nation their presence might possibly be detected in some other 
of the species. 

From the presence of the secondary stomach or pouch, it is 
proposed to name this new species Apsilus bipera — pera meaning 
" a little pouch to carry food." 

The reasons for uniting the three forms heretofore considered 
separate genera, are, of course, founded on the strong points of 
resemblance ; these being, briefly, the presence of two eye-spots, 
of a membraneous cup, of a mastax exactly similar in all four 
forms, of the absence of tail or footstalk, of the absence of cara- 
pace, and of the similar habits. 

The characteristics heretofore used in the classification ol the 
Rotatoria, as denoting members of the same genus, are : charac- 
ter of rotatory organs ; number of eye-spots ; absence or presence 
of carapace, and habits. 

In selecting the name for this new division, Dictyophora, of 
Leidy, has the right of priority, but, owing to its having been 
already many years in use, in two other branches of science, the 
choice must fall upon that next in order of priority, which is 
Apsilus^ of Meczinchow. 

The genus Apsilus, then, will consist of four species — Apsilus 
vorax Leidy ; Apsilus lentiformis Meczinchow ; Apsilus bucir 
nedax Forbes ; and Apsilus bipera Foulke. 

As there is no family in the class Rotatoria, in whicli the above 
genus may be placed, a new family, to be named Apsilidae^ is pro- 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES OV PHUiADELPHT A. 41 

posed ; characteristic^ the substitution of a membraneous cup or 
net, destitute of external ciliation, in the place of the ordinary 
rotatory organs. 

Bibliog.— -Leidy, Proc, Acad, Nat. Sci,, 1857, 204; Meczfaichow, Zeits.f. 
vn». Zoologie, 1866, 846, Taf, XIX; Forbes, Am. MbrUh. Micrai. Jour,, 

1882, 102, 151. 

* 

REFERENCES TO PLATE I. 

Fie. 1. ApsUus vorax (Dietyophara vorax of Leidy). a. Membraneous net. 
b. Crop, c, c. Embryo, d, Mastax. * e. (Esophagus. /. Oral aper- 
ture, g. Vent. h. Muscular system of net. Bedueedfram drawing 
hy Leidy. The body is slightly wider in proportion to the net than in 
original dramn{f. 

Fio. 2. ApsUus lenttformis Meczinchow. a, a. AntennsB. b. Muscular 
system of net. c. Crop, d, Mastax. 6, e. Embryo. /. (Esophagus. 
g. Purplish brown bodies. Beducedfrom drawing by Meennchow. 

Fig. 3. ApsUus hicinedax {Cupelopagus bwmedax of Forbes), a. Net. 
5. Oral aperture, c. Crop. d. Mastax. e, e. Embryo. /. (Esopha- 
gus. Reduced from d/r<MJoing by Forbes. 

Fig. 4. ApsUus bipera Foulke. a, a. AntemuB. b. Muscular system of 
net. c. Oral aperture, d. Crop, e. Secondary sacculated stomach. 
/. Mastax. g. (Esophagus. A, h: Embryo, i. Enigmatical pur- 
plish brown bodies attached to walls of body. 

Fig. 5. ApsUus lenttformis Meczinchow. a, a. Ganglion of the pouch. 
Superficial view when closed. 

Fio. 6. Dorsal view of net of ApsUus lenttformis. a, a, a, a. Muscular 
system. 

Fig. 7. Dorsal yiew of net of ApsUus bipera. a. Shield, b. Pointed 
support, c. Portion of net above shield, d. Muscular system of 
shield, e. Ciliated flaps extending up inside of net. 



42 PBOCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 



LIST OF FISHES FBOX EGXONT KEY, FLOKIDA, IK THE XXTSEirX OF 
YALE COLLEGE, WITH DESCBIFTIOH OF TWO HEW SPECIES. 

BY DAVID S. JORDAN. 

A small collection of fishes from Egmont Key, in Tampa Bay, 
Southern Florida, belonging to the Museum of Yale College, has 
been sent to me for identification by Professor A. E. Verrill. 
The fishes were collected some years ago, d part by Mr. William 
F. Coons, the remainder by Mr. E. Jewett. In the following list 
the species collected by Mr. Jewett are marked with the initial 
"J". Those not thus marked were obtained by Mr. Coons. The 
numbers given are those on the register of the Museum of Yale 
College. Those marked with a star (*) have been presented to 
the Museum of Indiana University. 

1. Bhinobatui lentiginoiui Garmau. (805, 821*.) 
An adult specimen and a UhUih, 

2. Opiatlioiiema oglihum (Le Sueur) Bean. (8Q9.) 

( OpUthoTiema thrissa Auct., not Clwpea thrisea L.) 

The original type of Clupea thrissa L. was a fish brought from 
China by Lagerstrom and described by Linnaeus' pupil Odhel, in 
the Amoen. Academ., v, 251, under the name (prebinomial) of 
Clupea thryza, Lagerstrom's fish was a species of Dorosoma. 
The Clupea thrissa of Osbeck was also a Dorosoma. In the 
synonymy given by Linnaeus, of Clupea thrissa, in the tenth 
edition of the Systema Naturae, are included, among others, some 
references to our Opisthonema. In this twelfth edition of the 
same work is a diescription of a Clupea thrissa received from Dr. 
Garden of Charleston. This ^Hhrissa^^ is Dorosoma cepedianum. 
The species called Clupea thrissa by Broussonet, Cuvier and 
most later authors, is our Opisthonema^ but the specific name. 
thrissa can be properly used only for the Chinese Dorosoma, for 
which it was at first intended. The oldest name belonging to 
our species (as already noted by Dr. Bean, Mss.) is that of 
Megalops oglina Le Sueur, 

8. Sidera oaellata (Agassii) J. and G. (804; 824« [.T]; 840.) 
4. CoDOula leutiearii (Goode and Bean) J. and G., (800*; 801.) 

Head 9 J in distance to vent ; trunk very slightly shorter than 
tail; cleft of mouth 3^ in head, in a specimen 16^ inches long. 



1884.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OF PHTTiAPKLPHIA. 43 

Pectorals very minute. This specimen i^grees equally well with 
the description of. Goecula scuHcaris and Ccecula teres, nor is it 
evident, from the published accounts, how the two are to be dis- 
tinguished from each other. 

6. CoBoula baieaniuin pp. nov. (820 [Ji].) 

This species belongs to the same group as Ccecula acuticaris 
and (7. teres^ but is distinguished from either by the shorter head 
and better developed pectoral fin. The type is 31 inches long, in 
fair condition. 

Body extremely slender, subterete, its greatest depth little 
more than two-fifths length of head; head short; snout short, 
1 times in head; mouth very small; lower jaw thin, included, 
not extending forward to the anterior nostril, which is in a short 
tube ; teeth short, subconic, bluntish, a little unequal ; their points 
directed backward ; lower teeth nearly in one series ; upper teeth 
uniserial laterally, partly biserial anteriorly ; vomerine teeth in 
a rhombic patch, some of them a little enlarged. Eye moderate, 
its length rather more than half snout, its centre scarcely behind 
middle of upper jaw. Cleft of mouth 3 1 in length of head. Gill- 
opening vertical, about as wide as isthmus, its upper edge about 
on level of upper edge of pectoral ; pectoral small, but larger 
than in related species, a little broader than long and about as 
long as snout. Dorsal fin very low, beginning at a point about 
midway between front of eye and gill-opening ; anal similar to 
dorsal. Head 11^ times in distance from snout to vent. Trunk 
a little longer than tail. Total length 31 inches ; head 1§ inches; 
trunk 14| ; tail 14^. Color in spirits, dark-brown, nearly or quite 
uniform ; fins paler. 

0. Ophiolltliji intertinotui (R ohardsoD) GUather. (803*; 825 [J].) 

Dark brown above, paler below ; sides and back with about 
three rows of large, ovate, brown spots, somewhat irregular in 
size and position, those of the upper row smallest, the large and 
smalt ones of the lower row somewhat alternating ; spots on head 
small and numerous. Dorsal with an interrupted dark margin ,* 
anal with a darker edge ; pectorals blackish. Head 3^ in trank ; 
cleft of mouth nearly half length of head ; pectoral about 5 in 
head. Dorsal commencing a little behind end of pectoral. Tail 
rather longer than rest of body. The dentition is well described 
by Dr. Giinther (viii, 5Y). 



44 FBOGEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

Two large Bpecimens. This species has not been previously 
recorded firom the waters of the United States. 

7. Myrophii •gmontif sp. hot. (802; 827* [J.].) 
Two specimens in fair condition. 

Head small, slender, moderately pointed ; anterior nostril in a 
short tube; posterior nostril large, with a raised rim, placed 
directly behind the anterior ; cleft of mouth rather short, extend- 
ing to beyond the rather large eye, which is more than half the 
length of the snout ; cleft of mouth 3^ in head ; teeth in both 
jaws subequal, pointed, slightly compressed, arranged in single 
series, those of both jaws directed backward, the lower teeth 
being more oblique than the upper ; upper jaw with about 4 small 
fixed canines. No teeth on vomer in either of the typical speci- 
mens. Tongue not free. Lower jaw considerably shorter than 
upper, its edge considerably curved, Concave in profile. Nape 
somewhat elevated. Top of head with large pores. 

Head 5^ times in distance from snout to vent ; head and trunk 
a little shorter than tail. Body slender, its greatest depth a little 
more than length of gape. Pectoral fin short and broad, slightly 
longer than snout ; gill-opening short, oblique, extending down- 
ward and backward from near the middle of the base of the 
pectoral. Dorsal fin beginning behind vent, in one specimen at a 
distance about equal to length of gape; in the other specimen, a 
little farther forward; dorsal fin very low in front, becoming 
gradually higher toward the tip of tail ; anal fin low, but well 
cleveloped, considerably higher than dorsal, highest anteriorly, 
uniting with the dorsal around the tail. 

Color in spirits, dark-brown, apparently uniform, somewhat 
paler below. 

Length of specimen about 15 inches. 

We refer this species to Myrophis, although its dorsal is 
inserted very much farther back than in any of the known 
species of that genus. The absence of vomerine teeth, if normal, 
still farther separates it from the other species, and it is not 
unlikely that it should be regarded as the type of a distinct 
genus. 

One of the types ( 82T) has been presented to the U. S. National 
Museum. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENClfiS OF PHILADELPHIA. 45 

8. Sipkoitoma affine (QUnther) Jordan. (839* [-i].) 

9. Stromataaf alepidotuf (L.) Jor. and Qilb. (812.) 

The adoption of the earlier name, Stromateus paru L., for this 
species is perhaps premature, until West Indian specimens are 
examined. 

10. Traohynotaf oarolinai (L.) Gill. (810.) 

11. Lntjanns oampeeliiaxiai Pooj. (812* [2].) 

12. ChsBtodipteras faber (Broussoaet) J. and G. (811.) 

13. Batraehai pardnt Goode and Bean. (823 [J].) 

One specimen, with the typical coloration of this form. 

U. Gobiesox ▼ir^atnlni Jordan and Gilbert. (838 t3].) 

Three specimens ; the largest rather more than three inches 
long, thus much larger than the original types. Caudal dusky ; 
a dusky blotch on front of dorsal, D. 11, A. 8. Eyes very small, 
barely one-fourth interorbital width. Head 3; its width 2|. 
Lower teeth moderate, entire ; upper bluntish, in two or three 
rows, two of the outer a little enlarged. This is probably identical 
with Gobiesox nudus Giinther, but it cannot be the original 
Cyclapterua nudus of L. 

15. SoorpsBna stearnii Goode and Bean. (806.) 

16. Aohiruf braohialii Beao. (843 ) 

A very young example, brown with a few irregular large 
whitish spots. 

17. Aphoriitia plaginsa (L.) Jor. and Gilb. (843.) 

A very young specimen. 

18. Malthe Yeipertillo L., var. raiiata Mitcb. (795.) 

A short-nosed individual of the type which has been called 
Malthe cubifrons Rich, and Lophiu6 radiatus Mitchill. 

19. Antannarins ooellatus (Blooh and Sobneider) Pc^ey. (796*; 797; 822 [J].) 

P&scador Parra, Feces de Cuba, PI. 1, 1787. 

L&pTwus wspertUio, var. d, ocellatu$ Bloch and Schneider, Ichth., 

1801, 142. 
Antennaritu plewropTUhalnms Gill., Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1868, 92. 

Color in spirits, brown; pale on the head and belly, darkef 
posteriorly ; anterior region covered with small, sharply defined 
black spots; the spots posteriorly larger, and more vague in out* 
line, some of them diffuse shades ; fins spotted like the body; 
vertical fins with some paler spots also, and a pale edge; 



46 PBOOEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

sides of body also with irre^lar gray leprous blotches (perhaps 
pink in life), the largest between last dorsal spine and first dorsal 
ray, forming a saddle ; numerous smaller areas below this to base 
of pectoral; some on head; a small saddle between second and 
third dorsal spines ; a large ring of the same grayish color, behind 
dorsal, forming a ring about caudal peduncle ; some other blotches 
between soft dorsal and anal ; a ring of black dots about eye; a 
large oblong black spot on middle of base of soft dorsal, sur- 
rounded by a light brownish ring ; a similar ocellus below and a 
little before this on side of body, and a third on caudal fin a little 
before and above its centre ; a few whitish dermal flaps on soft 
dorsal ; inside of mouth black, with broad whitish longitudinal 
stripes, these most distinct on the tongue. Third dorsal spine 
much longer than second, its length equal to its distance from 
tip of snout ; length of maxillary 4 J in body. Upper part of head 
with some coarse, four-rooted stellar tubercles. 

Our specimens agree very closely with the description of Dr. 
Gill. There can, however, be little doubt of their identity with 
with the Pescador of Parra, on which the Lophius ocellatus of 
Bloch and Schneider was based. The characteristic position of 
the ocellated spots is precisely the same in the two. I therefore 
adopt for it the name ocellatus. It is not improbable that Anten- 
narius annulatus Gill, from Garden Key, will be found identical 
with A. multiocellatus (Cuv. and Val.). 

20. Baliitef oarolinentit Gmelin. (805.) 

21. Alntera sohoBpfl (Walbaum) Goode and Bean. (834.) 

22. Blodon litnrosns Shaw. (815.) 

A young specimen, apparently corresponding to Dr. Giinther'S 
var. a, of Diodon maculatus. 



1884.] NATXTBAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. i1 



February 26. 
The President, Dr. Leidt, in the chair. 
Twenty persons present. 

The following were presented for publication : — 

" On an Ammonite from the Carboniferous formation of Texas," 
by Prof. Angelo Heilprin. 

** The Tertiary Geology of Eastern and Southern United 
States," by Prof. Angelo Heilprin. 

Messrs. Geo. W. Fiss and Francis E. Emory were elected 
members. 

Distoma and Filarise. — Prof. Leidy directed attention to some 
parasitic worms presented this evening. Some of these were 
supposed to be leeches from the mouth of the alligator. Hero- 
dotus states that the crocodile of the Nile has the inside of its 
mouth always beset with leeches. The existence of the leech has 
been confirmed, and is known as the Bdella nilotica. The present 
specimens, however, do not belong to a leech, but pertain to a 
species of Distoma^ apparently not previously described. It may 
be named and be distinguished by the characters a«i follows : — 

Distoma oricola. Body elongated elliptical, moderately wider 
and thicker posteriorly, and ending in a blunt, angular extremity, 
convex dorsally and flat ventrally, unarmed, smooth or minutely 
wrinkled transversely. Mouth subterminal, and enclosed with a 
reniform lip succeeded by a linear annulus. Acetabulum large, 
globular, included at the anterior fourth of the body, and opening 
ventrally by a conspicuous central aperture. Generative orifice 
ventral, at the posterior fourth of the body. Length, 16 to 20 
mm. ; breadth, 3 mm. Eight specimens obtained from the mouth 
of the alligator, A, mississippiensis^ in Florida, by Mr. Stuart 
Wood. 

Accompanying the specimens is a fragment of the tongue 
marked with circular scars, apparently due to the worms. The 
alcoholic specimens in their present condition are incurved, with 
the lateral margins inverted, and the included acetabulum pro- 
duces a conspicuous dorsal eminence. 

Of several Filarise exhibited, two, a female and a male, pertain 
to the species Filaria horrida, Diesing. The former is 28 inches 
long, the latter 11 inches. They were obtained by Dr. Henry C, 
Chapman, from the thorax of the American ostrich, Bhea ameri- 
cana. The other specimens Were obtained by Mr. P. L. Jouy, 
from the abdomen of Strix hrachyotus. They consist of four 
females from 12 to 14 inches long and a half a line thick, 
and two males 2^ inches long and one-fourth of a line thick. 



48 PBOCKKDINaB OF THX AOADXHY OF [1881. 

They are thicker anteriorly with the head end obtusely 
rounded, and with the mouth minute and bounded by a 
minute pair of conical lips. The tail end of the female is straight 
and blunt ; that of the male is more tapering, and is included in 
an elliptical alary appendage, supported on each side by a row 
of five curving ribs. A pair of similar, but shorter and straight 
papillae is situated near the anal aperture ; and a pair of pointed 
processes diverge from the end of the tail into the alary expanse. 

Two species of Filaria have been previously observed in Strix I 

brachyotiiSj F. attenuaia Bud., and F, foveata Schn., to neither of ^ 

which the specimens under examination appear to belong. These, 
however, so closely accord with the descriptions of F, labiata 
Creplin, f^om the black stork, Ciconia nigra] that, notwithstand- 
ing the remote relationship in the host, the speaker believed them 
to belong to that species. In the construction of the caudal 
extremity of the male, they closely approximate the condition of 
F. labiata and F, horrida^&s represented in the figures of Schnei- 
der (Monographic der Nematoden), while they are widely diflTer- 
ent from that of F. attenuata and F, foveatay as represented in 
similar figures of the same work. 

Some notes on Manayunkia apeciosa. — Prof. H. Carvill Lewis 
read a communication from Miss S. G. Foulke, in which the 
following statements were made : — 

In the worm Manayunkia speciosa, described and figured by' 
Prof. Leidy (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1883), the tentacular 
crown, or branchial organ, is the feature of special interest. 

According to Dr. Leidy, the tentacles present in an adult are 
eighteen in number, besides two larger and longer tentacles 
situated midway between the two lophophores. These larger 
tentacles are conspicuous by their bright green color, and are, in 
fact, external continuations of the blood-vessels extending length- 
wise throughout the body. In shape, these tentacles taper from 
base to apex, are convex on the outside, but concave on the side 
which faces the centre of the tentacular crown ; so that a trans- 
verse section would present the shape of a crescent. Th^ two 
edges thus formed are fringed with cilia. When closely watched, 
the green tentacles are seen to pulsate with a rhythmical motion, 
contracting and expanding longitudinally. The pulsation takes 
place in each tentacle alternately. 

At the moment of contraction the tentacle turns slightly on its 
axis, outwards and towards the end of the lophophore on that 
side, at the same time giving a backward jerk, returning to its 
former position at the moment of expansion. 

By force of the contraction, the green blood filling the tentacle 
is forced downwards out of the tentacle, and fiows along the 
blood-vessel on that side of the body. On the expanding of the 
tentacle, the blood instantly returns and sufi'uses it, and thus 
the process goes on. 



To/ 



X 

I 

i'- 



1884.] NATURAL SGnOYOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 49 

The contraction and expansion occur at exact intervals, 
together occupying the space of two seconds. It is in this way 
that the blood is purified and its circulation controlled. These 
observations were made with a seven-eighths inch objective. 

To ascertain how long the cilia upon the tentacles would con- 
tinue their motion after separation from the body of the worm, 
both lophophores of an adult were cut off above their junction. 

At first the tentacles remained closed from the shock, but 
soon they were expanded, the cilia displaying active motion, 
and presently the two separated lophophores began to move 
about in the zoophyte-trough. This motion was produced by 
the action of the tentacles, which bent in all directions, the tips 
touching the glass, and was not a result of the currents produced 
by the cilia. In a few minutes one lophophore had crawled in 
this manner quite across the trough, while the other remained 
floating in the water near its first position. In the case of this 
latter the motion was produced by the ciliary currents, and was 
entirely distinct from the crawling above noted. 

During this time the decapitated worm had sunk to the bottom, 
and, though turning and twisting a good deal, did not attempt to 
protrude the mutilated support of the lophophores. Its body 
was so much contracted that . the segments were not above one- 
third their usual size. 

At the end of five hours the worm was apparently dead, num- 
bers of infusoria had collected to prey upon it, and the surface 
of the body presented a roughened appearance as though covered 
with tubercles. The lophophores were still crawling and swim- 
ming about. 

At the end of the eighth hour the lophophores had ceased to crawl, 
but the ciliary action, though feeble and uncertain, still continued. 
The body of the worm was then covered with a thick fungoid 
growth, consisting of transparent rod-like filaments three-six- 
teenths of an inch in length ; some of the filaments presented a 
beaded appearance. All motion of the cilia upon tlie tentacles 
had ceased, and these also were being devoured by infusoria. 

The above experiment shows that the motion of the cilia con- 
tinued about twice as long as the mutilated worm gave evidence 
of life. 

Several individuals of Manayunkia were observed to be preyed 
upon, while still living, by large monads, embedded in one or more 
of the segments, which were sometimes excavated to a consider- 
able degree. 



50 PEO0BBDING8 OP THE AOADBMT OF [1884. 



March 4. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-seven persons present. 

A paper entitled " The Rufous or Thatching Ant of Dakota 
and Colorado," bj'^ Henrj'^ C. McCook, D. D., was presented for < 

publication. 

Dictyophora as Apsilus vorax. — Prof. Lkidy stated that Mr. 
TJselma C. Smith, last week, had afforded him the opportunity of 
examining a wheelless rotifer, attributed to Apsilus^which he had 
found abundantly, last autumn, in a pond at Fairraount Park, 
attached to Anacharis, and likewise in the Schuylkill River, near 
by, on Potamogeton, A number of specimens were observed 
attached to the sides of the jar, as well as to both the plants con- 
tained therein. The specimens being more readily detached from 
the latter than from the glass vessel, they were seen under more 
favorable circumstances than previously. They were recognized 
as Dictyophora^ first described in 1857 ; and as a result of the last 
examinations, Prof. Leidy was led to the opinion that this, the 
Apsilus lentiformis Meczinchow, the Cupelopagus bucinedax 
Forbes, and the Apsilus bipera, recently communicated to the 
Academy by Miss Foulke, all pertain to the same species. In the \ 

recent specimens he had recognized the lateral antennae ending in 
exceedingly delicate and motionless oils, as indicated by Meczin- 
chow, and which previousl}^ from the wrinkled condition of the 
specimens detached from hard objects, had escaped his attention. 
The structure described by Meczinchow as a ganglion, he could 
not satisfactorily distinguish as such ; nor had he been able to 
detect the arrangement of the excretory canals, as represented 
by the same author. The lateral view of the animal accords with 
the figure of Cupelopagus as given by Forbes ; the body being 
ovoid, with the mouth of the prehensile cup oblique, and appearing 
more or less unequally two-lipped. In this view the antennae are 
undistinguishable. In all the forms described, the prehensile cup, 
in the same manner, is projected from and withdrawn within the 
mouth of a compressed oval or nearly spherical carapace, dotted 
with minute tubercles. The prehensile cup, substituting the 
usual rotary organs of rotifers, communicates with a capacious, 
variably sacculated and dilatable stomach, followed by the ordi- 
nary gizzard with its mastax,and then a second sacculated stomach. 
The ovoidal cloacal pouch opens by an aperture, with radiated 
folds, externally, some distance in advance of the fundus of the 
carapace. 

The size of the different specimens described varies greatly, 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 51 

but nevertheless appears to gradate between the extremes. The 
specimens recently examined were the smallest observed ; and in 
the closed condition measured 0*32 to 0'35 mm. long by 0*3 to 
0'32 mm. broad. Former ones described were from 0"36 to 0*6 
mm. long by 0*28 to 0*6 mm. broad. For Cupelopagus, Forbes 
gives 0*64 mm. long by 0*56 broad ; and for Apsilus lentiformia^ 
Meczinchow gives 0*8 mm. long by 0*7 mm. broad. 

Miss FouLKE enquired whether Dr. Leidy had noticed the 
secondary sacculated stomach. 

The President answered in the affirmative, and stated that the 
secondary stomach was present in all tlie forms. 

Miss Foulke replied that none of the forms previously dis- 
covered had been either figured or described as possessing this 
organ; that Dr. Leid^^'s description coincided exactly with that 
of Apsilus bipera^ as given by the speaker ; and that, in any case, 
should this form, though differing in every particular save the 
structure of the mastax, prove to be identical with the Dictya- 
phora vorax of 1857, still the differences between Apsilus bipera^ 
the Apsilus lentiformis of Meczinchow and the Cupelopagus of 
Forbes — viz. : the difference in shape, the presence or absence of 
antennae, of the secondary stomach, and of the ciliation of the 
cup — remain the same, and must separate the forms until proof 
of their identity can be given. 

A New Species of Trachelius, — Prof. H. Carvill Lewis, on 
behalf of Miss S. G. Foulke, made the following communication : 

Having poured some Schuylkill water, freshly drawn from the 
spigot, into a tube, a white speck was noticed swimming freely 
about. On being placed in a live-box, and examined with a power 
of thirty-eight diameters, this speck proved to be a member of the 
family Trachelidse, of Ehrenberg. 

The family Trachelidae includes three genera: — Trachelius^ 
Amphileptus^ and Loxophyllum. 

The genus Trachelius consists of but one species, Trachelius 
ovum (Ehr.), from which the form found in the Schuylkill water 
differs considerably in shape. 

Trachelius ovum was described by Ehrenberg as possessing a 
complex and profusely ramified oesophagus canal, and this opinion 
was endorsed by Lieberkuhn, also bj'- Clapar^de and Lachmann ; 
but W. Saville Kent disputed the point, and believes the appear- 
ance of the above structure to be given by the extreme vacuola- 
tion of the protoplasm, which would lend a branched intestine-like 
appearance to the intervening granular sarcode. The observations 
of the writer, in this respect, entirely coincide with those of Mr. 
Kent. 

Ehrenberg also placed in the genus Trachelius two other 
species, viz., T. tricophora and T, dendropholus, but these forms, 
being true flagellates, have been relegated to the genus Astasia. 



52 PROCIXDINOS OF THE AGA^DEMY OF [1884. 

In appearance, the form now to be described is markedly convex 
on the dorsal side, but is deeply indented longitudinally on the 
ventral side. The sarcode is highly vacuolate, the vacuoles nar- 
rowing towards the centre of the body. The fluid sarcode is 
granular, and the surface of the body is covered with a network of 
circles of various sizes, which, when enlarged three hundred 
and fifty diameters, are seen to be minute globular vacuoles. 
The snout-like prolongation, at the base of which is situated, the 
oral aperture, is shorter than is usually represented in Trachelius 
ovum. 

The principal difference has regard to shape, Trachelius ovum 
being egg-shaped, as indicated by the name, while the form just 
described is globosely convex dorsall}', but flattened with a deep 
indentation vent^all3^ 

It is a curious fact, and one whose import is not very compli- 
mentary to our water-supply, that the habitat of Trachelius is 
universally given as hog-water. 

It is proposed to name this new species Trachelius Leidyim 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



s 



1884.] HAIDRAL fiOIENCEB 07 PHILADELPHIA. 



Oir A CiBBOVIFEBOUS AHHOMITX FKOX TEXA*. 
BT PBOFS8S0B ANQKLO HKILPHIN. 

Among a limited number of earbonifbrous fossils obtained 
from the border of Wise Connty, Texas, and submitted to me 
for examination by mj friend, Mr. G. Howard Parker, a form 
occurs which can unhesitatingly be referred to the family Am- 
monitidse, and to the old genus Ammonites. Only a fragment of 
a single individual of the form in question is to be found, and 
this, unfortunately, has lost the shell, so that no external orna- 
mentation, if any such existed, can now be detected. What 
there is of the speci- 
men, however, suffi- 
ciently indicates that 



it was smooth, or des- 



■y) 




titute of ribs, and that 
the decidedly globose 
form was marked by 
a strong involution of 
the whorls, which ap- 
pear almost completely 
embracing. The um- 
bilical region cannot 
be clearly made out. 

The SUtUral lines of the ^- r"™«meiiU, nstnm au. a. SepUl latant, magal- 

septa are very clearly 

defined, and exhibit the ammonitic foliations in very nearly their 
simplest expression. The lobes and saddles are numerous and 
closely packed, the general appearance presented by them to the 
unassisted eye being that of tessellation. 

The siphonal lobe is considerably the largest, and is split into 
two prominent tongues by the extension inwards of a deep sinus 
having approximately the same width as the lateral prongs ; the 
lateral prongs terminate each in two teeth, the inner one of which, 
counting from the siphonal line, is somewhat lon^r than the 
external ; the base of the lobal sinus produced anteriorly into 
two acute sulci. The Arst lateral lobe terminates in two teeth, 
the inner or siphonal one the shorter, truncated at the extrem- 
ity, and sometimes exhibiting indications of apical division ; 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

the second lateral lobes with three teeth, the median one of 
which is the longest. The saddles are simply rounded, and 
exhibit, as far as can be seen in the specimen, no traces of crenu- 
lation or denticulation along the anterior margin. 

This is the first Ammonite, as far as I am aware, that has been 
detected in any American formation below the mesozoic series. 
The association with it of characteristic palaeozoic forms of life, 
such as Zaphrentis, Phillipsia, Bellerophon^ Conularia, Ghonetes, 
and Productus, leaves no doubt as to its position, and hence we 
must conclude that here, as well as in India, where Waagen first 
announced the occurrence of true carboniferous ammonitic forms, 
the distribution of this highly characteristic group of organisms 
was not so rigidly defined by the mesozoic line as geologists had 
been led to conclude. That pre-mesozoic Ammonites will be 
discovered elsewhere besides in India and Texas there is no 
reason to doubt ; indeed, no assumption could be more illogical 
than the contrary — and, therefore, the present discovery is in no 
way specially surprising, and only rather interesting than impor- 
tant. Special interest, however, attaches to this form, as through 
it and the individuals or fracrments of individuals that have been 
found in the Tejon (Tertiary) rocks of California,* we have 
established in this country the extreme range of the group 
which it represents. 

As to the relationship of the species which I propose to desig- 
nate Ammonites Farkeri^ it may be stated that, judged by such 
characters as the fragment presents, a position must be assigned 
to it near to A, antiquus, Waag., from the Productus-limestone 
(Salt-Range), of Kufri, India, described and figured in the FalaB- 
ontologia Indica (ser. xiii, pp. 28-9, 1879), of the Geological 
Survey, and which Waagen refers to the genus Arcestes of Suess. 
A comparison between the septal sutures of our specimen and the 
Indian one shows a remarkable similarity, indeed, one might 
almost say identit}^ existing between the two, the type of struc- 
ture being practically the same. The principal difference seems 
to be some very slight and unimportant modification in the lobal 
denticulations, and the emargination or depression which exists 
in the saddle, or rather iu some of the saddles of the Indian 

* Heilprin, *' On the Age of the Tejon Rocks of California, and the Occur- 
rence of Ammonitic Remans in Tertiary Deposits." Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sciences of Philadelphia, July, 1882. 



1884.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 55 

species. The aeicular sulci which terminate the sinus in the 
siphonal or median lobe do not appear in Waagen's drawing, but 
as this is done on a small scale, the feature in question may have 
been overlooked. In either case the septal plication is about 
equally simple or primitive, and indicates a passage by which a 
transition is effected from the more complicated forms to the still 
simpler Goniatite. The discussion of the relationship existing 
between the A, antiquus and certain Goniatitic forms described 
by De Vemeuil and Karpinsky from the sandstone of Artinsk, 
equally applicable in its reference to the American species, is 
fully set forth by Waagen {loc. cit). 



56 rmocEEDmoB or the acabemt of [1884. 



MabchIL 
The Piesidait, Dr. Lkibt, in the chair. 

Thirtj-nine peraons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

'^A RcTiew of the American Species of the Genns Sphjraena," 
by Seth £. Meek and Bobeit Newland. 

^' Catalogoe of Plants collected in July, 1883, during an 
Excorsion along the Pacific Coast in Southeastern Alaska," by 
Thomas Meehan. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



18S4.] NATURAL SGISNCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 57 



THE BVF0U8 OB THITCHIKO AVT OF DAKOTA AVD COLORADO. 

By Henby C. McCook, D. D. 

During the autumn of 18S3, I had a series of conversations 
with Mr. B. S. Russell, an intelligent Ifhsiness man, resident at 
Jamestown, Dakota, concerning a species of ant which inhabits 
that Territory. At first I was inclined to think that the insect 
which Mr. Russell described was the Occident ant, especially as 
the popular name which it bears among the pioneers is the 
" stinging ant," but further details caused me to suspect that the 
habits described must be those of Formica rufa^ whose nests I 
had observed in various parts of Colorado. 1 accordingly entered 
into correspondence with Dr. R. G. De Puy, of Jamestown, who 
forwarded m^ specimens which proved to be Formica rufa, I 
also gave him a number of points to be noted, and direction^ as to 
how to proceed in studying these points ; all of which Wiere fol- 
lowed up with accuracy and intelligence, that covered* all my 
inquiries. The notes which follow I have written out from the 
observations of the two gentlemen above named, and those made 
by myself in Colorado. 

Locality and Site. — The entire rolling prairie country lying 
between the Cheyenne and James Rivers (Dakota), is dotted with 
a vast number of ant-hills, which extend westwardly as far as the 
Missouri River. Mr. Russell could not say whether they are to 
be seen in the Red River Yalley, which, however, is frequently 
overflowed. I first met the hills of Rufa on the " Divide," north- 
eastwardly from Colorado Springs. Subsequently I saw them in 
South Park, and afterward in the vicinity of Leadville. They 
were scattered here and there throughout the woods and clear- 
ings, along the trails and near the diggings, within the limits and- 
suburbs of the " Camp," as the place was then (181^) called, and 
were struggling with the miners, with varying success, to main- 
tain their little "claims." I was struck by the fact that these 
persistent creatures had been able to push up their domiciles to 
such high sites, and to hold them against the rigors of the winter 
frosts. 

Specimens sent me from Iowa Gulch, near Leadville, by Mr. C. 
0. Shields, were taken from an elevation of 11,300 feet above the 
level of the sea. 
5 



S8 PROCEEDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [18S4. 

This character! 8ti<! the AmericaD Rufas have in common 
with their European congeners; the F. rufa of Switzerland, for 
example, ia found as far up the Alps as the line of vegetation, 
further progress being apparently limited by the lack of vege- 
table growth rather tban by the tempei-ature,' They may, there- 
fore, be reckoned, both on thia continent anil Europe, as among 
the most hardy of the ant fauna, best adapted to contend with 
severities of cold. 

Exterior Architecture of Mounds. — The ant-hilla in Dakotaare 
for the most part conical elevationa, somewhat flattened at the 
top (fig. 1). Some present the peculiarity of a square base, giving 
the hillthe shape of a pyramid, whose apex is rounded (flg. 21. Dr. 
De Puy's measurements show heights varying fVom one foot and 
a half, to eight inches. 
The slopes of the 
sides in two cases are 
twenty-one and twen- 
. ty-three inches re- 
■ spectively; two diam- 
-i eters measured are 
two feet, and one foot 
six inches, respec- 
tively; and one mound 
gave a measurement 
often feet around the 
Fio. 1. coQi™iMouiid.-Dakoi». basc. The mounds, 

according to Mr. Russell, average from twelve to fifteen inches 
in height, and about eighteen inches in liase diameter. They 
are separated tVom each other by interspaces of from twenty to 
sixty feet, and are scattered over the prairie in groups or " villages." 
Dr. De Puy aaya that one may travel miles without seeing ant-hills, 
and then come upon clusters of them. 

The mounds which I observed in Colorado were chiefly circular 
elevations of earth, very much flattened at the top (fig. 3). They 
varied greatly in size, but rarely rose to a greater height thsi 
eight inches. One mound observed in South Park and figured, 
was shaped like a stocking (fig. i), an odd form certainly, and 

' Catalogue dei Formtcidet d^ Europe, by Emory and Foral, p. 450, Mit- 
tbeilungen der Schweizerischen entomologischen Gesellschaft. 



1884.] NATDRAI. BGIENCE8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 69 

probably caused by the colony pushing up the earth &om two 
independent centres, which in the course of time united. Future 
labors might possibly correct this, and round the outlines to their 
normal shape. I eaw one formicary in South Park, which was 
established under a large etoue, along the edges of which the 
gates or openings were placed. Another was seeu on the Divide 
beyond Colorado Springs, domiciled under an old log in a grove. 
Here several ant-lions {Myrmeleon) bad established themselves, 
cannily digging tlieir pits near the very gatei of the formicary, 
quite in the route of the outcoming and ingoing emmets. The 
largest mound seen hy me, and larger than any reported to me, 
was found near tlie summit of the Ute Pass. It was a conical 
heap, four feet long and about one foot high, and looked lilie a 
small haycock. 

Thatching the Roo/g. — 
This TJte Pass ant-hill was 
thickly covered or thatched 
with bits of wood, fallen 
needles and broken sprigs of 

pine, which had been gath- ^ 

ered from the forest debris, 

I . >_ J .1 ■ .1 Tia.2. MauDd with Square BMW.— Dakota. 

lying abundantly in the vi- ^ 

einity. All other mounds in South Park and around Leadville 
were covered in a like manner, with stalks of grass, twigs, and 
similar rubbish. 

The Dakota ant-hills are thatched in precisely the same way, 
80 that one can easily see the propriiety of giving the little artisan 
the popular title of the Thatching ant. As the colony increases its 
numbers, and tlie necessity of internal domestic economy requires 
enlargement of the nurseries, rooms and galleries, the excavated 
soil is brought up and naturally is laid upon the thatching. In 
course of time a new roof of chips and clipped grass is overlaid, 
and thus in the ordinary growth of a mound there would be an 
alternation of layers of earth and vegetable substance, the latter 
falling into decay in due season. This theory of the growth of 
a hill is confirmed by samples of material taken by Dr. De Puy 
from the interior of the Dakota mounds, which consists of partly 
decomposed straw, mixed in smaller proportion with soil. The 
mound-making ants of the Allegheiiies (, Formica exaecldidee) 



60 PBOOEEDIHOS O? THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

have a similar habit of thatching their hills, but this is not as 
decidedly developed and characteristic as with the Bufuus ant ; 
indeed, bo far as my obeeTvation extends, it is the exception rather 
than the rule. The thatching habit is possessed by the European 
representatives of the species (F. ru/a), in equal degree with 
those of our Western plains. 

Interior Architecture. — I requested Dr. De Pny to open the 
hills by sawing down through the middle to the surface of the 
ground, and shoveling away one of the halves. This exposed a 
section view of the interior, and presented the I'emarkable feature 
shown at flg. 5.' The 
central part of the 
mound, ou or about 
the level of the sur- 
face, was found to be 
occupied by a ball of 
twigs (B,fig.5), about 
eight inches in diam- 
eter; the sticks are 
longer and thicker 
r.«.,. Fi.tCto»urM«md,-coio™d». than thosc uscd upon 

theroof,someoftbem 
being two and a half and three inches long. They were found 
unmixed with soil or any other substance. Several galleries, 
about one-fourth of an inch in diameter, led upward from this 
billet-globe to the surface, having their outlet by circular open- 
ings (G) through the thatcb. The openings, as seen by Dr. 
De Puy, were usually near the summit and never more than three 
in number. In Colorado mounds the openings were spread over 
the top, and were more numerous. Beneath the faggot-ball a 
series of galleries, seven in number, extended downward to at 
least the distance of four and a half feet, the extent of the 
excavation made by Dr. De Puy. For several inches, immediately 
below the ball, the galleries were united into a network (n, fig. 

1 I w&s unfortunately so situated in tbe Bouth Park and elsewhere in 
Colondo, in part by tbe presenco of a sick companion, that I could not delay 
to open the IijHh there seen, and make a atud; of the interior. But I have 
no doubt that they are arranged like those in Dakota. Will not some 
observer on that field test the matter by opening a few hills? 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 61 

5) of communicating ways, by galleries running crosswise. Be- 
yond this, they descended separately, having no connection at 
all, so far as could be observed. At the time that Dr. De Puy 
opened this nest the ground was already frozen, making the dig- 
ging quite difficult. No ants were found except a few stragglers 
Mrho were encamped within the faggot-ball, the mass of the com- 
munity having evidently taken up their winter-quarters in 
regions further underground than the point reached, and not 
improbably below the reach of frost. The purpose of the faggot- 
ball can now only be conjectured. I can think of nothing quite 
analogous to it in any formicary known to me; it suggests the 
globe of curled rootlets and dry grass which I have found within 
the cavern of that hymenopterous ally of the ant, the humble-bee 
{Bombus virginicus)^ and perhaps may serve the same purpose, 
viz. : that of a general nursery and common living-barracks for 
the family. At least, I have no better conjecture to venture at 
this time. It is curious to note such resemblances in habit 
between distantly removed members of an order of insects ; but 
the fact is no more, indeed not so much of a surprise, as to find 
in the caves of the Texas Cutting ant (Attaferoens) a leaf-paper 
rudely-celled nest, the product of a habit which exists in perfec- 
tion in those other hymenopterous allies, the paper-making 
T?asps. 

Marriage Flight of the Sexes, — Mr. Russell informed me that 
the ants appear in the spring with the first vegetation, and by the 
time of hay-harvest, the latter part of July, numerous swarms of 
" flying ants " are seen. These, of course, are the young males 
and females who, being matured, abandon or are pushed out of 
the home-nest for the marriage flight to meet and pair in the airf 

• 

At this period the swarms are very annoying to the inhabitants^ 
A person driving or riding over the prairie will find himself sud- 
denly in the midst of one of these hosts. The insects setjtle iy)oi^ 
the body, creep into the openings of the clothes, and produce ^ 
disagreeable sensation. Such a swarm settled upon the first 
house which Mr. Russell built, and the carpenters wej;e compelled 
to abandon it while in the act of shingling the roof. Jn the hay- 
field, the harvesters are often obliged to stop to fight ofl* the 
winged hosts, and those in charge of the hay-wagoi^ to abandoi^ 
for the time the stack which is being hauled to the barq, on 



62 PROOXEDmaB or the aoadeut of [1884. 

account of the annoying creatureB. The same is true of the 
grain harvest which comes later, the appearance of the swarms 
continuing throughout August and into September. The ants, 
however, do not sting, my informant averred, notwitbetanding 
their popular title of " the stinging ants." The nervous irrita- 
tion produced by contact with such numbers is the chief annoy- 
ance. Some horses show great exoitemeut under the visits of 



Fio. 4. Stoeklng-Stikped Monnd. 

the swarms, to wliich the more stolid mule is qnite indifferent. 
These flying ants do not get angry when l)eaten off, and rash at 
and follow after the parties attacking them as bees do ; they 
whirl round and round in dense masses, alight upon an object 
within their path, but show no sign of hostility or wish to pursue 
human or other animals who approach them. The family of anta 
to which this genus (formica) belongs, has no members possessed 
of true aculeate organs. The so-called " sting " is really pro- 
duced by the insect " biting " or abrading the skin with its 
mandibles, and then ejecting formic acid from its undeveloped 
stinging organs into the wound. The smart of the acid is quite 
severe. 

A Uae/ul Inaectiveroue Habit. — Over against this annoyance 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0BS OF PHILADSLPHIA. 63 

Mr. Russell placed an odd advantage, which he had often 
observed to be of some importance. When a grain-farm is to be 
opened, and the prairie sod " broken," a large number of men 
will be employed to manage the plows. These laborers are provided 
with barracks or a '^ camp outfit/' and by reason both of personal 
imcleanliness, and the abundance of certain objectionaBle insects 
in the prairie grass, soon become infested with parasites. Flannel 
clothes and blankets are populous by the middle of June. The 
manner in which the ants are turned in as scavengers may be 
illustrated by one instance recited. 

" One of my camp cooks," said Mr. Russell, " came one day to 
borrow a horse. ' What for ?' I asked. * I want to go out on the 
prairie,' was the answer. / Number Seven (the name of the camp) 
is in a pretty lively condition ; and, to tell the truth, my clothes 
are full of lice, and I want to go out to the ant-hills and get rid 
of them.' 

" I gave the man the horse ; off he drove, stripped piece by 
piece, and spread his duds and wraps upon the hills. In a few 
moments they were fairly covered with ants who thoroughly 
explored and cleaned every fibre, removing both insects and eggs. 
The cook came back happy and clean. That was a constant 
custom then (1880), and is continued by the camp people to this 
day. The * cleaning up ' takes the greater part of a day." 

The Dakotans have thus only discovered a formicarian habit 
which the Indians of the plains, and old pioneers and campers, 
utilized many years ago. 

Enemies and Dentructwe Agents, — In the " breaking season," 
many of the ant-hills are torn up by the plows. At such times 
flocks of blackbirds, both black and yellow-winged species, follow 
in the furrows, and feed upon the ants. There seems to be no 
end to the capacit}'^ of these birds for this sort of food. The 
tender larvae, exposed by the plowshare, are probably also 
attractive morsels, but Mr. Russell could not say as to that; to 
him the birds simply seemed to be picking up ants. 

In this connection a fact was related which may well excite 
surprise. The prairie-fires often completely destroy the hills, burn 
them quite up, and penetrate far enough beneath the surface to 
leave a hole that would contain a bushel-basket I This statement, 
made early in the conversation and while I supposed that I wa^ 



64 PBOCKEDraOB OS THX ACADEMY 07 [1884. 

liatening to some obserratioiiB upon the Occident ant for Mr. 

Russell spoke of the insects by their popular name of " stinging 
ante " — awakened my 
suspicion. I knew that 
amass of gravel-coTercd 
dirt, such as the genuine 
stinging anta — the Occi- 
dents — beap up, would 
not melt away in such 
wise before a prairie-fire. 
A few questions satisfied 
me that I was on the 
wrong trail, and that no 
other ant than Formica 
rufa could build a nest 
liable to snoh an acci- 
dent, and that even she 
could do so I confess I 
seriously doubted. 

I bad no reason to dis- 
pute the veracity of my 
informant, but [thought 
it quite as well to test 
his statements. Accord- 
ingly I bad Dr. De Pny 
send me samples of the 
material of the mounds 
„_,„,. ^ , . at points below the sur- 

Fio. S. Half (eoUon of monnd of V. nfa, * ft- * 'n- „ _,, , , , 

below enrflwie. B, oeutnl bftll of sticliB and etrawi: face. The results I have 
S, K, Bi gBllsriBB ; n, network of «roB«ii« BBllerlea just , . .- j ^ 

G«rDv tba bnu ; a, gatsB. already mentioned, and 

they show tliat Mr. Russell's statement is entirely credible. The 
heavy thatch of dried grass upon the roof, the mixture of soil 
and decayed Straw which composes the cone, the faggot-ball at 
the heart of the bill, together make up a highly inflammable 
mass. This freely feeds the flames that eat into the subsoil of 
the prairie, which is decomposed clay and lime. Thus the story 
of a casual lay observer, which might have been rejected with 
apparent reason, was confirmed by careful examination. 

The mounds exposed to these prairie-fires are frequently pre- 
served from destructiou in a rather remarkable way. A narrow 



1884.] NATUBAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 65 

belt of smooth soil generally surrounds the base of a hill (see 
figures above), on the outer margin of which(in old formicaries 
especially) springs up a circle of a tall, stiif, thick-stalked grass, 
such as always grows upon the heaps which the badger throws 
up when burrowing after gophers. This grass remains green 
until late in the fall, and when the dry prairie is swept by the 
flames, it stands as a breastwork around about the mounds, often 
deflecting the fire or greatly modifying its destructive eflects. In 
this way the formicaries are kept safe within the girdling ranks 
of the friendly plant. 

Concerning the eflects upon the ants of the severe winters of 
Dakota, I could get no information ; but as the frost is said to 
penetrate to the distance of seven feet, I conjecture that the 
insects must carry their galleries below that depth, though they 
are doubtless capable of enduring a very low temperature. The 
surface is thickly covered with snow during winter months, and 
it is probable that the ants then are in a semi-torpid state. They 
reappear in the spring with vegetation. It is a difl^cult matter to 
exterminate a colony by artificial means. 

The saying is current among the people of this section, reported 
both by Dr. De Puy and Mr. Russell, that if one wants to dig a 
well he will find water by going down through an ant-hill. I 
beard the same proverb in Texas applied to the Agricultural and 
especially to the Cutting ants. My experience is that these 
popular traditions ofben have some basis of truth, but in this case 
I give little credit to the notion. As these Dakota ant-hills are 
scattered over the whole rolling prairie country at not very great 
intervals, there certainly can be no likelihood that the people will 
ever lack water, as a well might be successfully sunk anywhere, 
according to emmet indications. A rule of this sort could not be 
worth much in such a country. In Texas the notion is based 
upon a supposed necessity for the ants to have access to under- 
grouhd sources of water. 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 



i 



March 18. 

The Rev. Dr. McCook, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Fifty-jbhree persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

" Notes on Species of Fishes improperly ascribed to the Fauna 
of North America." By David S. Jordan. 

" Notes on Tertiary Shells." By Otto Meyer. 

The deaths of Dr. A. L. Elwyn, a member, and of Dr. S. B. 
Buckley, a correspondent, were announced. 

Dr. Benjamin Sharp delivered a lecture on the study of biology 
in Germany introductory to his spring course of lectures on 
Invertebrate Zoology. 



March 25. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-nine persons present. 

The death of J. T. Audenried, a member, was announced. 

On Eumeces chalcides. — Prof. Leidt remarked that the little 
lizard presented this evening had been sent to him by a former 
pupil, Dr. E. A. Sturge, of Petchaburi, Siam. It appears to be a 
young individual of Eumeces chalcides Gunther, the Lacerta 
chalcides of Lin., and LygoHoma brachypoda of Dum. et Bib, It 
is remarkable for its diminutive limbs, provided with five minute 
toes. Dr. Sturge says the natives regard it as a snake ; and, as 
is common in such cases, consider it to be venomous. 

The following were elected members : Albert S. BoUes, Ph. D., 
R. W. Fitzell, and Jos. W. Grisoom. 

The following were elected correspondents : Ludwig von 
Graff, of Aschaffenberg ; G. Dewalque, of Liege ; Hans Bruno 
Geinitz, of Dresden ; E. Renevier, of Geneva ; Henry N. Moseley, 
of Oxford ; and J. T. Burden Sanderson, of London. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILAPJBLPHIA. 6*7 



A BEYIEW OF THE AMEBICAV SPECIES OF THE OSKUS SPHTBJBVA. 
BY SETH E. MEEK AND ROBERT G. NEWLAND. 

The object of this paper is to give a review of the American 
species of Sphyrsena, with detailed descriptions of the four 
species found on the Atlantic Coasts of America. The specimens 
examined by us belong, in part, to the Museum of Indiana Uni- 
versity ; the rest to the TJ. S. National Museum. All were collected 
by Professor Jordan at Havana, Cuba; Key West, Fla., and 
Wood's Holl, Mass. 

The two Pacific species have been fully described by Dr. 
Steindachner (Ichthyol. Beitrage, vii, 1878, 1-4). The remaining 
species here mentioned, Sphyreena sphyreena, we have not seen. 

We are under obligations to Professor Jordan, for use of his 
library and for valuable suggestions. 

Analysis of American species of Sphyrsena. 

a. Scales large, 75 to 85 in lat. line ; origin of first dorsal behind 
root of ventrals, over last third or fourth of pectorals; 
body compressed; lower jaw with fleshy tip; maxillary 
reaching past front of orbit; teeth large. picuda. 1. 

aa. Scales moderate, 110 to 130 in lat. line ; body subterete. 

b. Pectorals reaching the front of spinous dorsal ; maxillary 
reaching front of orbit ; origin of spinous dorsal behind 
root of ventrals. 

c. Lower jaw with fleshy tip ; teeth very strong ; scales 

in lat. line 110. ensis, 2. 

cc. Lower jaw without fleshy tip ; teeth strong ; lat. 

line 130. guaguanche. 3. 

bb. Pectorals not reaching front of flrst dorsal ; maxillary not 
reaching front of orbit. 

d. Eye large ; teeth small ; interorbital area convex; 
median ridge of frontal grove not well de- 
veloped, picudilla, 4. 
dd. Eye small ; teeth larger ; interorbital space 
flattish ; median ridge of frontal grove prom- 
inent, borealis. 5. 



68 PBOOEBDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

aaa. Scales very small, 150 to 170 in lat. line; origin of spinous 
dorsal well behind tip of pectorals, before the vertical 
from root of ventrals ; lower jaw with fleshy tip. 
^ e. Body very slender, depth 9 or 10 in length ; 

scales in lat. line 150. aphyraena, 6. 

ee. Body less slender ; depth TJ in length ; scales 

in lat. line 1 GO to 170. argentea. 7. 

1. Bphyraena piouda (BInoh and Schneider) Poey. O eat Barmenda: Picuda, 

Umbla min&r marina (the Barracuda) Catesby, Fishes Carolina, etc., 
1731, tab. i. 

Picuda Parra, Feces y Cnistaceos de Cuba, 1787, 90, tab. 35, f. 2. 

Sphyrcena sphyrcma, var. picuda, Bloch and Schneider, Systema Ichth., 
1801, 110 (after Parra). 

Sphyrcma picuda'Poey, Memorias Cuba, ii, 1860, 164 (Havana); Gunther, 
Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., ii, 1860, 336 (San Domingo, Puerto CabeUo, 
Jamaica, West Indies, River Niger); Poay, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
1863, 179, 187 (identification of Parra's figure); Poey, Syn. Pise. 
Cub., 1868, 359 (Havana); Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub.,1875, 95 (Havana); 
Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1876, 62 (Bermudas); Goode and 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 381 (name only); Goode, Proc, 
U. S. Nat. Mus., ii, 1879, 116 (South Florida); Goode and Bean, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., ii, 1879, 342 (West Florida, no description); Goode 
and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ii, 1879, 146 (Cuba, Bermuda?, 
W. Fla. and S. Fla.); Poey, Anal. Soc. Hist. Nat. Esp., 1881, 210 
(Puerto Rico); Goode and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 239 
(Gulf of 3iexico, no description); Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., V, 1882, 589 (Charleston, S. C); Swain, Proc. Ac. Nat 
Sci. Ph'la., 1882, 307 (identification of Baox harracyda, Shaw); 
Jordan and Gilbert, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 16, 1882, 412 (West 
Indies). 

? Sphyrcma becuna Lac^p^de, Hist. Nat. Poiss., v, PI. 9, f. 3, 1803, from 
a drawing by Plumier made at Martinique); ? Cuv. and Yal., Hist. 
Nat. Poiss., iii, 1829, 340 (after Lac^p^de); Guichenot, Ramon dela 
Sagra, Hist. Cuba (Havana); Poey, Memorias Cuba, ii, 1860, 164 
(Havana); Poey, op. cit., ii, 1860, 398 (identification with 3. picuda; 
species repudianda). 

Esox harracvda Shaw, Gen. Zool., v, 1804, 105 (based on Catesby). 

Sphyrcma barrctcuda Cuv. and Yal., op. cit., iii, 1829, 343 (Brazil); 
Poey, Memorias Cuba, ii, 1860, 398 (species repudianda); Cope, 
Trans. Am. Phil, Soc. Phila., 1871, 472 (St. Maitms). 

Habitat. — West Indies and Brazil ; north to Pensacola, Charles- 
ton and the Bermudas. 

Head 3 in length ; depth 2 in head. D. V-1, 9 ; A. 1-9. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHTLADELPHIA. 69 

Scales 10-76 to 85-10 (the cross series counted from lateral 
line to front of dorsal and anal fins respectively). 

Body oblong, slightly compressed, covered with large scales. 
Head large, maxillary large, nearly ^ length of head, its posterior 
margin reaching past front of orbit. Lower jaw, with fleshy tip, 
bluntly conical. Eye rather small, about 6 in head, equals width 
of interorbital area. Interorbital area concave, with a shallow 
median groove (as wide a pupil, at posterior edge of orbit), 
divided by a ridge in front and behind. Supraocular ridge bony 
and striate. Preocular ridge present. 

Teeth large ; premaxillary teeth small, little compressed, ir- 
regularly set, nearly uniform in size, somewhat thicker and 
shorter posteriorly ; premaxillary with two pairs of very large 
compressed teeth, their length more than half width of pupil; 
anterior ones directed downwards, posterior ones downwards and 
backwards ; teeth in lateral series of lower jaw small anteriorly, 
increasing gradually backwards, when they nearly equal those on 
palatines j palatine teeth similar to those on lower jaw, arranged 
in reversed order. 

Distance from tip of snout to front of first dorsal 2f in body ; 
second dors^ spine longest, li in snout; second dorsal and anal 
equal ; anal inserted under first third of soft dorsal ; caudal 
forked, upper lobe the longest ; pectorals reaching beyond front 
of dorsal, 2^ in head ; origin of first dorsal slightl}'^ behind the 
ventrals ; cheeks and opercles scaly, about twelve rows of scales 
on cheeks ; upper part of hiead with small imbedded scales. 

Color silvery, darker above ; sides in young with about ten 
dark blotches, which break up and disappear with age. Some 
inky spots, usually on posterior part of body, are very conspicuous 
in both old and young specimens. Soft dorsal, anal and ventral 
fins black, except on margins. Pectorals plain, except upper 
part of its margin, which is black. Fins of very j^oung specimens 
nearly plain. 

This description is made from an examination of some forty 
specimens, varying in length from two and three-fourths inches 
to twenty-eight inches. Nearly all were collected by Professor 
Jordan, at Key West, Florida ; a few at Havana, Cuba. 

This appears to be the largest of the Barracudas, reaching a 
length of at least five or six feet. Its mouth is larger and armed 
with larger teeth than in any other of our species. 



70 



PROCJOEDINQS OF THE AOADEMT OF 



[1884. 



Below is given a table of measurements of six specimens from 
Key West. The proportions are given in hundredths of the 
length from tip of snout to end of last vertebra. 



Extreme length of fish, in inches, 

Length of fish from end of snout 
to last caudal vertebra, in 
mches, 

Greatest depth of body (hun- 
dredths of above), .... 

Length of bead, 

Diameter of eye, 

Length of maxillary, .... 

Width of inleroibital area, . . 

With of base of pectorals, . . 

Length of pectorals, .... 

Distance from end of snout, to 
origin of spinous dorsal, . . 

Distance from end of snout to 

, root of ventrals, 

Distance between dorsal fins, . 




4.135 


4.1 


3.5 


3.5 


16. 


14. 


87. 


36. 


7. 


6.5 


15.5 


15. 


4.75 


5. 


3. 


2.25 


11. 


11. 


49. 


49. 


44. 


48. 


16. 


18. 



2.6 



2.8 

10. 
36. 

7. 
14.5 

5. 

3. 
10.25 

53. 

53. 
23. 



2. SphyrsBna em is Jordan and Gilbert. 

Sphyrcma forsteri Steindachner, Ichth. Beitrage vii, 1878, 4 [Cape San 
Lucas to Monterey (not of Cuv. and Val., an East Indian species, as 
yet not certainly recognized)]. 
Sphyroena ensis Jordan and Gilbert, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 1882, 
106 (Mazatlan) ; Jordan and Gilbeit, op. cit., ii, 18891) 109 (Panama, 
no description); Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 
624 (Panama ; no description). 
Habitat. — Pacific Coast of America from Cape San Lucas to 
Panama (East Indies ?). 

3. SphyrSBnagaagnanohe Cuv. and Val. Oungunnche: Guagu-^nche Pelon. 

Sphyroma guachancho Cuv. and Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., iii, 1829, 342 
(Havana ; on a drawing by Poey; lapsus ior guaguanche)\ Guichenot, 
Hamon de la Sagra, Hist. Cuba, 165 (Havana). 
Sphyroma guaguanche Poey, Memorias Cuba, ii, 1860, 166 (Havana); 

Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 1875, 96 (Havana). 
Sphyroma gua^uancho Ooode and Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ii, 1879, 
146 (Wood's HoU, Mass.; Ptnsacola, Fla.; Cuba); Goode and Bean, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1882, 239 (Gulf of Mexico ; no description); 
Jordan and Gilbert, Synopsis Fish. N. A., 1883, 411; Jordan, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1884 (Pensacola, Fla.). 
.' Sphyr€Bna guntheri Haly, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. iv, vol. xv, 
p. 270 (Colon; fide Steind.); Steindachner, Ichthyol. Beitrage, vii, 
1878, 6 (after Haly). 
Habitat, — West Indies, north to Wood's HoU, Mass., and 
Pensacola, Florida. 

Head 3 J in length ; depth 2 in head, D. V-1, 9 ; A. 1-8 ; scales 
in lateral line 120 to 130. 



1884.] 



NATURAL SGIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



71 



Body rather slender, subterete, covered with moderate-sized 
scales ; head large ; maxillary small, less than ^ head, scarcely 
reaching orbit ; lower jaw bluntly conical, without fleshy tip ; 
Eye rather large, 5| in head, a little exceeding interorbital area ; 
interorbital area flat ; median groove very shallow, the median 
longitudinal ridge very small, anterior ; supraocular ridge bony, 
striate ; preocular ridge large. 

Premaxillary teeth small, 35-40 in number; premaxillary 
teeth present ; anterior palatine teeth larger and more compressed 
than those on premaxillary, widely set, decreasing in length 
gradually ; teeth in lateral series of lower jaw small and closely- 
set anteriorly, larger and wide-set posteriorly, about 10 in number ; 
a large compressed tooth at symphysis. 

Origin of first dorsal over above tip of pectoral, slightly behind 
the ventrals ; distance between dorsals 5^ in body ; distance from 
tip of snout to spinous dorsal 2i in body; scales moderate, almost 
uniform in size ; cheeks and opercles scaly ; upper part of head 
with small imbedded scales. 

Color light olive, yellowish on soft dorsal; anal and ventral tips 
of caudal rays black ; top of head dark ; dark punctulations on 
upper part of body ; spinous dorsal with some dark punctulations. 

The description of this species is taken from three specimens 
from Havana, Cuba, varying in length from six and one-half to 
eight inciies, and from one specimen collected by Mr. Stearns, 
from Pensacola, Fla., nineteen inches in length. 

Below is given a table of measurements of specimens we have 
examined. The proportions are given in hundredths of length 
from tip of snout to the end of last vertebra. 



Extreme length in inches, 

Length of fish from end of snout to last caudal 

vertebra in inches, 

Greatest depth of body (hundredths of length), 

Length of head, 

Diameter of eye, 

L ngth ot* maxillary, 

''77 xvAbh of interorbital area, 

Width of basd of pectorals, 

Length of pectorals, 

Distance from origin of i^pinous djrsal to end 

of snout, 

Distance from end of snout to root of ventrals. 
Distance between dorsal fins, 



Pen- 
sacola, 
Fla. 



19. 



15.75 

16.5 

30. 
5. 

15.5 
4.5 
2.5 



42.5 
38.5 
20. 



Havana, Cuba. 



7.5 

6.12 
17. 
35. 

6. 
15. 

5. 

3. 
13. 

46. 
43. 
19. 



6.75 

5.5 
14.75 
32. 

6. 
14.5 

5. 

3. 
13. 

44.5 
40.5 

17. 



6.5 

4.9 
14. 
33. 

6. 
15. 

5. 

3. 
12. 

47. 
42. 
18.5 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMT OF [1884. 

We have not seen the original description of Sphyrasna 
guntheri Haly, from Colon (Aspinwall). The abridged descrip- 
tion given by Steindachner agrees fully with 8. guaguanche. 
We follow Poey in restoring the correct orthography of the 
name, Ouaguanche. 

4. SphyrsBna piondiUa Popy. Pieudillm. , 

Sphyrcena ba/rracuda Guichenot, Ramon de la Sagra, Hist. Cuba, 165 
(Cuba ; fide Poey). 

Sphyrcma picudiUa Poey, Memorias Cuba, ii, 1860, 162, 163, 898 
(Havana); Poey, Syn. Pise. Cuba, 1868, 359 (Havana); Poey, Enum. 
Pise. Cub., 1875, 96 (Havana). 

Habitat, — Coasts of Cuba. 

Head 3 J in body ; depth 2 J in head, D. V-1, 9 ; A. 1-9 ; scales 
in lateral line 110. 

Body rather robust, subterete, covered with scales of moderate 
size ; head rather large ; maxillary rather small, about 2f in head, 
not reaching orbit. 

Jaw with fleshy tip, bluntly conical; eye large, about 5 in 
head, 1^ times interorbital space; interorbital area flattish; 
median groove shallow, divided by a very indistinct median 
ridge ; supraocular ridge bony, striate ; preocular ridge rather 
prominent. 

Premaixillary teeth small, subconical ; dentition as in Sphyresna 
borealis^ but slightly weaker ; position of spinous dorsal, in com- 
parison to ventrals, variable ; distance from tip of snout to origin 
of spinous dorsal about 2y^^ in body ; pectorals not reaching spinous 
dorsal ; space separating dorsals about 5^ in body ; second dorsal 
equal to and somewhat in advance of anal ; cheeks and opercles 
scaly ; small imbedded scales on upper part of head ; scales on body 
moderate, uniform in size. Color light olive, darker above ; soft 
dorsal, anal and ventral fins yellowish ; spinous dorsal and pec- 
torals darker ; upper parts of preopercle and opercle each with a 
dark spot ; top of head and tip of snout blackish. 

S. picudiUa is very closely allied to S. borealia. Its eye is, 
however, much larger (when specimens similar in size are com- 
pared), and the frontal groove is somewhat difierent. 

The description of this species is taken from four specimens 
collected by Professor Jordan in Havana, Cuba. 



1884.] 



NATURAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADEIiPHIA. 



13 



Below is given a table of measurements of the specimens we 
have examined. The proportions are given in hundredths of the 
length from the tip of snout to end of last vertebra. 



Extreme length of fish in mches, 

Length of fish from end of snout to last caudal 

vertebra in inches, 

Greatest depth of body (hundredths of length), 

Length of head, 

Diameter of eye, 

Length of maxillary, 

Width of interorbital area, 

Width of base of pectorals, 

Length of pectorals, 

Distance from end of snout to origin of spinous 

Distance from end of snout to root of ventrals, 
Distance between dorsal fins, 



Havana, Caba. 




46.25 

46. 

17.25 



5. BphyrflBlia boraalil De Kay. Northern Barracuda, 

' Bphyrcma borealis De Kay, N. Y. Fauna, Fishes,1842, 37, pi. 60,f. 196 (New 
York); Storer, Synopsis Fish. N. A., 1846 (48); Baird, Ninth Smith- 
sonian Kept., 1854, 12 (Beasley's Point, N, J.); Gill, Rep. U. S. Fish 
Com., 1872, 808 (no description) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat 
Mus., i, 1878, 381 (Beaufort, N. C, no description); Goode and Bean, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., ii, 1879, 146 (Wood's HoU, Mass.); Bean, Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., iii, 1880, 102 (Wood's HoU, Mass., no description). 
SphyrcBna spet Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., i, 1878, 381 
(Wood's Holl, Mass.); Jordan and Gilbert, Synopsis Fish, N. A., 1883, 
411 (in part ; not of Lacepede). 

Habitat. — AtUntic Coast of TJ. S. from Cape Cod to North 
Carolina. 

Head 3 in length ; depth 2f ; D. V-1, 9 ; A. 1-9 ; scales in lateral 
line 115-130. 

Body rather slender, subterete, covered with moderate-sized 
scales ; head large, maxillary small, less than^ head, not reaching 
front of orbit by ^ diameter of eye ; lower jaw with fleshy tip, 
bluntly conical ; eye rather small, about 6 in head; scarcely ex- 
ceeding width of interorbital area; interorbital area convex; 
median groove very shallow, divided by a distinct longitudinal 
ridge, especially well-defined immediately before nostrils ; supra- 
ocular ridge striate ; preocular ridge moderate. 

Premaxillary teeth small, about 40 in number ; front of pre- 
maxillary with two pairs of large teeth (sometimes accom- 
6 



m 



PBOOBEBINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1884. 



panied by smaller ones), canine-like ; anterior smallest, directed 
downwards, posterior ones downwards and backwards ; anterior 
palatines larger than pre maxillary teeth, and more compressed 
and widely-set ; posterior ones small and closely-set ; order of teeth 
on lower jaw reversed, but similar to those on the palatines, and 
smaller,about 10 in series ; large tooth near tip of lower jaw present. 

Origin of dorsal over or slightly in advance of ventrals, well 
behind point of pectorals; distance between dorsal fins 5^ in 
length of body ; distance from tip of snont to spinous dorsal 2^ 
in body ; scales moderate, somewhat larger behind soft dorsal and 
anal ; cheeks and opercles scaly ; small imbedded scales on upper 
parts of head. 

Color olivaceous, silvery below ; young with dusky blotches 
across the back and along the lateral line. 

This description is made from eight specimens collected by 
Professor Jordan at Wood's Holl, Mass., which vary in length 
from six and one-fourth to eight and one-half inches. The species 
does not appear to reach a length of much more than a foot. 
This species shows several points of similarity to Sphyrxna 
sphyraena. It is, however, unlikely that the two are specifically 
identical. 

Below is given a table of four specimens. The proportions are 
given in hundredths of length from tip of snout to end of last 
vertebra. 



Wood's Holl 



Extreme length of fish in inches, 

Length of fisli from end of snout to last caudal 

vertebra in inches, . . . 

Greatest depth of body (hundredths of length), 

Length of head, 

Diameter of eye, 

Length of maxillary, 

Width of interorbital area, 

Distance from end of snout to origin of spinous 

dorsal, 

Distance from end of snout to root of ventrals. 




6. BphyrflBUa SphyrflBUa (Lionaeus) Blooh. Spet, Barracuda. Sennet. 

Sphyrcma et 8udis auctorum Artedi, Gen. Pise., 1738, 84 (Coasts of 

Italy). 
£!80X dorso dipterygio LinnsBus, Mus. Ad. Fried., ii, 1754, 100. 
EsoxsphuremaLinnsdus, Byst. Kat., Ed. 10, i, 1758, 813; Ed. li, i, 1766, 

515 (based on Artedi); Gmelin, Syst. Nat., i, 1788, 1389. 



1884.] NATUBAL BCIBNOES OF PHILADSLPHIA. ?5 

BphyrcBfna sphyrcma Bloch, Ichtli., 1797, taf. ccclxxxix; Schneider, 
Bloch, Syst. Ichth., 1801, 109; Risso, Ichth, Nice, IftlO, 382 (Nice). 

JEsox Bpet Haiiy, Encyclopedic Methodique, iii, Poissons, 1787. 
' Sphyrama spet Lac^pede, Hist. Nat. Foiss., y, 1808, 826-8; Bonaparte, 
Iconografia della Fauna Italica, iii, Pesci plate with part 152 (Medi- 
terranean); Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., v, 1876, 61 (Bemludas). 

Sphyrema ttdgarts Cuv. and Val., Hist Nat. Foiss., iii, 1829, 327 
(Mediterranean); Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., ii, 1861, 884 
(Med terranean and Lanzarote); Giinther, Shore Fishes, Challenger, 
1880, 3 (St. Jago); no description. 

Sphyrasna mridetms Cuy. and Val., op. cit., iii, 1829, 339 (St. Jago^ 
Cape Verde Islands). 

Habitat, — Coasts of Southern Europe and Northern Africa. 
Islands of Atlantic (Cape Yerde ; Madeiras; Bermudas). 

7. BphyrtBna argentea Girard. California Barracuda. 

Sphyrena a/rgerUea Girard, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., vii,. 1854, 144 
(San Diego); Girard, Pac. R. R. Survey, 1859, 59, pi. xiv, 1 (San 
Diego); Gtinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., 1860, 338 (San Diego); Stein- 
dachner, Ichthol. Beitrage, vii, 1 (Cape San Lucas to Monterey); 
Jordan and GUbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, iii, 29 (San Diego); 
Jordan and Gilbert, op. cit., 1880, iii, 456 (San Francisco, Monterey, 
Santa Barbara, San Pedro and San Diego; no description); Jordan 
and Jouy, op. cit., Iv, 1881, 13 (San Pedro and Santa Barbara); 
Jordan and Gilbert, op. cit., iv, 1881, 44 (Monterey to Santa Barbara); 
Jordan and Gilbert, op. cit., v, 1882, 358 (identification of Sphyrana 
lucascma Gill; Cape San Lucas). 

Sphyrema lucasana Gill, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 86 (Cape 
San Lucas). 

Habitat, — Pacific Coast of America from San Francisco to Cape 
San Lucas. 

This species reaches a length of about three feet. We are not able 
to positively distinguish this species from the published accounts 
of S. sphyreena. We have, however, no doubt that difierences 
will appear on the actual comparison of specimens. 



76 PROCEEDINQB OF THE AGADEMT OF [1884. 



CATALOaiTB OF FLAVT8 COLLECTED UT JVLT, 1888, DUBIHa AH IXCTO- 
8I0V ALOVO THE PACIFIC C0A8T IV BOITTHBASTEBH ALASKA. 

BY THOMAS MEEHAN. 

Few new plants have been discovered along the northern 
Pacific coast, since its examination by the naturalists who accom- 
panied the navigators and explorers of the earlier part of the 
century ; and the results of their labors, as given in Rothrock's 
Flora of Alaska^ the Geological Survey of Canada, and other 
lists, seem scarcely to warrant any addition to the botanical 
literature of this part of the continent. The local histories of 
these plants are, however, yet not well known ; and it seems to 
me I may add a little to this knowledge by some account of the 
collection made during July, 1883^in a short trip on the " Idaho," 
a mail steamer from Portland to Sitka, and trading at vari- 
ous points along the coast at many Indian-fishing settlements. 

My object in the journey was simply to get a glance at this 
interesting country, and the price demanded by the company for 
my wife, son, and myself, $3*75, for first-class accommodations for 
a month, not seeming unreasonable, we took the journey. The 
only opportunity for collecting was during the few hours spent 
in taking out and re-shipping stores at the stopping places ; and 
the fact that in this short time and hurried gathering, I was able 
to collect 275 species, indicates a greater richness of the flora 
than I expected before starting on the journey. In a number of 
places, also, the botanizing had to be done under an umbrella in 
pouring rain, which wholly forbade entrance into the forests, and 
led to an examination of the shore-lines alone. Rothrock's list 
embraces but 590 species, including grasses and carices, which, 
fearing I should not have time in my rapid journey, I seldom 
touched. My impression is that when we shall have had better 
opportunities of examining the interior of the territory, the list of 
Alaskan plants will be still more largely increased. It is true my list 
embraces the contiguous territory ; but probably all north of the 
Columbia River — of the Straits of Fuca at least — may be regarded 
as one geographical area up and down which plants may be 
expected to travel. 

Since the publication of Rothrock's Catalogue, other collectors 
have added to our knowledge of localities, though their work has 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 77 

not been published. The Herbarium of the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia is rich through the labors of Harrington, 
Kellogg and Davidson, and the author is indebted in a great 
measure to their specimens for assistance in the identification of 
his own. • 

The collection made at Bartlett (sometimes called Hood's) 
Bay, is probably the first made at that point ; and it is the interest 
attached to this that, chiefly, leads the author to publish the 
papier. 

On our return from Chilcat (written Tchillcat in some 
charts) down the Lynn Channel, we ran up Icy Straits into Gla- 
cier Bay, to the fifth or Muir Great Glacier ; and on our return, 
passed in between the Beard slee Islands to the mainland at a 
point opposite Cross or Icy Sound in about lat. 68.30, called on 
our chart Bartlett Bay. This is on a peninsula formed by the 
junction of Icy Sound with the Lynn Channel, and nothing seems 
to be known of this immense tract of land, except what can be 
gathered from the not over-friendly Indians who live along the 
coast in the fishing season. An Indian trader, Mr. Richard Wil- 
loughby, told the author that at a point about twenty-five miles 
above this he had traveled northwest across the peninsula for 
some forty miles to Pyramid Harbor, near the mouth of the Chil- 
cat, as he was understood to say wholly on ice. It is quite 
probable that at about a hundred miles north from Bartlett Bay 
the country is a vast ice-sheet, and there were circumstances 
which seemed clearly to show that at no great distance of time 
in the past the whole of the western portion of this peninsula was 
covered by ice ; while on the eastern shore, on Lynn Channel, 
the forest trees showed the mixture of trees of various ages 
common to old forests ; the forests of the western slope were all 
comparatively young, and none were evidently over fifty years 
of age. The earth to fifty feet or more in depth in many places 
¥ras composed wholly of glacial drift, and on this were the young 
forest trees. Some remarks on these features more in detail are - 
given at page 187, 1883, of the Proceedings of the Academy. Since 
they were published, Mr. Dall has kindly informed the author 
that there is historical evidence to show that this part was 
covered by ice at about the end of the past century. This being 
so, it becomes a matter of considerable interest to ascertain how 
so many plants have maintained an existence here — whether they 



*IS PROCEEDINGS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

have appeared since the recession of the ice, or whether they 
managed to retain their hold during the whole continujance of 
the ice-sheet. 

At our landing place a small stream entered the ocean, and 
this stream came through a swampy valley a few hundred feet 
wide, extending into the land for an unknown distance. The 
hills of drift were on each side of this^ralley. All the plants were 
collected within a quarter of a mile of the mouth of this stream, 
and there is every reason to believe that a larger number of 
species might have been collected had there been time or oppor- 
tunity for more inland research along its line. By the margin of 
the swamp were rocks from five to ten or twenty feet above its 
ground level, and not covered by drift ; but on the more level 
rocks often with a few feet of sand, which bad evidently blown 
in during the courae of years. Yet with every opportunity to 
do so had there been time for the work, very few of the plants 
along the line of the stream had extended to the drift deposits 
close by. These plants were not brought there by the drift. We 
may say almost with certainty that they were there during the 
period when the land was covered by ice. How did they manage 
to maintain themselves under these circumstances ? Were they 
wholly covered by ice ? or were there rifts and clefts in the ice- 
sheet deep enough to allow plants a summer of recuperation ? 

I think we need not regard the last consideration as one of 
necessity. There is reason to believe that under a low tempera- 
ture plants will retain vital power for an indefinite period. Mr. 
Douglas, of Waukegan, Illinois, once sent to me young trees of 
Catalpa specioaa^ that had been placed in sand in a cool cellar and 
forgotten a year, and that remained the whole twelve months 
dormant, and grew the next year when planted out. Dr. Max- 
well T. Masters, of London, has called aittention to the case of 
an orchid which, as I remember, remained under ground a whole 
season without growing, and this has been adduced as a probable 
explanation of the non-appearance in some seasons of plants 
which are plentiful in others. If a plant will remain dormant 
one, two or three years under unfavorable conditions for growth, 
who shall say how much longer a period they may not live, 
under conditions favorable to dormancy only ? I have a strong 
suspicion that just at or below the freezing-point roots may live 
for an unlimited number of years ; and that a district might be 



I 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADEIiPHIA. 1^ 

covered by an ice-sheet for a quarter of a century or more, and 
the plants beneath retain full vital powers. 

By referring again to my remarks on some geological features 
of this part of Alaska (page 183, Froc, Ac, as cited), it will be seen 
by a sunken forest of apparently modern trees there is reason to 
believe that in comparatively recent times this peninsula was 
clothed with a rich vegetation — that it was of a sudden partially 
submerged and perhaps as suddenly elevated again a little — and 
that all these changes have been the work of but a few hundred 
years. The plants in question have probably survived through 
all these changes, though perhaps wholly ice-covered at times^ 
and have not been brought here by modern agencies ; and if these 
suggestions, which are offered only as great probabilities, should 
get fuller confirmation from any one in the future who may have 
opportunities of going more fully into an investigation of the. 
spot, it will give additional interest to the study of botany in 
connection with the great changes which have been going on over 
the surface of our globe. 

From other botanical evidences which southeastern Alaska 
affords, I am inclined to believe that geological changes in this 
section have not required the loijg periods to effect which geolo- 
gists usually demand. In the vicinity of the Davidson Glacier, 
a little below Pyramid Harbor, layers of ice may be seen covered 
by sand and earth, and prevented from rapid thawing — only an 
occasional spot showing the icy bed beneath — and yet alder and 
other plants grow within a few hundred yards. On the other 
hand, near the Muir Glacier, at the point where the river-bed 
beneath the ice diverges from the glacier's direct course, the 
only sign of arborescent vegetation is from a few score of willow- 
bushes, scattered on the mountain-side. Beneath the drift, hun- 
dreds of feet below, is a forest buried as it grew. Pines, alders, 
and similar plants spread so readily in this region, that these 
bare hill-sides would assuredly be clothed thickly with a forest 
vegetation, thus replacing the forests which have been swept away, 
if there had been time enough for the purpose. The immense 
area and great depth of these treeless drift formations would 
surely be regarded as requiring perhaps many centuries for 
deposit, but for the evidence which the botanical observations 
afford that the whole change must have taken plaqe withio very 
recent times. 



80 PROGEEDINQB OF THE AOADSiXT OF [1884. 

In making the catalogue I have followed the example set by 
Mr. Watson, in the Bibliographical Index ; a general view of the 
relation of the species to each other is furnished by the natural 
orders in systematic sequence — all the rest is alphabetical. In 
a systematic work on botany, an alphabetical index appears at 
the end. A catalogue should be itself an index, as its chief use 
is for reference and not for systematic study. 

BANUNCULACE^. 

Aooaitum iiap«Uiii Linn. Harrisbnrg, Aluki^. 

AetSM spioatfiy rar. arguta Watson. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

Aqnilegia formosa Fisob. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

Caltha palnstris L. Pyramid Harbor, Harrisburg, Alaska. 

Coptii aiplenifolia Salisb. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

Seen also at Sitka and many places through Alaska, but 
very seldom could I find fruit. The fine specimens from Fort 
Wrangel were the only good ones found, and I had to look a 
long time there among the plants before any were seen. 

Bammoulns flammnla, var. reptaas Meyer. Departure Bay, B. C, in summer- 
dried, muddy places. 
S. orthorhTnohns Hook. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

Some of the flowers were of a.deep orange-brown, but mostly 
of an ordinary butter-cup yellow. Plant three to four feet high. 

S« reonrratus Poir. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
S. repeni L. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

CBUCIFEB^. 

Arabia alpina L. Elllisnow Island, Alaska. 

A birsnta Scop. Chilcat Inlet, Harrisburg, Alaska. 

A. petrsBa, var. ambigna Kegel. Chilcat Inlet, Harrisburg, KilUsnow Island. 

Common on rocks in Alaska. 

Cooblearia AngUoa L^ Harrisburg, Alaska. 

C. offioilialis L. Idaho Inlet, a newly explored arm of Gross Sound, by our s' earner 
"Idaho." 

A small form growing in mud, covered at high tide. Plants 
from half inch to one and one-half inches in length, in full flower, 
but no mature fruit. 

Erjiimum obeiranthoides L. Killisnow ^ Island, Alaska. 

But common through the territory, growing from one foot 
high to sometimes five feet. 

Vastnrtinm ampbibinm R. Br. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

^ Kenasnow on some maps. 






1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADEIiPHIA. 81 

VIOLACEiES. 

▼iola larmentoia Dougl. Harrisbnrg, Alaska. Perfect flowering. 

▼. sarmeiitosa. In open grarelly placet. Departure Bay, Alaska. CleistogamoQB. 

Arenaria lateriflora L. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

CerastiiUB alpiaum L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Honkanya peploidei Ehrb. Killisnow Island, Alaska. 

I did not see Indians eating this, but I saw it in their 
canoes, brought from places where it grew ; and often saw pieces 
lying around where their camp-fires had been. I believe they 
cook and eat it. 

ipergula arrensis L. Harrisburg, Alaska ; clefts of rocks by the seaside. 

Stellaria' borealis Bigel. Harrisburg, Sitka, Alaska. 

8. oriipa Cb. and Sch. Pyramid Harbor, Harrisburg, Alaska. Common. 

8. longifolla Mubl. Harrisburg, Alaska. . 

Bagina procumbens L. Sitka, Alaska. 

POBTULACACE^. 

Claytoaia aarmaiitaia C. A. If ey. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

This is evidently the plant intended by Pursh as G, lanceolata^ 
but I believe my plant is what is regarded as above. It is com- 
mon along the coast, and is extremely variable. Eaten by 
Indians. 

Xontia fontana L. Sitka, Alaska. 

I saw only some half dozen small plants under a cabin set on 
logs, and suspected it was an introduced plant. 

HYFEBICACE^. 

Hjrperioum Soouleri Hook. Departure Bay, B. C. 

MALVACEJE. 

ffidaloaa malvseflora Gray. Victoria, B. "C. 

This appears to me somewhat different from the plant of the 
more southern portion of the continent ; but Mr. Serano Watson 
decides it to be this species. Two to three feet high. 

GEBANIACE^. 
Oeraninm arianthnm D. C. Killisnow Island, Alaska. 
0. pusillma Lin. Port Townsend, W. T. ; Victoria, B. C. 
Impatieiia folva Nutt. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

SAPINDACEiES. 

Aeer mbmin L. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884.: 

LEQUMINOSiB. 

Aitragalni alpinus L. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska, 
A. hjpoglDttis L. . Bartlett Bay, Alaska. . 
Lathynif marittmut Bigl. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 
LupiBiu Nookateniis Don. B«rt]ett Bay, Alaska. 
L. mioranthns Dong. Viotoria, B. C. 
Onytropis Lamberti Pursh. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 
Fsoralea physodes Dougl. Port Toimsend, W. T. 

More capitate than I have before seen it. 

Trifolinm involnoratnm Willd. Port Townsend, W. T. ; Victoria B. C* 

T miorodon Hook. Port Townsend, W. T. ; Victoria, B. C. 

Vioia giga&tea Hook. Sitka; Killisnow Island, and other places in Alaska. 

BOSACE^. 

Amelanoliia alaifolia Nutt. Astoria, Or. 

A dwarf variety, with large black, and excellent fruit. 

Dryat ootopetela L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Plants witliout inflorescence. Glacier Ba3% near Mnir Glacier, 
a single large plant with frait, on a moraine deposit. 

Fragaria ohileniii Duoh. Chilcat Inlet, Alaska, also in Bartlett Bay. 

This species interested me by the dark color of the upper sur- 
face of the leaves as contrasted with the lower; the deeply 
incised first (autumn) leaves; the enormous runners, often two 
feet long before bearing a plant ; the very long — often over a 
foot — and slender common peduncles of the later flowers, and 
very short, often nearly sessile common peduncles of the earliest 
flowers ; the very large flowers; and pale, scarcely red fruit. The 
Indian boys and girls go out and collect them, as our boys and 
girls do. At Killisnow Island, I did not see them growing, but 
Indian women brought them to our landing, and knew enough of 
our language to ask " ten cents " for small measures of them. 

F. veioa L. Departure Bay, B. C. 

I believe I saw it in Alaska, but have no specimen. 

Oenm maorophyllnm Willd. Pyramid Harbor. Common in Alaska. 

Neillia opnlifolia B. & H. Departure Bay, B. C. 

Nuttaliia oerasiformis T. & G. Astoria, Or. 

Pymi rivularis Doug. Astoria, Or. ; Victoria, B. C. ; Sitka, Alaska. 

P. lambuoifolia Gh. & S. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

I saw but one plant, on an Indian trail so steep and slimy, it 
was impossible to climb. It had no fruit; but on the trail were. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 83 

several red fruit, evidently of this species, but not one-fourth the 
ordinary size, about the size of an elderbe^r3^ At Sitka I saw 
the plant with the full-sized fruit, half mature, that we see further 
south. 

Fotentilla firsgiformii Willd., rar. villosa. Chiloat Inlet, Sitka, Alaska. 

Varying in habit. 

Pmnns emarginata Walp., var. moUii. Astoria, Or. 
Bosa gyipioearpa Nntt. I)eparture Bay, B. C. 

In open places a shrub two to three feet, but along the trail 
through woods not too dense, it would rise six to eight feet 
high ; and the red fruit, one to three on a common peduncle, 
made a very ornamental shrub. 

S. Hutkaaa Presl. (B. cinnamomaa Hook). Pyramid Harbor, Alaska ; Viotoria, ' 
and some forms everywhere. 

Varies very much in size and form of fruit, sometimes having 
them as large as Damson plums ; seems generally characterized 
by very large stipules, especially on the upper part of the flower- 
ing stem. 

Babns lauoodannis Dougl. Departure Bay, B. C. ; Astoria, Or. 

Leaves commonly pinnate, with fi>e leaflets. Fruit better than 
the Eastern Black Cap, which it resembles. 

B. nntkanns Mo^ino. Killisnow Island ; but very common throughout the coast. 
B. tpeotabilis Purrh. Killisnow Island ; but everywhere throughout Alaska. 

The fruit is most prevalently of an amber-yellow, but often . 
scarlet or red. The flavor is wholly that of a blackberry, rather 
than of a raspberry, and they vary very much in size. The 
Indian women of Sitka have very large ones, which they sell on 
the road-side. At Killisnow Island I saw two Indian women, 
whom I encountered in the woods, gathering the soft green tops 
of the summer shoots in large bunches. They made signs to me 
that they ate them ; I suppose cooked. 

B. ttellatus Smith. Sitka. 

Though the plants seemed abundant, many flowers were 
abortive, and a large number had but a single red carpel, or two 
or three only. I had trouble to find a few with perfect berries. 

B. nrsinut Ch. k S. Departure Bay, B. G. 

BpirsDa Amnont L. Harrisburg. Alaska; Departure Bay, B. C. 

8. discolor Pursh. Victoria, B. C. ; Harrisburg, and common along the Alaskan 
coast. 

I am not able to decide to which of the varieties these northern 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

forma should be referred, but they strike one differently from the 
plant I have collected in the Rocky Mountains, S. dumosa. 

Banguisorba oanadensii C. A S. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

SAXIFBAGACE^. 

Henohera glabr* Willd. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

H. miorantha Dougl. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

Farnaasla palaitris L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Sibes braoteosum Dougl. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska, and oommon along the coast. 

Very striking by the stems as thick as one's finger, and very 
stout annual shoots, enormous maple-like leaves, long leaf-stalks, 
and racemes eight to ten inches long. The berries are called by 
the Indians " Shaum," as I understood them. They are gathered 
and preserved in fat for winter use. 

B. divarioatom Dongl. Port Townsend, W. T. 

B. laoustra Pois. Port Townsend, W. T. ; Harrisbarg, Alaska. 

B. Hndaonianum Riobard. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

This seems to grow only about stumps or dead logs. I believe 
the berries are used by Indians, as are those of B, braoteosum, 

B. saaguiaeom Par. Departure Bay, B. C. 
B. snbvestita Hook.? 

Fruit very large — as large as the English gooseberry, which 
even the foliage somewhat resembles. The berry is covered by 
viscid hairs, by which even a large berry will adhere to the finger. 
The color of the fruit is scarlet, but the flavor is insipid. The 
shrub grows about four to five feet high. 

Saxifiraga laueantbamifolia Mx. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

8. trlonspidata Rets. Cbiloat Inlet, Alaska. 

TtUima gimndifloia R. Br. Harrisbarg, Alaska. 

Tiaralla trifoliala L. Port Townsand, VT. T., and northwards. 



Sadom ipatkalBfeliam Hook. Victoria, B. C. 
8. Bkodiola D. C. BarUett Bay, Alaska. 



BrOMra rotuadifilHa L. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 



OilOMk alpiaa L. Harrisbarg, Alaska. 

X^lobiom aflLat Bong. Fort Wrangel, Sitka, Alaska. 

X alpiaam L. Pyramid Harbor, KtlUsnow Island, Alaska. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADEIiPHTA. 85 

S. latilbliiim L. Pyramid Harbor, Mair GlMier, Alaska. 
S. minutam Lindl. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
S. panionlatam Nutt. Departure Bay, B. C. 
X. spioatum. Lam. Port Townsend, W. T. 

About eighteen inches or two feet, with narrow leaves (J inch), 
tapering gradually at both ends. Victoria, B. C, two to three 
feet, leaves broader ; Killisnow Island, Alaska, four to five feet 
high, leaves one to one and one-half inches broad, spike leafy, 
and inclined to be paniculate. 

CUCTTBBITACEiES. 

SehlBOOystit lobata T. k G. Columbia River, above Astoria, Or. * 

UMBELLIFEB.SS 
Arehangelioa Gmeleni D. 0. Harrisbarg, Kaigan, and other places in Alaska. 

The few whites wie met called it " celery." In many Indian 
lodges I saw bundles of fresh flower stems, and in some cases 
Indians peeling or stringing them as we do rhubarb stalks, and 
eating them raw with apparent relish. 

It is interesting to note that Linnaeus, in his tour in Lapland, 
notes that the Laplanders use this plant in the same way. 

Crantlia lineata Nutt. Colambfa River, above Astoria, Or. 
Heraoleua lanatiim Mx. Harrisbarg and many other places in Alaska. 

Geological survey of Canada says Indians eat the leaf-stalks ; 
but I saw no evidence of this in Alaska. 

Lipistioiuii seotioum L. Idaho Inlet, Killisnow, Harrisburg, Alaska. 

Common along the Alaskan coast. 

(Enanthe sarmentoia Presl. Departure Bay, B. C. 

Banieula Xemieiii Hook k Am. Port Townsend, W. T., Victoria, B. C. 

Binni oioatflBfoliiua Gmel. Astoria, Or. 

ABALIACEJE. 

Fattia horrida B. k H. Pyramid Harbor, Harrisburg, and other places in Alaska. 

Often forming dense underbrush in forests, growing four to 
eight feet high, and making traveling impossible unless with 
great labor. An Indian explained to me that it was in common 
use with them as a medicine. 

COBNACEiES. 

Comiu stolonifera Mz. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 
C. canadensis L. Sitka, Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 



86 P&0GB£DING8 OF THE AOADl&MY OF [1884. 

CAFBIFOLIACEiES. 

Lonioera hlspldnla Dougl. 

I see no difTerence between the yellow and red forms, though 
they strike one as distinct when growing. The red form, Port 
Townsend, W. T. 

.L* involnorala Banks. Kaigan, Alaska. 

Seemingly different from the Colorado plant, but chiefly in 
size and habit. The plant has a sarmentose or half-climbing char- 
acter. It grows up the hemlock trees as they grow ; and, when 
the lower branches of the hemlock die, the stems of the Lonicera 
remind one of grapevines. But the plant travels along the 
lower living or dead branches of the hemlock, outwards to the 
light. Away from trees they are self-supporting, but yet the 
branches are somewhat pendulous. In such cases eight to ten 
feet high. 

LinnflBE borealis Gron. Port Townsend, W. T. 
Sambnous raoemota Mx. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

Familiar as I am with the var. puhens of the Allegheny and 
.Rocky Mountains, I could hardly believe the forms deserved to 
be regarded as identical after seeing the Alaska plants, especially 
those about Fort Wrangel. The inflorescence was strictly race- 
mose, which the more eastern form is not. Shrubs six to ten 
feet, and as wide, covered with brilliant scarlet berries, were 
extremely attractive. 

Bjmpliorioarpus raoemosni Mx. Victoria, B. C. 
Vibaranin elliptioiim Hook. .Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

BUBIACE^. 

Oalium asprellum Mx. Victoria, B. C. 

Slender habit. Harrisburg and Sitka, coarse and straggling. 

0. triflomm Mx. Port Townsend, W. T.; Victoria, B. C; Harrisburg, Sitka, Alaska. 

. Leaves getting broader from each location northwards. 

COMFOSIT.SS. 

Adenooaulon bloolor Hook. Port Townsend, W. T. 

Aobillea millefolima L» Port Townsend, W. T. ; Victoria, B. G. ; Harrisburg, 
Alaska. 

Much more vigorous and hairy than the eastern plant, and 
generally with deep rosy, occasionally with pinky white, but 
rarely, if ever, with pure white flowers. 



1884.] NATUBAIi SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 87 

Anapludis margaritaeea Benth. Bartlett Bay, Chileat Inlet, Alaska. 

Antemiaria alpina Gaert. Chileat Inlet, Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Amiea Chamissonis Less. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Alter Bouglasii Hook. Columbia River, Astoria, Or. 

Bahia lanata NaU. Port Townsend, W. T. ; Victoria, B. C. 

CniouB adnlis Gray. Colambia River, above Astoria, Or.; Departure Bay, B. C. 

Xrigeron aore L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

B. alpinnin L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

B. Philadelpliioiim. Victoria, B. C. 

B. speoiosnm D. C. Port Townsend, W. T. 
Gnaphaliiua purpumun Lin. Port Townsend, W. T. 
Hieraciom albiflonun Hook. Port Townsend, W. T. 
H. eynoglossoides Amt. Tonv. Port Townsend, W. T. 
H. Soouleri Hook. Departure Bay, B. C. 
LMmtodon hinatmn Hook. Port Townsend, W. T. 

Densely hairy ; Victoria, B. C, slightly hairy and more slen- 
der than the Port Townsend plant. 

Xadia filipet Gray. Port Townsend, W, T. ; Victoria, B. C. 
X. NuttaUiana Gray. Port Tpwnsend, W. T.j Victoria, B. C. 
Mieromaria Bigelowii Gray. Victoria, B. 0. 
NalMdni alatut Hook. Harrisburg, Fort Wrangel, Sitka, Alaska« 
Pyrathnim Farthaninm L. 

A single plant on the Columbia Riyer, four miles above Astoria, 
most likely introduced, but worth recording as noting the com- 
mencement of naturalization. 

Seaaeio paond-amioa Hook. Killisnow Island, Alaska. 

Selidago alongata Nutt. Victoria, B. C. 

8. multiradiata Ait. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Seneliiu oloraoeiu L. Astoria, Or. ; Departure Bay, B. C. 

Quite common, but I suppose introduced in some way« 

Tarazaenm palutra Lin. Departure Bay, B. C. ; Port Townsend, W. T. 
Campanula rotand^olia L. Chileat Inlet, Alaska. 

In the crevices of rocks ; the flowers very large, and the stems 
very stout. Indian name '' narl," and represented as ^' good for 
medicine. " 

C. Saonlari Hook. Departure Bay, B. C. 

About four inches high, densely leafy, and leaves narrow in 
open rocky places ; a foot high, slender, leaves broad and scat- 
tered in somewhat shady places. 



88 PB00KEDINQ8 OF THE ACADIMT OF [1884. 

EBICACE^. 

Arbntns Xemiesii Pursh. Departure Bay, B. C. 
Bryanthus glandnlifems Gray. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
Casiiope Xerteniiana Don. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
C. tetragona Don. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
OanUheria Bhallon Pursh. Port Townsend, W. T. 

One to two feet high ; Kaigan and other places in Alaska, two 
to four feet or more, and forming a dense undergrowth rendering 
the forest almost impassable. 

Kalmla glauoa L. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
Ledum palustre L. Fort Wrangel, Sitka, Alaska. 

Leaves broader as the plant extends northwards. 

Xemiesia fermginia Smith. Fort Wrangel, Sitka, and Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

Xoneset uniflora Gray. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Fjrola ohlorantha Swartz. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

P. rotundifolia Lin. Port Townsend, W. T. 

P. seouada Lin. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

Vaoolnium OTalifoUum Sm. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

V. OYatam Pursh. Columbia Rirer, above Astoria, Or. 

V. parrifoUnm Sm. Columbia River, above Astoria, Or. 

V. uligi&osum L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

V. Viti8«Id8Ba L. Sitka, Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

PLUMBAQINACE^. 

Armeria Yulgaris Willd. Victoria, B. C. 

PBIMULACE^. 
Bodeeatheon Xaadia L« Killisnow Island, Alaska. 

Var. macrocarpum probably. Clefts of rocks along the shore. 

Olaoz maritima L. l^ort Wrangel, Alaska. 
Primnla borealis Duby. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
Trientalis Buropna Linn. Sitka, Alaska. 
T« EnropSBa) var. aretica Fisch. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

OLEACE.SS. 
Fraxiaas Oregana Nutt. Viotoria, B. C. 
But perhaps introduced. 

GENTIANACE^. 

Gtntiaiia amarella L., var. acuta Engel. Departure Bay. 



1864.J NATURAL BCIENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 89 

POIaEMOKlACEJE. 
CoUomia heterophylla Hook. Colambia River, above Astoria. 

There is in the Herbarium of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia, a specimen of this, and perhaps from the same 
locality, simply marked " Gilia, Columbia River." In the same 
paper is a specimen marked Navarrelia heterophylla Benth., 
" from Durand's Herbarium," which is almost smooth, not viscous 
as this is, and accords with the figure in Hook. Bot. Mag., t. 2895, 
which this and Nuttall's specimen scarcely do. 

BOBBAQINACEJSS. 

Xartensia maritiiiia Don. Killisnow Island, Alaska. 

SCBOPHUIiABIACEiB. 

Bosobniakia glabra C. H. Meyer. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

Among alders, apparently in the track of a receding glacier. 
A long woody thread descends from the base of the scaly flower 
stem, but in the haste of collecting I did not find to what 
the thread was attached, if it were attached at all. The Indians 
make no use of the plant, but class it with plants which are 
" cultash " (no good). Their name for this is " Asquakali." 

Castillija bispida Bentb. Pyramid Harbor^ Alaska. 

C. miniata Doug]. Victoria, B. 0. 

C pallida Eunth. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 

Common through Alaska, and varying very much, especially 
in the colors of the bracts and flowers. 

Eupbrasia officinalis L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Ximiilas dentatas Nutt. Astoria, Or. , 

Though from the numerous variations of M. luteus L. this might 
be regarded as but a variety of that species, it has a very distinct 
appearance when seen growing. Thte dark, blue-green, thick 
leaves are particularly striking. This might be owing to the 
sub-saline locality — so many maritime plants having foliage of 
this character ; but the normal M. luteus may be often seen in 
similar situations, and without these characters. Dr. Gray, in 
Botanical Gazette^ now regards it as a good species. 

Ximnlui luteus L. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

Common along the coast. 

Fsdioularis palnstris, var. Wlattioviana Bunge. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
Soropbnlaria Califomioa Cbam. Astoria, Or^ 
Ysronioa sentellata L. Departure Bay, 6. C. 

▼. alpina L. ? Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

7 



90 PR0CBBDING8 OF THE ACADBBiY OF [1884. 

- -*i 

' LENTIBULABI ACRSS. 

PinS^eula ynlgmrii L. Bartlett Bay, Ala«ka. 

LABIATJE. 
Bmnella Tiilgftris L. Victoria, B. C. 

This does not strike me quite like the introduced form of the 
Eastern States, and is most likely indigenous. 

ealeopiii Tetrahit L. Sitka, Alaska. 

A patch of a few yards in extent, but seemingly many years 
established, on the shore, near the old city, was the only 
locality noted on the journey, and suggests that the plant may 
have been a Russian introduction. 

Hf^Btli^ eaiiadeniil L. Departure Bay, B. C. 
Mieromeria Douglmiii Bentb. Port Townsend, W. T. 
BlaehyB oiliata Dong. Victoria, B. C. 

Damp, grassy places. A very ornamental plant. 

plahtagikaceje. 

PUntagO BUJOT, Tar. Anatiea D. C. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
P. major, var. minima Dec. Departure Bay, B. C 

Both these forms grow in saline soil, and the location can have 
no influence on their very distinct appearances. 

POIiYGOKACEJE. 

PdygOBiUB TiTipaTnm L. Eillianow Island, Alaska. 
Buiiiax domestieiia Hart. Hoona (Bartlett Bay). 

Petioles a foot long, and half an inch wide. Leaf-blade about 
a foot long and nine inches wide at the base, tapering towards 
the obtuse apex. My specimens moulded in drying too badly to 
determine properly. I have followed other collectors in naming 
the plant, though I am inclined to regard it rather as B. Patienta 
L. The petioles are eaten by the Indians as we use the garden 
rhubarb. 

B. aalieifolilia Wienin. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 



Atripex patala, var. littoralia Gray. Harrisburg, Sitka, Fort Wrmngel, and other 
places along the coast. 



SmpetrUi mlgrvm L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 



1884.] NATTTBAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 91 

BETULACEJE. 

Alniis rubra Bong. Pyramid Harbor, Kaigan, Alaska. 
A. viridis D. C. Harrisburg, Alaska. 

I have identified these with much hesitation, regretting on my 
return home to find my material confined to a single branch of 
each — the alders of Alaska being worthy, as I now believe, of 
closer investigation. My botanizing at Harrisburg, and at Kai- 
gan, had to be done beneath an umbrella and in pouring rain — 
unfavorable for the close study of arborescent growth. If the 
identifications are correct, the names would deserve to be trans- 
posed. The " Harrisburg " species is the one prevalent from 
there south through British Columbia to the Columbia River, 
often making a tree I should judge from thirty to forty feet 
high, and with a trunk occasionally say five to six feet in 
circumference. The bark of the trunk is a dark reddish brown. 
The finely serrulate leaves, however, seem precisely like the 
leaves of A. viridis, as I have collected it on the mountains of 
New Hampshire, and North Carolina, though it is difficult to 
believe so small a shrub there, should be so fine a tree here. 

The alder of Kaigan and Pyramid Harbor is a much larger 
tree, with a gray and rather smooth bark, even wlien quite aged. 
At Pyramid Harbor, a summer settlement for salmon-fishing, 
Indians had cut some down, and were making canoes — dug-outs — 
of them. From memory I am sure some of these logs must have 
been near three feet thick, and thirty feet long — the original 
height of the tree being probably more than double this. These 
were on rich bottom lands, near but not on the retreating 
glacier^s track. On the track the same plant apparently made a 
dense shrubby growth, not taking on at all a tree-like character. 

Betala papyrsoea Ait. Chilcat Inlet, Alaska. 

Probably this species ; but the leaves seem all cordate and 
densely woolly. Only a single tree was seen, not mature appar- 
ently ; but there might have been more, for when found it was 
approaching midnight and getting almost too dark for further 

explorations. 

SALICACEJB. 

Salix Pallasii And. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

8. reticulata L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

8i Sitokeiisis Sanson, var. denudata And. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

8. Barolayi And. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 



I 



* 



92 PBOOEEBINGS OF THE AOABEMT OF [1884. 

CUPULIPERJE. 

Qnerom Keliogii Newb. Yiotoria, B. G. 

Where exposed to the sea-breezes this seemed but a small 
" chinquapin "-like bush two or three feet ; but only a short 
distance in the island it becomes a fine timber tree. I believe 
this is as far north as I saw any species of oak growing. 

TAXACEJB. 
Taxni brevifolis Xutt. Victoria. B. C, and Port Townsend, W. T. 

A few trees in the vicinity of Victoria, quite as large as some 
seen in the Calaveras grove of Sequoias, and probably growing 
further north, though not seen. 

CONIFEBJE. 

Abies grandis Lindl. Port Townsend, W. T. ; Victoria, B. C. 
Chamnoyparis NatksBiiiii Spaoh. 

Is said by authors to be very abundant from the Columbia 
River northward through British Columbia and southeastern 
Alaska. I could not find a single specimen, though continually 
on the lookout for it, and the owner of a saw-mill at Killisnow 
Island informed us that the " yellow cedar " was an extremely 
rare tree in that region. 

Picea SitcheiiBiB Carriere {Ahies Menzietiif of s^me modern authors). 

Common everywhere through British Columbia to the head of 
Glacier Bay, Alaska, at the latter place forming buried forests 
near the Muir Glacier and Bartlett Bay. At Kaigan some trees 
measured twenty-one feet round. It evidently loves atmospheric 
moisture, and grows on barren rocks, when it is under these 
atmospheric conditions, quite vigorously; and in this way assists 
in forming a covering of earth over the rocks. At Kaigan there 
were trees of many years old, growing from the top of the Indian 
^' totem poles," half as tall as the poles at times. 

Pinm contorta Dougl. Chiloat Inlet. 

A tree about twenty or thirty feet high, with a rather flattish, 
spreading head; short ovoid cones, and which are not at all 
oblique, growing among rocks along the coast. 

Also at Bartlett Bay, where it is a stout, very vigorous shrub, 
branching from the base, without any attempt to make a leader, 
and much resembling the habit of Pinus montana of Europe. The 
plants were very fertile, the cones being freely scattered among 
the branches, and cylindrical, without any tendency to obliquity. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 93 

Following the Botany of California this would probably be referred 
to the true P, contorta^ of Douglas, and the first named tp P. 
contorta, var. Murrayana, though the characters, as I find them, 
do not quite agree. I have thought best to leave the determina- 
tion indefinite. 

Tangs Marteniiana Carriere. Port To^rnsend, W. T. ; Victoria, B. C, and common 
along the coast. Specimens from Fort Wrangel. 

This is the "hemlock" of these parts, and some of the trees at 
Sitka and Fort Wrangel were as large, at least, as the best spec- 
imens of the hemlock found at the East. 

Tfendtsngs DonglaBii Carriere. Port Townsend, W. T.; Victoria, B. C: Sitka, 
Alaska. 

Thuja gigsntes Nutt. Port Townsend, W. T. ; Victoria, B. 0. ; Kaigan, Alaska. 
Common along the coast. 

This, Tsuga Mertensianaj and alders, form most of the arbor- 
escent vegetation of the southeastern Alaskan coast. 

OBCHIDACEJB. 

Habenaria dilitata Gray. Port Townsend, W. T. 

As it seems to me, though it may be a form of H. leucostachys 
Wat. 

H. hyperborea. Bartlett Bay, in glacial drift. 
Spiranthef Bomanioffiana Cham. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

IBIDACEJE. 

Siiyrinoliiam ancepi L. Sitka 

Not abundant, but probably indigenous. 

LILIACE^, 

Allium aonminatiim Hook. Victoria, B. 0. 

BrodiSBa laotea Watson. Port Townsend, W. T. ,* Victoria, B. C. 

B. grandiflora Watson. Victoria, B. C. 

An imperfect specimen ; probably belongs here. 

Proiartef Oregana Watson. Victoria, B. C. 

Smilaoina bifoliai var. dilitata Wood. Sitka, Fort Wrangel, and many places along 
the coast, but seldom found in fruit. 

The fruiting specimens here from Sitka, have also three, and 
sometimes four, leaves on the scape. 

Streptopns amplezifolias D. C. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
Tofleldia glntinosa Willd. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 



94 PBOGEEDINGS OF THE AOADEMT OP [1884. 

ABACEJB, 

Lysiehiton Camtsohatoexue Schott. Fort Wrongel, and throughout the coast. 

Leaves larger, narrower and much more glaucous than its ana- 
logue, the skunk cabbage of the Eastern States. 

Two young deer, about a year old, were captured while 
attempting to swim across a four-mile stretch of an arm of the 
sea, and brought on board the steamer, the captain intending to 
take them to San Francisco. They took well to thei|- imprison- 
ment ; but after some time, the ship's boat brought back a lot of 
these leaves. I remarked to the captain that the acrid leaves 
would probably be fatal to the animals, but he remarked that 
they would not eat them so freely if injurious, and they were fed 
continuously for several days on them, when one died. The cap- 
tain's idea was that it died of sea-sickness. It had been very 
rough the night it died. The other one finally recovered, 

NAIDACEJSS. 

Triglooliiii maritimam L. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
T. palmtre L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

JUNCACEJE. 

Juiums aroticuB Willd. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
J. Baltiom Dethard. Fort Wrangel. 

Varies in size in different localities. 

J. bufonius L. Sitka, Alaska. 

J. flliformis L. Astoria, Or. 

J- ziphioides Meyer. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

Lnzala eampestris D. G. Sitka, Alaska. 

L. spadioea, var parviflora Meyer. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

CYPEBACEJE. 
Oarez oryptooarpa. Alaska. 
C. xnarioata Linn. Alaska. 
C. undetermined. Alaska. 
C. undetermined. Alaska. 

Eriophorum graoile Eoch. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
Soirpui puagens Vabl. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

QBAMINEJE. 

(Identified by F. Lamson Soribner.) 
Agrostis alba var. $caberrima. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
A. oaninai var. Sitka, Alaska. 
A. ezarata Trin. Sitka, Alaska. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 95 

A Tulgarii Nutt. Sitka, Alaska. 
Aira osryophylles L. Victoria, B. 0. 
Alopeonmi ariltulstus Mz. Departure Bay, B. 0. 
Atropui angnitata Ledeb. Sitka, Alaska, 
lyesohampiia elongata. Departure Bay, B. C. 
Deyeozia LangBdorffii Eunth. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
Elymm Sibiriom L. Departure Bay, B. C. 

This seemed so great a favorite with the birds that it was with 
difficulty I got a few complete spikes for herbarium. 

Slymiii moUil Trin. PyrRmid Harbor, Alaska. 

This is a broad-leaved, strong-growing kind, growing along 
sandy shores as E. arenarius does in other places ; and not 
uncommon along the coast. 

Faitnoa ovina, var. duHuscula, Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
FeBtnoa ovina, var. duriuacula, Sitka, Alaska. 

The last spike much more decompound. 

Olyceria anguitata Griesb. Idaho Inle^ Cro^s Sound, Alaska. 

Mr. Scribner refers it to Griesbach's species without deciding 
whether or not it should be united with G* distans G. The 
plant was growing in mud overflowed at high-tide, and formed a 
dense carpet of green grass on the mud. The growth is about 
four to six inches. 

0. diltani Gr. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
0. panciflora Presl. Sitka, Alaska. 
Hieroohlce borealia L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
Holous lanatus L. Astoria, Or. 

Only one plant noted, on the hills along the river, about four 
miles above Astoria. Pyrethrum Parlhenium was also collected 
within a few feet of it. 

Hordenm nodoinm L. Bartlett Bay, Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
Phleam alpiniim L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
P. pratenie L Sitka, Alaska. 

Common in grassy places ; but possibly introduced. 

Poa pratensii L. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Both the green and the bronzy forms. 

Triietum spicatum, var. molUf Gray. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

EQUISETACEJB. 
IquiMtam ▼ariegatnm Sch. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 



96 PB0CE£DING8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

FILICE8. 

Adiantampedatuin L. Harrisbarg, Killisnow Island, Alaska. 

Pinnales more deeply lobed, and the divisions of the stipe more 
elongated and slender than the Eastern form. 

ABpidinm manitam Kanl. DepartareBay, B.C. 

Very variable in size ; but always seeming very fertile. 

A. acolestnm Swarts. Harrisbnrg, Alaska. 

Cryptogramme acroitiohoidei K. Br. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 

Very vigorous, fronds 9 to lO inches. 

Cystopterif bnlbifera. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 
Cyitopterii fragiUi. Pyramid Harbor, Alaska. 
Lomsria Spioant Desveaaz. Sitka, Alaska. 
Pbegopterif BryopteriB, Fee. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 
Phegopterii polypoidei Fee. Bartlett Bay, Alaska. 
Polypodiom faloatiim Kellogg. Eillisnoir Island, Alaska. 
Polypodium vnlgare L. Killisnow Island. 
Pteris aqnilina L. Victoria, B. C. Fort Wrangel, Alaska. 

LYCOPODIACEiB. 

Lyoopodiua annotiiLiiiii L. Killisnow Island, Alaska. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 97 



H0TE8 OH SPECIES OF FISHES IMPBOPERLY ASCRIBED TO THE FAUNA 

OF NORTH AMEBICA. 

BY DAVID S. JORDAN. 

The study of the geographical description of species is impos- 
sible without a correct knowledge of the species themselves and 
of the localities whence specimens have been obtained. Every 
attempt at generalization in this field has been more or less 
vitiated by errors of identification or errors as to locality. No 
accident, unfortunately, is more common in museums, or in private 
collections, than the mixing of specimens from different localities, 
and the false records arising from such confusion have a wonder- 
ful vitality. The early writers in sj'^stematic zoology had no con- 
ception of the problems of geographical distribution, and many 
modem writers have a very low estimate of the importance of 
accuracy in that regard. 

It is certain that numerous species of fishes have been ascribed 
on erroneous information to the waters of the United States, by 
writers of authority. Such species should of course be dropped 
from the lists. Nor should any species be retained in regard to 
which any serious doubt exists. It is manifestly better that a 
chance visitor to our shores should be erroneously omitted, than 
that a species which has never been taken should be improperly 
inserted. 

I give here the names of 35 species which should, in my opinion, 
be dropped from our lists of species inhabiting the waters of 
North America, north of the Tropic of Cancer. Most of these 
are admitted in Jordan and Gilbert's Synopsis of the Fishes of 
North America, but many of them are repudiated in the addenda 
to this work. I omit several species already expunged by earlier 
writers, and include only those which have lately had some degree 
of currency. I divide these into two series, as to whether the 
error is one as to locality or as to identification. 

a. Species erroneously recorded as to locality. 

1. Csrohariai iiodon Mtlller and Henle. 

Originally described from a specimen from unknown locality 
collected by Milbert. As Milbert made some collections in New 
York, it has been assumed that this specimen came from New 
York, and that Mitchill's Squalus punctatus is the same species. 



98 PB00EKDING8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

But Mitchill's shark was probably the Garcharias terrs^nfyvae of 
Richardson, and no recent collector has found C. iscdon on our 
coasts. 

2 Carohsrisi punotstiii (Mitcb.). 

Described by Richardson as C. terraB-navas, from a specimen 
brought by Audubon from Newfoundland. Scorpaena hufo C. and 
V. (= S. plumieri Bloch) and Malthe cubifrons Rich. (== M. 
vespertilio, var. radiata Mitch.) were in the same collection. 
Audubon collected in Southern Florida also: his accuracy in 
regard to localities is not above suspicion, and the three species 
in question belong to the fauna of the Florida Coast. There is 
not the slightest probability that anj' of the three came from the 
northern coast. 

2t. Dulei auriga Onv. oDd Val. 

A South American fish, introduced in our lists by De Kay, from 
a specimen seen " several years ago in the collection of Mr. 
Hamilton, who informed me that it had been taken in the harbor 
of New Yoik." This is not probable. 

4. FarantMai furoifar (Cn^. and Val.). 

{Brachyrhinvs ereolus [C. and V.] Gill.) 
Described by De Kay under the name of Corvina oxypiera, 
from an old specimen in the cabinet of the New York Lyceum, 
" obtained from the adjacent coast." The specimen was probably 
from the West Indies, where the species is not uncommon. 

5. Epinepkelm niveatui Cu^. and Val. 

A young specimen belonging (according to Goode and Bean) 
to this species, was described by Professor Gill (Proc. Ac. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1861, 98) under the name of Hyporthodus Jlavicauda. 
Tbis specimen belonged to a collection sent to the Academy at 
Philadelphia by Mr. Samuel Powell, of Newport, Rhode Island. 
A list of this collection is given by Professor Cope (Proc. Ac. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1870, 118). Eleven species are included in it. 
All are represented by young specimens, which had probably 
not strayed far from the place where they were hatched. All of 
them are of tropical types ; six of them have not since been found 
in the United States, and only two (Garanx setipinnis Mitch. = 
Vomer curtus Cope, and Pseudopriacanthus alius Gill) have since 
been seen on the New England Coast ; while three others (Hemi- 



1884.] NATURAL SCIBNCBS OF PHILADELPHIA. 99 

rhamphus unifasciatus Kanz., Glyphidodon saxaiUis L., and 
Tetrodon testudineus L.) are found on our Florida Coast. 

Certainly it is very improbable that this collection was made 
at Newport, and I think that until good evidence appears that 
such was the case, the entire list should be erased. 

6. Polyprion americanni (Bloch and Schneider). 

{Polyprion eemium Val.) 
Dr. Day sa^^s (Fish. Qt. Britain, etc., p. 1*1) of this species: 
" Forster recorded it from Queen Charlotte's Island on the 
Western shore of North America." The " Queen Charlotte's 
Island " referred to by Forster, lies, if I am not mistaken, in the 
fleighborhood of New Zealand, and his Perca prognatha or 
^pinephelus oxygenios Bloch and Schneider is probably a species 
of Stereolepis ; at any rate, not a Polyprion ; P, americanus^ how- 
ever, has been taken in deep water off our Atlantic Coast. 

7. Bhyptioni nigripinnit (^ill. 

[Promicropterus deeoratus Gill. ) 
A species belonging to the Pacific Coast of Tropical America. 
A specimen in the Powell collection above noticed, was identified 
with it by Professor Cope. 

P. Apcg^n amerioaniii (Cnstelnau). 

A specimen in the Powell collection was identified with this 
species by Professor Cope. Castelnau's type came from South 
America. It was very imperfectly described and is in bad con- 
dition. Yaillant and Bocourt have identified the specimen some- 
•what doubtfully with Apogan doviij a Panama species; what 
Professor Cope had is therefore very doubtful. 
9. GhsBtodon maouloeinotiit (Oill). 

Described from a very young fish in the Powell collection, and 
not since recognized. 

IQ. SeorpsBna poroni L. 

A specimen in the Museum at Paris, said to have been brought 
by Milbert from New York, which is very improbable. 

11. Trigla oaealm L. 

A specimen in Paris, collected b}'^ Milbert with the preceding 
species. Both belong to the fauna of Southern Europe. 

12. Balist^s powelli C'^pe. 

Described from the Powell collection ; perhaps a young specimen 
of Balistes caroUnensis Gmelin (= B, capriscus Gmelin). 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AOABEBft OF [1884. 

13. Tetrodon triohoeephslni Cope. 

Described from the Powell collection ; not since recognized. 

14. Banssnia tmnoata (Retz). 

Given in Jordan and Gilbert's Synopsis Fish. N. A. as " occa- 
sional off our Atlantic Coast," The specimen in question came 
from the Bermudas. 

b. Species admitted through erroneous identifications. 

1. Oalem galem (L.). 

Recorded from California by Dr. GUnther and later by Jordan 
and Gilbert. Our specimens are since recognized as belonging to 
a distinct species, G. zyopterus J. and G. 

2. Carohariai pluxnbeai Nard). 

( Carcharias mUberti Val.) 

One of the types of Carcharias milberti Yal. came from 
Milbert's collection, " New York." The others were from the 
Mediterranean and belongs to the previously described G, plum- 
beus. Milbert's specimen was probably either C. cceruleus^ or 
else from some other locality. In any event, G. milberti Val. 
should not have a place in our lists. 

3. Carohariai lam'a Risso. 

First ascribed to our fauna bv Putnam, from a tooth found on 
St. George's Banks; afterwards by Jordan and Gilbert from 
specimens taken at San Diego, California. The latter belong to 
distinct species (G. lamiella J. and G.). The species, however, 
occurs in abundance about the Florida Keys, and it should be 
retained in our lists. 

4. Isunis glauoni Mtlller and Henle. 

Our fish does not agree well with MUller and Henle 's account 
of the East Indian glaucus. It is probably distinct and should 
stand as /. dekayi Gill. ^ 

5. Iinmi ipoUaiUiani Rar. 

Certainly not yet positively known from our coast. De Kay's 
Lamna punctata is Isurus dekayi, Storer's Lamna punctata is 
Lamna comubica. 

6. Heptranohiai indiom (Cuvier). 

The Califomian species, H. maculatus Ayres, has been erro- 
neously confounded with this East Indian shark. 



1884.] NATUBAL SCIENOES OP PHILADELPHIA. 101 

7. Priitif prif Ui (L.). 

There is no evidence of the occurrence of this species (P. anti- 
quorum Latham) in American waters. All Atlantic specimens 
studied belong to P. pectinatus Latham ; those from Panama to 
P. perroteti Val. 

8. Lepidoitens triitceohm (Bloch). 

Our Alligator Gar appears to be somewhat different from this 
Cuban species. Its oldest name is Lepidosteus spatula Lac. 

9. XursBna afra Bloob. 

The American species thus called by Giinther and by Jordan 
and Gilbert does not appear to be identical with the African 
species called Gymnothorax afer by Bloch, which is described as 
" brunneo alboque marmorato." Our species should apparently 
stand as Muraena funebris (Ranzani). Muraena infemalis Poey 
is the same species. 

10. Ophioktliyf pnnoUfer Eaap. 

The specimens from Pensacola recorded as 0. punctifer or 
mordax Poey, belong to the species called Ophichthys nchneideri 
by Steindachner. Possibly all three are identical. 

11. BphyrsBiia iphyrena (L.). 

Our small Northern Barracuda has been identified with this 
European species (Sphyraena spet Lac.) by Giinther and later by 
Jordan and Gilbert. It is, however, I think, specifically distinct 
and should stand as Sphyraena horealis DeKay, as has been 
already indicated by Goode and Bean, and by Meek and New- 
land. 

12. Traohynotus goreenBis Cuy. and Val. 

The large pompano or " permit " of the Florida Keys and West 
Indies has been identified by Goode and Bean, following Dr. 
Giinther, with the African fish indicated as Trachynotus yoreensis^ 
by Cuvier and Valenciennes. There is, however, little reason for 
thinking this identification correct. On the other hand thiB young 
of the American " Permit " have been described by Professor 
Gill under the names Trachynotus rhodopus and Trachynotus 
nasutus. It should therefore stand as Trachynotus rhodopus^ 
as lately noted by Meek and Goss. Trachynotus carolinus of 
Poey's memoirs is T, rhodopus, T. kennedyi Steindachner is a 
different species. 



102 PBOOEKDINOS OV THE AGADEXT OV [1884. 

13. CorjTflunuL eqniietU L. 

All the dolphins thus far definitely known from oar coast, 
under whatever names described, belong to Coryphxna hippurus 
L. The occurrence of C, equisetis is yet to be proven, although 
not improbable. 

14. Epinaphelu aeutiroitrii (Car. and Val.). 

It is probable that the specimen of this species, mentioned 
by Cuvier and Yalenciennes as having been sent to Paris from 
Charleston by Holbrook, belongs to Epinephelus microlepis 
(Goode and Bean). This species differs from E, acutirostris in 
the much smaller scales, as well as in other respects. The speci- 
mens in the National Museum called Irisotropis brunneus Poey, 
by Goode and Bean, and afterwards made the types of Trisotropis 
stomias Goode and Bean, belong also to E. microlepis. The real 
Trisotropis brunneus Poey abounds, however, about the Florida 
reefs. 

15. SclsBiia Btellifera (Blocb). 

Scisena lanceolata (Holbrook), the species found on our Carolina 
coast, is not identical with either the Sc, siellifera (or trispinosa) 
of Giinther or of Steindachner. What species is the original of 
Bloch is certainly doubtful, as at least nine species of this type 
(" Stelliferus ") occur in the waters of Tropical America, and 
Bloch 's specimen was said to have come from Africa. 

16. HolaoanthiiB trioolor Blooh. 

Inserted by Jordan and Gilbert (Synopsis, p. 941) as from the 
Florida Keys, on the statement of a collector. The specimens in 
question belong to Pomacanthus aureus. 

17. Pomsosntliiii aronatai L. 

The specimen in the National Museum from Garden Key 
Florida, referred to this species, belong to Pomacanthus aureus 
(Bloch). The latter species is abundant about the Florida Keys, 
but P. arcuatus is yet to be taken in our waters. 

18. Aoantlkiirai pUebotomns Cut. and Val. 

This is another species sent from New York to Paris, by that 
remarkable collector, Milbert. It is a West Indian species, not 
yet known from our coasts, unless it be identical with A. chirur- 
guSy which is probable. The original Chaetodon nigricans of 
L. was based on an old world specimen, and neither this nor any 
other American species should be called Acanthvrus nigricans. 



1884,] 



HATU&AI. BdKBKafiB OF PHILAPKI^HJJL 



W4 



•nieaiilT 
Amenam 

19. Crtta 

This specie 
iceunUiic to 



of Acanihuriu yet definitelj kiiown from IJIm; 
are A^ chirurgus^ A. ira/Aui and A- cfi^uX^M^ 




\a& lieen afieribed to tbe Ikaitt of (freexihoid. t^ut^ 
Tihfa»a^ it hafi not ret been found ixi tiisd i^^xl 



U> GT«3lia&d.X 4^JU'//HikJi hA'jf^h K3iv;ii|r 



loriL 







» 



t fr 




r-I^ 1** ? '^Ir^l 1 ICt l:ifr»^'.r^ i#x ^^ 




I*tS 



.^«» 



kS •^. . - ,^ »^ • •^^^ «k lap » 




» : - --=:-. T" .^.-: 







— -> 






104 FBOCEEDINQS OF THB AOADEBfT OF [1884. 



VOTES OH tsbhabt shells. 

BT OTTO MEYER. 

In the Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila., 
1879, pp. 217-226, A. Heilprin gave in an essay, well worthy of 
perasal,a review of those species of the American Tertiary which 
had been hitherto compared and identified with European ones, 
and then identifies the following : ^ — 

Gardita imbricata Lam. = Gardita rotunda Lea. 

Gardita planicosta Lam. = Gardita planicosta Lam. (Conr.). 

Gorbia lamellosa Lam. = Corhis lirata Conr. 

Trochita trochi/ormis Lam, = Trochita trochi/ormia Lea. 

Gyprsea elegans Defr. = Gypraedia fenestralis Conr. 

Actseon simulatus Sow. = Tornatella hella Conr. 

Niso terehellatuB Lam. = Pasithea umbilicata Lea. 

I have seen and examined many American species in the 
museums of New York and New Haven, but my observations are 
chiefly derived from material of my own collection, consisting of 
several hundred German Oligocene species in addition to numerous 

^ Here are omitted all identifications, where Heilprin has any doubt, or 
which are not obtained by a direct comparison of specimens ; of such are 
the following: — 

Osirea divaricata Lea, compared with Ostrea flabellula Lam. 
Pecten Deshayesi Lea, '* '* Peeten opercularis Lam. 

Cardium Nicolleti Conr., ** ** Cardium semigranulatum Sow. 

Corbula onUeus Conr., ** ** Corhula rugosa Lam. 

Cyliehna galha Conr., " " Bulla Brocehi Bronn. 

Tornatella pomilia Conr., " " Tornatella inflata F^russ. 

Pyrula penita Conr., " ** Pyrula nexUis Lam. 

CanceUaria tortiplica Conr., compared with Caricellaria etniUa Brand. 
Sigaretus declivus Conr., ) ^^ ^ f Sigaretus canaliculatus 

Sigaretus bilix Conr., f \ Sow 

Sola/rium omatum Lea, compared with Solarium canalieulatum Lam. 
Pleurotoma nodo earinata Gabb, compared with Pleurotoma denticula 

Bast. 
Mesostoma rugosa Heilpr., compared with Mesostoma grata Desh. 
Melania Olaibomensii Heilpr., '* *' Melania mixta Desh. 



1884.] NATITBAL SCISNGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 105 

AmericaD ones. From these examinations I have been able to 
identify the following additional species i — 

1. C«>ritliinm trilineatnm Phil. 

? 1832. Cerithium turellum Grat. 

Grateloup, 'labl. des Coq. foss. du bassin de PAd. Act. Linn., v, 5. 
p. 277. 
1886. Cerithium trilineatum Phil. 

R. A. Philippi, Bnumeratio moUuscorum Sicilian, etc., vol. i, p. 195, 
tab. 11, fig. 13. 

1840. Cerithium ten bratiB Ad. 

C. B. Adams, Descr. of thirteen new spec, of New England shells. 
Boston Journ. Kat. Hist., vol. iii, p. 320, tab. 8, fig. 7. 

1841. Terebra constricta H. C. Lea. 

H. C. Lea, Descr. of some new spec, of foss. shells from the Eocene of 
Claiborne, Ala.; Am. Journ. Sc a. Arts, vol. xi, p. 100, tab. 1, fig. 
18, read Oct. 1840, publ. 1841. 
1843. Cerithium trilineatum Fhil. 

Philippi, Beitr. z. Kenntn. d. Tertiaerverstein. d. nordwestl. Deutsch*- 
lands, p. 23, p. 56, p. 75. 
1848 Cerithium trilineatum Phil. 

Wood, Crag Mollusca, vol. i, p. 70, tab. 8, fig. 4^. 
1856. Cerithium trilineatum Phil. 

Hoemes, fossil. Moll. d« Tertiaerbeck. v. Wien, vol. i, p. 413, tab. 43, 
fig. 19. 
1864. Cerithium trilineatum Phil. 

Speyer, Tertiaerfaiina ▼. SooMngen, Palodontographica, vol. ix, p. 32. 

1866. Cerithium mundulum Desh. 

Deshayes, Anim. s. verteb. du bassin de Paris, vol. iii, p* 222, tab. 79, 
fig. 31, 32. 

1867. Cerithium Sandbergeri (y Eoenen nonDesh.). 

v. Koenen, Marine Mitteloligoc»n v. Norddeutschland, Fa^SBontogr., 
xvi, p. 104. 
1883. Cerithium Sandbergeri (Meyer non Desh.). 

O Meyer. Beitr. z. Kenntn. der Maerk. Rupelthons, Ber. d. Senckenb. 
Naturforsch. Ges., Frankfurt a. M., 1882-1883, p. 26K 
1883. Cerithium Meyiri (Boettg. ) [no description given]. 

Lepsins, Mainzer Becken, p. 50. 
1883. Cerithiopsis Heyeri Boettg.; n, tp, 

Archiv des Vereins der Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklenburg, 
1883, p. 247. 
Terebra trUirata Conrad. When and where ? 

Having seen Cerithium trilineatum Phil, occurring in the 
European and American older and newer Tertiary, as well as in 
the Mediterranean, I sought for it among the recent shells of the 
American Eastern coast, and have received, through the kindness 

"8 



106 PAOOEEDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

of Professor Verrill, specimens of Cer, terebralis Ad., which 
species was the looked-for identical one. 

The description and figure of Terehra constricta H. C. Lea are 
poor, but there is no doubt about this determination of my 
specimens from Claiborne, which are quite identical with the 
German ones. 

Among the synonyma, Cer. mundulum Desh. is given, although 
I have no specimens of this species ; but I cannot find any differ- 
ence to distinguish it from the figure and description given by 
Deshayes of Cer. trilineatum, andj as such a competent observer 
as Speyer has said the same, I do not think I have made a 
mistake. 

Cer, trilineatum occurs in the American Miocene. I received 
one specimen of it labeled : " Terebra trilirata Conr.," but I 
could not find this name in any of Conrad's papers. Professor 
Heilprin writes to me : "Possibly it is one of the numerous forms 
that Conrad named without description." 

If Cer, trilineatum Phil, should be identical with Cer, turellum 
Qrac, of which I have no specimens, the latter name would have 
the priority. 

Cer. trilineatum Phil, is generally distributed in the older and 
later Tertiary and also at the present time on both sides of the 
Atlantic. 

2. Pleurotoma deotionla Bast* ' 

1825. Basterot, Descr. Geol. du bassin t«rt. sad-ouest de la France, p. 63, 

tab. 8» fig. 12. 
1833. Pleurotoma Baumonti Lea. 

I. Lea, Contrib« to Geology, p. 184, tab. 4, fig. 127. 
1844. Pleurotoma dentieula Bast. 

Nyst. Descr. des. Coq. foss. de la Belg., p. 526, tab. 44, fig. 2. 

1860. Turris nodo-earinata Gabb, fide Heilpr. 

Gabb, Descr. of new spec, of Am^ Tert. a. Cret. foss. ; Joum. Ac. Kat 
Sc. Philad., vol. iv, 2d series, p. 379, tab. 67, fig. 13. 

1861. Pleurotoma dentieula Bast. 

Edwards, Monogr. of Brit. Eocene^ p. 286, tab. 30, fig. 7 a~h. 
1867. Pleurotoma dentieula Bast« 

V. Koenen, Mar. Mitteloligocsen, p. 89* 
1879. Pleurotoma dentieula Bast« 

Heilprin, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philad., p. 214, tab. 13, fig. 10. 

The last named author writes that he found Pleur. dentieula Bast, 
in Claiborne sand. He figures a specimen without the upper part 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 107 

of the spire and determined this species from descriptions and 
figures of European specimens. It is here only necessary to say 
that I concur in Heilprin's determination after liaving compared 
perfect shells from Claiborne with perfect German ones (Stern- 
berger Oligocene). In my opinion a direct comparison of specimens 
is conditio sine qua non in the identification of species from both 
sides of the Atlantic. 

The Claiborne specimens are apparently Fleur. Baumonti Lea, 
but the name of Basterot has the priority. 

Fleur, denticula Bast., which occurs also in Italy, seems to be 
widely spread in the Tertiary. 

3. Flenratoma Volgeri Phil. 

? 1804. Fleurotoma terebralis Lamarck. 

Deshayes, Coq. foss. 1824<37, vol. ii, p. 455, tab. 62, fig. 14>16. 

1846. PUurotoma Volgeri V\i\\, 

PhilippifVerzeich. d. in d. Geg. ▼. Magdeburg aufgef. Tertiaerverstein., 
PalsBontographica, 1, Aug. 1846, p. 69, tab. 10 a, fig. 2. 

1847. Fleurotoma eriatata Conr. 

Conrad, Proc. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philad., iii, p. 284 (no figure). 

1848. Fleurotoma cristata Conr. 

Conrad, Joum. Ac. Nat. 8c. Philad., i, 2d series, p. 115, tab. 11, 
fig. 20. 
1860. Turr%9 cristata Conr. 

Gabb, Jouro. Ac. Nat. Sc. Philad., vol. ix, 2d series, p. 378, tab. 67, 
fig. 12, uon fig. 8. 
? 1861. Fleurotoma Volgeri Phil. 

Edwards, Monogr. of the Eocene Moll, of England, p. 275, tab. 80, 
fig. 15 a, h, non fig. 13. (Publ. Paleontogr. Soo. London, issued as 
volume for 1858, pabl. 1861.) 
?186l. Fleurotoma terebralis Lsaa. 

Edwards, ibid., p. 238, tab. 27, fig. 10 a-k. 
1865. CoeMespira engonata Conr. 

Conrad, Am. Joum. of Conchology, i, p. 142, figure in the same volume, 
tab. 21, fig. 12. 
1865. CoeMespira hella Conr. 

Conrad, ibid., p. 210, tab. 21, fig. 6. 
1867. Fleurotoma Volgeri Phil. 

V. Koenen, Mar. Mitteloligocaan, Palsentog^., xvi, p. 93. 
1867. Fleurotoma Volgeri Phil. 

Speyer, Conchyl. d. Casseler Tertiaers, Palssontog^., xvi, p. 193, tab. 
19, fig. 12 a, b, 
1872. Fleurotoma terebralis Lam. 

Koch und Wiechmann, Die Molluskenfauna des Stembeiger Qestelns 
in Mecklenburg, p. 66. 



108 PROCEHDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

With the German specimens of the Maerkische Rupelthon and 
the Sternberger Oligocene, two specimens from Ashley, S. C, 
one from the upper strata of Claiborne (which are apparently 
Oligocene), and one specimen of typical FleuroL cristata Conr. 
from Vicksburg were compared. The latter was obtained, for 
comparison through the kindness of Professor Heilprin of Phila- 
delphia. 

Both German and American forms vary in slenderness ; Coch- 
lespira engonata Conr. is apparently one of the shorter speci- 
mens. In the Ameiican forms the number and sculpture of the 
revolving lines seem to be generally more developed, but these 
vary too. Conrad sa3'S : " Cochlesp, bella differs from C. cristata 
in having fewer and coarser lines and a more prominent carina." 

What Edwards figures as Fieur. Volgeri Phil, looks quite 
different. Much more like seems to be his PL terebralis Lam., 
of which he describes six varieties. The opinions of the German 
authors as to the identity of P. Volgeri Phila. and P. terebralis 
Lam. are varying. I am greatly inclined toward uniting them, 
but for want of sufficient material prefer withholding a positive 
opinion on this point. 

4. Saxioava srotioa L. 

1766. My a aretica L. . 

Linn., Syst. Nat. ed. 12, p. 1113. 

1886. Saxieava aretica L. ^ 

Philippi, Snum. Mollusc. Sicil., etc., i, p. 20, tab. 3, fig. 8. 

1888. Saxicava bilineata Cour. 

Conrad, Medial Tertiary or Miocene fossils of the U. 8., p. 18, tab. 10, 
fig.,4. 

1844. Saxieava aretica L. 

Nyst., Coq. foss. Bei;r., p* 95, tab. 3, fig. 15 a-e, 

1846. Saxieava aretica L. 

Lov^n, Ind. moll. Scand., p. 40. 

1848. Saxieava aretica L. 

B. V. Wood, Crag. Moll., ii, p. 287, tab. 29, fig. 4 a, 6. 

1856. Saxieava aretica L. 

Hoemes, Wiener Beckeu, p. 24, tab. 3, fig. 1, 8, 4. 

? 1860. Saxieava Jeurensis Desh. 

Deshayes, Anim. s. vei-teb., i, p. 170, tab. 10, fig. 18, 19, 20« 

1863. Saxieava bierisiata Sandb. 

Sandberger, Conchyl. d. Mainzer Beckens, p. 277, tab. 21, fig. 6. 



4 

1884.] NATUBAL SGIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 109 

1864. Saxicava bicrUtata Sandb. 

Speyer, Tertiaerfauna v. SooUingen, PalsBUitogr., ix, p. 48. 

1867. Saxicava arctica L. 

Weinkauff, Conch yl. d. Mittelmceros, i, p. 20. 

1868. Saxicava arctica L. 

▼. Koenen, Marin. MitteloligocsBn, 2d part, Palseontogr., xvi, p. 26t{. 

Two specimens of Saxicava bilineata Conr, from the American 
Miocene prove to be the same \ ariet}' as S. bicristata Sandb. 

Wood has already said in 1848 (Crag. Moll. p. 288) : ^^ Saxicava 
bilineata Conr. is probably another variety of this species " 
{S, arctica), 

I cannot see in the figure of S, Jeurensis Desh. any diflfereuce 
from our species. Y. Koenen seems to be of the same opinion. 

Saxicava arctica L. seems to be generally distributed in the 
older and later Tertiary and in the present time on both sides of 
the Atlantic. 

New species were found by me in Claiborne sand, belonging to 
the American Museum of Natural History in New York, and 
which had been examined several times before. Afterwards I re- 
ceived sand from Claiborne myself and found most of these species 
again, as well as others that are new. Only the three following 
species, however, are published here, chiefly because the state of 
the literature on North American Tertiary invertebrates makes 
it almost impossible to determine with certainty new species and 
to find and to describe the differences from similar forms, already 
named.* 



* In White's Bibliography there are given nearly seventy papers of the 
main author of this literature, T. A. Conrad, containing notes on American 
Tertiary mollusks ; anil even this littt is not complete. Coni'ad's description 
and figures ai*e mostly poor or very poor. He published a great many 
fossils without figures, many without localities, and not a few without 
giving even the formation ; I have also found one without a name (Proc. 
Ac. Phil., 1862, p. 288). In his two check-lists of the plder Tertiary 
(1865 and 1866) be ignores the species of H. C. Lea, and does not 
give an account even of all bis own. Having a tendency to describe a 
variety as a new species and a species as a new genus, he found, of course, 
that not only the Miocene species are all different from the Eocene ones, 
but that even the groups of the Am. Eocene "hold few, if any, species in 
common." 



I 



110 



FROOEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[1884. 



I 




........ o 



FTEBOFODA. 

Tibiella Xarihi (nov» gen, et nov. spec.)* 

Shell thin, tubalar. The closed end little convex. The lower 

part, about one third of the whole length, of 
a circular section, then by tapering a little 

O forming a kind of a neck, above which the 
shell is of a rounded trigonal section. Aper- 
ture dilated. 
Length, 3^ mm. 

Locality. — Eocene sand from Claiborne, 
Ala. 

Remarks. — If the figured specimen is adult, 
in the young ones the apex may be perhaps 
acute and afterwards partitioned off, as in the genus Triptera 
Quoy et Gaimard ( Guviera Rang). 

This genus is allied to Tihiella^2i.n^ the latter is perhaps a sub- 
genus of the former. 

Pteropoda are described from the Miocene and Oligocene, but 
as far as I am acquainted with the literature this is the first 
Pteropod from the Eocene. 

OFISTHOBRANCHIATiB. 

Bulla biumbilieata (nov. sp.). 

Shell small , moderately thick, oval, the upper end obliquely 
truncated and umbilicated, the lower end somewhat tapering. 

Last whorl most prominent at about one- 
third of the whole length. Outer lip? Inner 
lip below with a large trigonal thin callus, 
which covers a minute umbilicus. Surface 
with revolving lines, disappearing at both 
ends and generally most distant from each 
other at about the middle of the shell. A 
strong magnifying glass shows that these 
lines are furrows, looking like pearl-ribbons, 
which structure causes the surface to look 
at some places as if it were minutely longitudinally costated. 
Length, 2J mm. 




* Genus name from the resemblance to the tibia of mammals. This 
species is dedicated to Professor Marsh, who enabled me to work by sup-, 
plying me from his library with a large part of the necessary literature, 
which I could not get elsewhere. 



1884.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 



Ill 



Locality, — Eocene sand from Claiborne, Ala. 

Remarks. — One specimen, the outer lip of which is not quite 
perfect. 

An allied form seems to be Bulla Horni Gabb, of Fort T^jon, 
Cal. (Gabb, Paleontology of California, vol. i, 1864, p. 143 [non 
p. 140], tab. 29, fig. 235), but this species is larger, thin, has no 
callus and seems to differ besides in form and sculpture. Gabb 
says : " Surface marked by numerous, very fine, impressed re- 
volving lines." 

Very similar is Bulla ovulata Lam. (Deshayes, Coq. foss. des 
env. de Paris, vol. ii, p. 39, tab. 6, fig. 13, 14, 15), but without 
callus. 

Bulla subspissa Conr. (Proc. Ac. Philad., vol. iii, 1846, p. 20, 
tab. 1, fig. 29) from the Miocene of Calvert Cliffs, Md., seems to 
be of smooth surface; at least Conrad does not say anything 
about sculpture. 

I cannot give the differences from Bulla petrosa Conr. (Am. 
Journ. Sc. a. Arts, vol. ii, 2d scries, 1846, p. 399), as Conrad's full 
description of this shell is the following : — 

" Bulla petrosa. — Oval, destitute of striae ?, summit oblique." 

GASTEROPODA. 

Cadalnf depreuut (no v. sp.). 

Smooth, shining, gently curved, inflation not very prominent. 
Section everywhere an oval, one side of 
which is a little flatter than the other. 
Both ends oblique. 

Length, 7 mm. 

Locality, — Eocene sand from Claiborne, , 

Ala. f (2) 

Remarks, — The aperture of the figured 
specimen is not perfect, but I know that 
it is of the form indicated in the figure, 
from other specimens. I have seen alto- 
gether about k dozen specimens, and all 
are everywhere of the same oval section. 

There are to be compared three North 
American species of Cadulus : — 

1. Gadus pusillus Gabb, of the Tdjon grdup, Martinez, Cal. 
[Cretaceous or Tertiary ?] (Gabb, Paleont. of Cal., vol. i, 1864, 
p. 139, tab. 21, fig. 99). Gabb says : " section circular." 





112 PaOCEEDINQB OF THE ACADEMY OF [1881 

2. Dentalium thallus Conr., of the Miocene of the Southern States 
(Journ. Ac. Nat. Sc Philad., vol. vii, Ist series, 1834, p. 142). The 
specimens, of this species in my possession have a circular section, 
except at the aperture, where they are oval. It is the opinion of 
ProfessorVerrill and of myself, that Cadulus Pandionis Verrill and 
Smith (A. E. Verrill, Catal. of Mar. Moll., Transact. Connect. Ac, 
vol. V, part. 2, 1882, p. 558, tab. 58, fig. 30 a) of the western part 
of the Atlantic is identical with this Cadulus thallus Conr., 
although the latter form has the aperture generally a little more 
oval. If Jeffreys is right (J. G. Jeffreys, " On the Moll, of the 
Lightning and Porcupine expedition," part v) in uniting Cadulus 
Pandionis Verrill and Smith, with Cadulvs Olivi Scacchi from 
the Pliocene of Sicily, it would result that both late Tertiary 
species are also identical, and this would be one more instance 
of a Tertiary species occurring on both sides of the Atlantic. 

3. Ditrupa subcoarcuata Gabb, Eocene of Texas (Journ. Ac. 
Nat. Sc. Philad., vol. ix, 2d series, 1860, p. 386, tab. 67, fig. 4T). 
The description of Gabb is the following : " Arcuate, widened in 
advance of the middle; aperture contracted, circular; surface 
polished." As Gabb does not say ai^y thing about an oval section, 
but on the contrary writes ** aperture circular," it is apparently a 
different species. 



1884.] NATURAL 60IBNGE8 OF PHUiABSLT^HIA. 113 



April 1. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-one persons present. 

A p.^ per entitled " A Review of the American species of the 
Genus Trachynotus," by Seth E. Meek and David K. Goss, was 
presented for publication. 



Aprtl 8. 

Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Seventj^-three persons present. 

A paper entitled " Descriptions of new species of Terrestrial 
Mollusca of Cuba," by Rafael Arango, was presented for publica- 
tion. 

Dr. Daniel G. Brinton was inaugurated as Professor of Eth- 
nology and Archaeology, and delivered a lecture on " Prehistoric 
Man in America." 



April 16. 

Mr. Chas. p. Perot in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

A paper entitled "A Review of the American species of the 
Genus Synod us," by Seth B. Meek, was presented for publication. 

On the Process of Digestion in Salpa. — Dr. Ch. S. Dolley 
remarked that preliminary to giving the full results of a some- 
what extended study of the histology of Salpa, he desired to make 
a few remarks in reference to certain statements recently made 
by Dr. A. Korotneff of Moscow,^ which he considered erroneous 
in so far as they indicate the presence of a huge amceboid cell or 
Plasmodium, in the oesophagus and stomach of Salpa, functioning 
as a digestive organ. Dr. Korotneff describes this cell as arising 
from the repeated division of a single cell which early in the life- 
history of the animal is separated from the intestinal wall. This 
giant-cell or Plasmodium, acting like a huge rhizopod, carries on 

^ ITeber die Knospung der Anehinia in Zeitschr. 1 wiss. Zooloffie. Bd. 40, 
HfL 1,1884. 



114 PROGEEDINQS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

a form of parenchymatous digestion of the food taken by the 
animal, passing the resulting chyle into the walls of the intestine 
by means of its pseudopodia. Now by reference to an article by 
Metschnikoff " On Intracellular Digestion in Invertebrates " (in 
the Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science for January, 1884), 
it will be seen that such a form as KorotneflT describes has never 
been met with, and his description stands alone and anomalous, 
both as regards the situation and size of the digestive plasmodium, 
and as to the method of its formation, for in all cases in which 
such structures have been found in invertebrates, they have 
always arisen by the fusion of separate cells, not from the 
repeated division of one cell. In a large number of series 
of sections made by the new *' ribbon " method, the speaker was 
not only unable to find " the lumen obliterated " by the peculiar 
structure of the wall of the intestine described by Korotneff, but 
in a model of the visceral nucleus made after Born's " platten- 
modillir method" the lumen of the entire intestinal canal is shown 
to be completely Iree throughout. He did, however, get sections 
which gave pictures almost identical with those portrayed by 
Korotneff, i, e. the lumen filled with what he describes as a large 
nucleated granular cell, containing various food particles, and be 
could trace this so-called " cell," not only back into " the portion 
of the intestine lying next to the stomach," but through the 
rectum into the cloacal chamber, and through the oesophagus 
into the branchial sac. He accounts for it as follows : The endo- 
style of Salpa has been very carefully studied by Hermann Fol, 
who demonstrated, by means of carmine suspended in water, that 
it threw out a constant stream of mucus when excited by the 
presence of nutritive material in the same water, with a reflex 
action like a salivary gland. The mucus is, by an arrangement 
of cilia, spread out like a curtain over the inner surface of the 
branchial sac, when it acts as a means for catching the food 
particles from the ingurgitated water. By the action of ciliary 
bands bordering the groove of the endostyle, the mucus is swept 
towards the oesophagus, and as it approaches this, it is, by means 
of the stiflT cilia on the sides of the gill, twisted into a thread, and 
carried by a continuation of the aforesaid bordering bands, 
through the oesophagus, into the stomach. Now in studying a 
series of sections of a Salpa which had had abundant food, we 
find as we approach the oesophagus a mass of material answering 
to the description of Korotnefl^s " rhizopod." It takes staining 
readily and may be traced backward into and through the oesoph- 
agus, stomach and intestine. As the sections approach the 
rectum, however, the mass gradually ceases to take staining, and 
is much more distinctly marked out from the intestinal wall, 
having had all the organic matter digested out, and consisting 
only of the inorganic remains, which do not stain. The alimen- 
tary matter of.Salpae is composed of animal and vegetal elements 
in nearly equal proportions, and the microscope reveals the* cal- 



1884.] NATX7BJLL SCIENOEB OF PHILADELPHIA. 115 

careous shells'of Foraminifera, the beautifully sculptured frustnles 
of Diatomacese, keen siliceous needles, and the sharp armatures of 
minute Crustacea. 

In the fore-part of the intestinal canal, the food mass, staining 
almost as readily as the wall of the gut itself, seems to merge into 
the ill-defined epithelium of the latter, and it is scarcely possible 
to say where the food-bearing mucous thread ceases and the 
intestinal epithelium begins, especially as this latter has a rugous 
arrangement. That we have here to do with a form of digestion 
entirely'' anomalous and unprecedented, he could not believe, and 
must beg leave to differ from Dr. Korotneff on this point. Fol and 
others have recognized the endostyle as a sort of salivary gland, 
and have traced its foodrladen mucous thread into the stomach of 
the living animal, while the speaker had been able to trace the 
same thing in well-preserved specimens. He had also several 
series of sections from animals which must have been without 
food for some time previous to death, in which the lumen of the 
intestine is not only free of food, but of any obliterating mass of 
cells, or Plasmodium. The only protoplasmic bodies not food, 
are certain Gregarina-like organisms adhering to the walls of 
various parts of the intestine, and which he took to be parasites. 
These give on section the appearance of the large "scattered cells, 
entirely free from t^eir surroundings " which Korotneff figures 
and regards as " analogous to the great stomach-cell of Anchinia,^^ 
The first opportunity would be taken to examine these structures 
in living Salpae, but he was now forced to conclude that Dr. 
Korotneff has endowed the food-bearing mucous thread with a 
power it does not possess, that Salpa does not exhibit any 
unusual form of intracellular digestion, and that there is no im- 
mediate cause on its account for questioning the high genetic 
place occupied by the Tunicates. 

A Preliminary Note on a Reaction common to Peptone and Bile- 
salts. — Dr. N. A. Randolph stated that if the acid nitrate of 
mercury (Millon's reagent) be added to a cold aqueous solution 
of potassium iodide, a red precipitate of mercuric iodide always 
appears. When, however, either peptones or the biliary salts are 
present in noteworthy amount, the precipitate of nascent mercuric 
iodide assumes the yellow phase. As practically applied, the 
red may vary from salmon to scarlet, the yellow from pale 
lemon to orange. 

In order to render the test sensitive to the presence of minute 
quantities of the substances in question, he had found it necessary 
to limit the amount of potassium iodide employed. Thus to each 
five cubic centimetres of the suspected fluid — which must be cold 
and either neutral or faintly acid — are added two drops of a 
saturated solution of potassium iodide, the two liquids being well 
mixed. Four or .five drops of Millon's reagent are now added, the 
contents of the vessel thoroughly stirred or shaken. Under these. 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884;. 

circumstanoes the presence of peptone in amounts of less tlian 
one part in five thousand is readily shown. By the exercise of 
great care in the performance of this test he had been enabled to 
demonstrate the presence of peptone in a solution containing 
but one part of that body in seventeen thousand parts of water. 

The conditions interfering with this reaction are : alkalinity of 
the fluid examined (readily overcome by neutralization) ; heat, 
which has the same influence upon the nascent mercuric iodide as 
have peptone and the bile-salts ; and the presence of certain com- 
pounds, as potassium ferrocyanide, which chemically prevent the 
production of the mercuric iodide. 

* The reaction just described presents certain advantage from the 
fact that it is uninfluenced by the bodies usually found in the 
various organic fluids. It is eflScient in the presence of a twenty 
percent, solution of serum ; the presence of considerable amounts 
of coagulated albumen and of acid-albumen does not interfere with 
the test. The following bodies in moderate amount do not affect 
the reaction : Saliva, Syntonin, Amygdalin, Para-Albuinien, Dias- 
tase, Kreatin, Leucin, Py rosin, Mucic Acid, Glucose, Urea, Uric 
Acid, Nitric, Hydrochloric, Sulphuric and Picric Acids, Glyc- 
erine,' Alcohol, Atropia Sulphate, Pilocarpin Nitrate, Caffeine, 
Sodium Carbonate, Ammonium Oxalate, Sodium Phosphate, and 
Manganese Chloride and Ferric Chloride. 

It is obvious that this reaction is useless to the student as an 
isolated test, inasmuch as it responds to two entirely distinct 
compounds, but its simplicity and striking colorations give it 
very considerable value when employed in corroboration of other 
tests. 

Botanical Notes. — At the meeting of the Botanical Section on 
April 14, Mr. Thomas Meehan made some observations on the 
following topics : — 

Evolution of Heat in Plants. — Referring to some observations 
of Kerner respecting the thawing out of chambers in ice by living 
plants in the Alps of Europe, he confirmed them by observations 
on Eranthis hyemalis made during the past winter. At the end 
of January the plant was in fiower after a few warm days, when a 
driving snow-storm prostrated the little stems, and covered them 
nearly a foot deep, in which condition they remained till earl}' in 
March. After they had been three weeks in this condition, the 
snow was carefully removed, when it was found that the stems 
had become perfectly erect, and a little chamber in the snow had 
been thawed out about each flower-stem. There was, however, no 
other evidence of growth. The few buds which were unopened 
when the snow came, were still unopened when the snow thawed 
away, after five weeks' imprisonment; and the idea conveyed was 
that plants would retain life, without growth, for an indefinite time^ 
when under a low temperature, such as a covering of ice or snow 
afforded. 



1884.] NATUBAL SCIENCES 01* PHILADELPHIA. 117 

Relation of Heat to the Sexes of Flowers, — He referred to his 
former communications to the Academy regarding his discovery 
that the male flowers or male organs of flowers entered on active 
growth at a much lower temperature than excited the female, and 
exhibited catkins and female flowers of the European hazel-nut, 
Gorylus -4 ueZZano, just matured April 15, and which, for the first 
time in several years past, had perfected themselves cotempora- 
neously. This was the first winter for some time that there had 
been a uniform low temperature the whole season. Jn other years 
a few warm days in winter would advance the male flowers so that 
they would mature weeks before the female flowers opened, hence 
the females were generally unfertilized, and there were few or no 
nuts. Under this law it was evident amentaceous plants could 
not abound to any great extent in countries or in localities favor- 
able to bringing forward the male flowers before there was steady 
warmth enough to advance the female. He thought this was 
likely to be the reason why so many coniferous trees under culture 
in the vicinity of Philadelphia bore scarcely any fertile seed in 
their cones — a fact which had often been remarked in connection 
especially with the Norway spruce. The male flowers would 
mature before the female had advanced far enough to be receptive 
of the pollen, 

Specific Differences in Picea nigra — It was regarded as some- 
what difficult to distinguish between the red and black spruces. 
Mr. Meehan exhibited authentic specimens of these and the white 
spruce, and pointed out the persistent character of the cones in 
Picea nigra, to which his attention had been called by Mr. Robt. 
Douglas, of Waukegan, Illinois. They were still attached to the 
branches exhibited. 

The Flowers of Platanus. — Having an opportunity to examine 
a large tree of Platanus occidentalism no exception could be found 
to the rule that the pedicel proceeded from the third node in the 
season's growth. It appeared also that in the formation of the 
pedicel, the growth of the branch was always almost arrested — 
but not sufficiently so but that it seemed to recover and make a 
second growth. In many cases the annual growth was completely 
suppressed, and only a terminal bud was formed just above the 
axis of the pedicel; but in most cases, another or secondary 
growth followed the flrst temporary check and a shoot of several 
nodes would be formed beyond the point of departure of the 
pedicel. The same rule prevailed in Platanus orientalis. 

Variation in Symplocos foetidus. — Mr. Meehan had made it a 
point for some years to take, as opportunity offered, some genus 
of only a single species within a large range of territory, and note 
the variation therein. In this way we could often see a vast 
amount of variation, which could not be started by any hybridi- 
zation with other forms, but which must have been produced by 
some law of evolution within itself. Even though one might 
believe himself to be quite familiar with the skunk cabbage, 



116 PBOOE£DINGS OF THE AOADEMY OF [1884. 

circamstanoes the presence of peptone in amounts of less than 
one part in five thousand is readily shown. By the exercise of 
great care in the performance of this test he had been enabled to 
demonstrate the presence of peptone in a solution containing 
but one part of that body in seventeen thousand parts of water. 

The conditions interfering with this reaction are : alkalinity of 
the fluid examined (readily overcome by neutralization) ; heat, 
which has the same influence upon the nascent mercuric iodide as 
have peptone and the bile-salts ; and the presence of certain com- 
pounds, as potassium ferroc3'anide, which chemically prevent the 
production of the mercuric iodide. 

• The reaction just described presents certain advantage from the 
fact that it is uninfluenced by the bodies usually found in the 
various organic fluids. It is efficient in the presence of a twenty 
percent, solution of serum ; the presence of considerable amounts 
of coagulated albumen and of acid-albumen does not interfere with 
the test. The following bodies in moderate amount do not affect 
the reaction : Saliva, Syntonin, Amygdalin, Para-Albumen, Dias- 
tase, Kreatin, Leucin, Pyrosin, Mucic Acid, Glucose, Urea, Uric 
Acid, Nitric, Hydrochloric, Sulphuric and Picric Acids, Glyc- 
erine, Alcohol, Atropia Sulphate, Pilocarpin Nitrate, Cafl'eine, 
Sodium Carbonate, Ammonium Oxalate, Sodium Phosphate, and 
Manganese Chloride and Ferric Chloride. 

It is obvious that this reaction is useless to the student as an 
isolated test, inasmuch as it responds to two entirely distinct 
compounds, but its simplicity and striking colorations give it 
very considerable value when employed in corroboration of other 
tests. 

Botanical Notes. — At the meeting of the Botanical Section on 
April 1 4, Mr. Thomas Meehan made some obser\^ations on the 
following topics : — 

Evolution of Heat in Plants, — Referring to some observations 
of Kerner respecting the thawing out of chambers in ice by living 
plants in the Alps of Europe, he confirmed them by observations 
on Eranthis hyemalis made during the past winter. At the end 
of January the plant was in flower after a few warm days, when a 
driving snow-storm prostrated the little stems, and covered them 
nearly a foot deep, in which condition they remained till earl}'' in 
March. After they had been three weeks in this condition, the 
snow was carefully removed, when it was found that the stems 
had become perfectly erect, and a little chamber in the snow had 
been thawed out about each flower-stem. There was, however, no 
other evidence of growth. The few buds which were unopened 
when the snow came, were still unopened when the snow thawed 
away, after five weeks' imprisonment; and the idea conveyed was 
that plants would retain life, without growth, for an indefinite time, 
when under a low temperature, such as a covering of ice or snow 
afiTorded. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 117 

Relation of Heat to the Sexes of Flowers. — He referred to his 
former communications to the Academy regarding his discovery 
that the male flowers or male organs of flowers entered on active 
growth at a much lower temperature than excited tbe female, and 
exhibited catkins and female flowers of the European hazel-nut, 
Corylus Avellana, ^ust matured April 15, and which, for tbe first 
time in several years past, had perfected themselves cotempora- 
neously. This was the first winter for some time tliat there had 
been a uniform low temperature the whole season, in other years 
a few warm days in winter would advance the male flowers so that 
they would mature weeks before the female flowers opened, hence 
the females were generally unfertilized, and there were few or no 
nuts. Under this law it was evident amentaceous plants could 
not abound to any great extent in countries or in localities favor- 
able to bringing forward the male flowers before there was steady 
warmth enough to advance the female. He thought this was 
likely to be the reason why so many coniferous trees under culture 
in the vicinity of Philadelphia bore scarcely any fertile seed in 
their cones — ^a fact which had often been remarked in connection 
especially with the Norway spruce. The male flowers would 
mature before the female had advanced far enough to be receptive 
of the pollen, 

Specific Differences in Picea nigra — It was regarded as some- 
-what difficult to distinguish between the red and black spruces. 
Mr. Meehan exhibited authentic specimens of these and the white 
spruce, and pointed out the persistent character of the cones in 
JPicea nigra, to which his attention had been called by Mr. Robt. 
Douglas, of Waukegan, Illinois. They were still attached to the 
1) ranches exhibited. 

The Flowers of Platanus, — Having an opportunity to examine 
a large tree of Platanus occidentalism no exception could be found 
to the rule that the pedicel proceeded from the third node in the 
season's growth. It appeared also that in the formation of the 
pedicel, the growth of the branch was always almost arrested — 
but liot suflaciently so but that it seemed to recover and make a 
second growth. In many cases the annual growth was completely 
suppressed, and only a terminal bud was formed just above the 
axis of the pedicel; but in most cases, another or secondary 
growth followed the first temporary check and a shoot of several 
nodes would be formed beyond the point of departure of the 
pedicel. The same rule prevailed in Platanus orientalis. 

Variation in Symplocos foetidus. — Mr. Meehan had made it a 
point for some years to take, as opportunity offered, some genus 
of only a single species within a large range of territory, and note 
the variation therein. In this way we could often see a vast 
amount of variation, which could not be started by an}'^ hybridi- 
zation with other forms, but which must have been produced by 
some law of evolution within itself. Even though one might 
believe himself to be quite familiar with the skunk cabbage. 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

circunistanoeB the presence of peptone in amounts of less than 
one part in five thousand is readily shown. By the exercise of 
great care in the performance of this test he had been enabled to 
demonstrate the presence of peptone in a solution containing 
but one part of that body in seventeen thousand parts of water. 

The conditions interfering with this reaction are : alkalinity of 
the fluid examined (readily overcome by neutralization) ; heat, 
which has the same influence upon the nascent mercuric iodide as 
have peptone and the bile-salts ; and the presence of certain com- 
pounds, as potassium ferrocj^anide, which chemically prevent the 
production of the mercuric iodide. 

• The reaction just described presents certain advantage from the 
fact that it is uninfluenced by the bodies usually found in the 
various organic fluids. It is efficient in the presence of a twenty 
percent, solution of serum ; the presence of considerable amounts 
of coagulated albumen and of acid-albumen does not interfere with 
the test. The following bodies in moderate amount do not affect 
the reaction : Saliva, Syntonin, Amygdalin, Para-Albumien, Dias- 
tase, Kreatin, Leucin, Pyrosin, Mucic Acid, Glucose, Urea, Uric 
Acid, Nitric, Hydrochloric, Sulphuric and Picric Acids, Glyc- 
erine, Alcohol, Atropia Sulphate, Pilocarpin Nitrate, Caffeine, 
Sodium Carbonate, Ammonium Oxalate, Sodium Phosphate, and 
Manganese Chloride and Ferric Chloride. 

It is obvious that this reaction is useless to the student as an 
isolated test, inasmuch as it responds to two entirely distinct 
compounds, but its simplicity and striking colorations give it 
very considerable value when employed in corroboration of other 
tests. 

Botanical Notes, — At the meeting of the Botanical Section on 
April 14, Mr. Thomas Meehan made some observations on the 
following topics : — 

Evolution of Heat in Plants, — Referring to some observations 
of Kerner respecting the thawing out of chambers in ice by living 
plants in the Alps of Europe, he confirmed them by observations 
on Eranthis hyemalis made during the past winter. At the end 
of January the plant was in flower after a few warm days, when a 
driving snow-storm prostrated the little stems, and covered them 
nearly a foot deep, in which condition they remained till early in 
March. After they had been three weeks in this condition, the 
snow was carefully removed, when it was found that the stems 
had become perfectly erect, and a little chamber in the snow had 
been thawed out about each flower-stem. There was, however, no 
other evidence of growth. The few buds which were unopened 
when the snow came, were still unopened when the snow thawed 
away, after five weeks' imprisonment ; and the idea conveyed was 
that plants would retain life, without growth, for an indefinite time, 
when under a low temperature, such as a covering of ice or snow 
afforded. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 117 

Relation of Heat to the Sexes of Flowers. — He referred to his 
former communications to the Academy regarding his discovery 
that the male flowers or male organs of flowers entered on active 
growth at a much lower temperature than excited the female, and 
exhibited catkins and female flowers of the European hazel-nut, 
Corylus Avellana,ju&t matured April 15, and which, for tbe first 
time in several years past, had perfected themselves cotempora- 
neously. This was the first winter for some time that there had 
been a uniform low temperature the whole season, in other years 
a few warm days in winter would advance the male flowers so that 
they would mature weeks before the female flowers opened, hence 
the females were generally unfertilized, and there were few or no 
nuts. Under this law it was evident amentaceous plants could 
not abound to any great extent in countries or in localities favor- 
able to bringing forward the male flowers before there was steady 
warmth enough to advance the female. He thought this was 
likely to be the reason why so many coniferous trees under culture 
in the vicinity of Philadelphia bore scarcely any fertile seed in 
their cones — a fact which had often been remarked in connection 
especially with the Norway spruce. The male flowers would 
mature before the female had advanced far enough to be receptive 
of the pollen, 

Specific Differences in Picea nigra — It was regarcied as some- 
what difificult to distinguish between the red and black spruces. 
Mr. Meehan exhibited authentic specimens of these and the white 
spruce, and pointed out the persistent character of the cones in 
Picea nigra, to which his attention had been called by Mr. Robt. 
Douglas, of Waukegan, Illinois. They were still attached to the 
branches exhibited. 

The Flowers of Platanus. — Having an opportunity to examine 
a large tree of Platanus occidentalism no exception could be found 
to the rule that the pedicel proceeded from the third node in the 
season's growth. It appeared also that in the formation of the 
pedicel, the growth of the branch was always almost arrested — 
but not suflSciently so but that it seemed to recover and make a 
second growth. In many cases the annual growth was completely 
suppressed, and only a terminal bud was formed just above the 
axis of the pedicel ; but in most cases, another or secondary 
growth followed the first temporary check and a shoot of several 
nodes would be formed beyond the point of departure of the 
pedicel. The same rule prevailed in Platanus orientalis. 

Variation in Symplocos foetidus, — Mr. Meehan had made it a 
point for some years to take, as opportunity offered, some genus 
of only a single species within a large range of territory, and note 
the variation therein. In this way we could often see a vast 
amount of variation, which could not be started by an}'' hybridi- 
zation with otlier forms, but which must have been produced by 
some law of evolution within itself. Even though one might 
believe himself to be quite familiar with the skunk cabbage. 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

Symplocos foetidus, he would be surprised at the great amount 
of variation it presented, even in a small area, when the variations 
were looked for by comparison. He had himself seen a plant 
bearing spathes four inches long, with its next neighbor having 
one a little over an inch — no larger than a walnut. Some would 
be globular, some ovate, some linear, some terminating in an 
» abrupt point, others lengthened into a long straight or curved 
beak. Tlie variations in color were too well known to need more 
than this bare reference. It was not uncommon to hear variation 
attributed to environment, by which we are to understand external, 
and in a measure accidental circumstances. Environment miorht 
be led to include some external influence operating on the primary 
cell, giving birth to the subsequent individual exemplifying the 
variation. 

But in this sense, change by environment would be the 
merest guess, as no evidence had been offered in support of any 
special influence then not exerted. At other times no great varia- 
tion followed, and possibly no one would want to embrace this 
point in a definition of environment. 

Sugar in Gladastris tinctoHa, — In Mr. Meehan's garden at 
German town, there were few trees but which exuded sap from 
wounds made in winter or early spring, but among them all, few 
bled, as it was termed by horticulturists, more profusely than 
Gladastris tinctoria ( Virgilia luteaMx.). The icicles formed from 
this exuding sap afforded a good opportunity to test the saccha- 
rine character of the liquid. During congelation by frost all 
foreign substances are rejected, and in the formation of the 
icicle the sugar is pushed forward to the extreme point. The 
end of an icicle of a sugar maple is its only sweet part, and this 
was very sweet from the accumulation of the saccharine matter. 
The end of the icicle from the Gladastris was also sweet, though 
less so than in any other sugar-bearing trees he had observed. 



April 22. 
The President, Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 
Twenty-eight persons present. 

Vertebrate Fossils from Florida, — Prof. Leidy directed atten- 
tion to some fossils, part of a collection recently referred to him 
for examination by the Smithsonian Institution. They consist 
of remains mostly of large terrestrial mammals, especially related 
with forms which now live in the intertropical portions of the 
old world. Obtained in Florida, they are of additional interest 
as evidences of the existence in this region of a formation of 
tertiary age not previously known. An accompanying letter from 
Dr. J. C. Neal, of Archer, Florida, informs us that the fossils 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 119 

were discovered in a bed of clay, occupying a ridge in the pine 
forest. They occurred over an irregular area of one hundred feet 
long by thirty feet wide, and were dug from . variable depths 
of seven feet to the bed-rock, the character of which is not 
stated. The fossils, consisting of bones and a few teeth, are 
mostly in fragments, but exhibit no appearance of being water- 
worn, or abraded by friction among gravel. In the collection, 
for the present hastily examined, there may be observed the fol- 
lowing more conspicuous remains : — 

1. Those of a young mastodon, consisting of bone fragments 
and detached epiphyses. The epiphysial head of a femur meas- 
ures 6^ inches in diameter. In the clay adherent to the rough 
under surface, the vertebra of a teleost fish is imbedded. An 
astragalus measures 4^ inches fore and aft, and 5^ inches trans- 
versely. 

2. Remains, apparently of several individuals of a rhinoceros, 
rather smaller than the Indian rhinoceros. Among them are 
small fragments of a mandible, and portions of lower molar teeth. 
The nearly complete crown of one of the latter measures 2^ 
inches fore and aft, with l^ inches width in front. The limb 
bones indicate an animal of shorter stature, but equally robust 
proportions to those of the Indian rhinoceros. There are two 
nearly entire radii, 9 inches long, by 3^ inches width at the prox- 
imal, and 3^ inches width at the distal end. The distal extremity 
of a femur measures 6 inches at the epicondyles. The head of a 
tibia is 5^ inches wide and 3^ inches fore and aft. A calcaneum 
is 6 inches long. Three middle metacarpels exhibit the following 
measurements : — 

Length, ... 4^ inches, 4 inches, 3| inches. 
Width, proximal end, 2| " 2^ " 2;^ " 
Width, distal end, . 2^ " 2^ " 2^ " 

3. Small fragments of the maxillae of a tapir; one with an 
entire molar tooth, which differs neither in form nor size from the 
corresponding tooth of the living Tapirus americanus. The 
tooth measures 11 line's fore and aft by 13 lines transversely. 

4. Remains, apparently of a llama, as large as the camel. 
The distal end of a metacarpel is about 4 inches in breadth. A 
first phalanx is 4^ inches long by 2 J inches wide at the proximal 
end and If inches at the distal end. 

5. A calcaneum of a ruminant, not quite so long as that of the 
Irish elk, but of more robust proportions. Its reference is un- 
certain, and it is doubtful whether it pertains to the extinct 
Cervus americanus. 

6. The vertebral centrum of a small crocodile. 

T. Remains of several other animals undetermined. 



120 prooiedinqb ot the aoaokht of [1884. 

April 29. 
The PrcssideDt, Dr. Leidy, m the cbair. 
Twenty-aeven persons prftseot. 

A paper entitled " New Fossils from ihe four groups of the 
Niagara Period of Western New York," by Eugene N. 8. Ringue- 
berg, wa% presented for publication. 

On the Digestion of Haw and of Boiled Milk. — Dr. N. A. Ran- 
dolph referred to certain profound changes produced in milk by 
boiling. In this operation the casein is not coagulated, but there 
is an evolution of sulphuretted hydrogen (t^chreiner), a diminu- 
tion in the gaseous constituents of the fluid and a change in the 
amount of ozone present. 

The most striking difference between raw and boiled milk lay 
in their respective responses to rennet, acids and alkalies. 

At the body-temperature tbe firm coagulation of raw milk 
occurred almost immediately upon the addition. of a neutral 
rennet solution, whereas boiled milk, under the same conditions, 
did not clot for a far longer period, and the coagula were not 
Arm. On the other hand, dilute or strong acids were tenfold as 
active upon boiled as upon raw milk. Some time after making 
these experiments Dr. Randolph found that so far as acids and 
rennet were concerned, similar results had been obtained by 
Schreiner (Chem. Centralbl., III. Folge, IX. .lalirg.), and he 
desired to present bis observations in these particulars simply as 
confirmatory of those of that observer. 

Upon the addition of dilute alkalies to boiled milk, the rise 
of cream was much more rapid and complete than in raw milk 
under the same conditions. 

Artificial digestions showed that milk was more readily digested 
when raw than when boiled. This was further confirmed by a 
comparative examination and weighing (in over fifty cases, and 
in which he was aided by Dr. Roussel) of the contents of the 
stomach after rawand boiled milk had bi;cn,in difibrent individunN, 
undergoing actual gastric digestion. In these cases the rcsidiio 
found in the stomachs of those persons receiving boiled milk 
was greater than the similar residue found in the stomachs where 
raw milk had been undergoing digestion for the same length of 
time, 

The following were elected members : Messrs. J. L. Porwood, 
L. Wootman, John Eyerman, Edw. Jackson, E. J. Wheelock and 
iss S. D, Atkinson. 

Ernest AndrS, of Gray, Haute SSone, France, was elected a 
rrespondent. 
The following were ordered to be printed : — 



1884.] NATX/RAL 8CIENGE8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 121 



A BEYIEW OF THE AKEBICAK 8PECIE8 OP THE OEHUS TBACHTK0TU8. 

BY SETH E. MEEK AND DAVID K. GOSS. 

Id the present paper we give the synonymy of the species 
of Trachynotus found in American waters, with brief de- 
scriptions of those known to us found on the Atlantic Coast. 
The latter are here all described from specimens obtained by 
Professor Jordan at Havana and Key West. We are very much 
indebted to Professor Jordan for use of his library and for 
valuable aid. 

In the following analysis of species, Trachynotus marginatus is 
omitted, the original description being too insufficient for com- 
parison. Of the remaining seven species, two (rhomboides, 
glaucus) appear to be -confined to the Atlantic ; two others {ken- 
nedyi, fasciatus) represent those on the Pacific Coast, while the 
others (rhodopus, carolinus, cayennensis) appear to be found on 
"both sides, although in the case of rhodopus and carolinus being 
far more abundant in the Atlantic. 

Analysis of Species of Trachynotus. 

a. Dorsal with 19 to 20 soft rays ; anal with 17 to 19 soft rays. 
6. Body very much compressed ; sides with narrow black cross- 
bars ; lobes of vertical fins elongate, reaching past mi(idle 
of caudal fin in adult. 
c. Snout subtruncate or nearly vertical ; profile from supra- 
orbital to front of dorsal fin convex. glaucus. 1. 
c'c. Snout low, very oblique ; profile from supraorbital region 
to the dorsal scarcely convex. fasciatus. 2. 
bb. Body moderately compressed ; sides without narrow black 
cross-bars ; lobes of vertical fins shorter, rarely reaching 
base of caudal ; lobes of dorsal and anal usually 
blackish. 
d. Body broad , ovate ; the greatest depth at all ages more 
than half length of body ; lobes of the vertical fins 
reaching in the adult beyond the middle of their 
fins. 
e. Axil with a large black spot (in the adult) ; profile 
strongly convex anteriorly. kennedyi. 3. 
ee. Axil without dark spot ; profile from nostril to dorsal 

everywhere about equally convex. 
9 rhomboides. 4. 



122 PROCEEDINGS OP THE ACAPEMY OP [1884, 

dd. Body oblong ; the depth in young and old about f 
length of body. rhodopus, 5. 

aa. Dorsal with 26 to 27 soft rays ; anal with 22 to 26 soft rays ; 
body oblong, rather robust ; greatest thickness 3 in greatest 
depth of body; depth less than half length; lobes of 
vertical fins short, not black ; sides without dark cross* 
bars. 

/. Dorsal with 25 soft rays ; anal with 22 soft rays ; 
profile from snout to procumbent spine evenly 
convex. carolinus, 6. 

ff. Dorsal with 2t ; anal with 26 soft rays. 

cayennensis. 7. 

Traohynotas glaaoas. Oaff-top-sail Pompano. Old toi/e, 

Chatodon glavAms Bloch, Ichthyologia, Pi. ccx, about 1783 (on a figure 
by Plumier). 

Acanthinion glaucuB Lac^pede, iv, 1803, 500 (copied). 

Trachinotus glaucus Cuvier ife Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., viii, 1831, 
400 (Brazil, Havana, Mexico, San Domingo, Martinique and Gua- 
deloupe) ; Guichenot, "Poiss. Kamon de la Sagra, Hist, Cuba, 107, 
1845" (Cuba). 

TrachyTiotvs glaucus Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., ii, 1860, 483 
(Antilles, Jamaica and Rio Janeiro) ; Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1862, 438 (Charieston, S. C.) ; Gill, Rep. U. S. Fish Com., 
1871-2, 803 (name only) \ Goode, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1879, 113 

. (name only) ; Goode; Bull. U. 8. Fish Com., 1881, 37, 40 (Ber- 
mudas) ; Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 237 (name 
only) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. 8 Nat. Mus., 1882, 270 (Pensa- 
cola); Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 443; Jordan & 
Gilbert, op. cit., 912. 

Habitat — Atlantic Coasts of America : Charleston, Pensaeola, 
Key West, Bermudas, Jamaica, Antilles, Guadaloupe, Martinique 
and Rio Janeiro. Also erroneously ascribed (by confusion with 
Trachynotus fasciatus) to Lower California and Panama. 

Head 4 in length of body ; depth 2 ; D. YI-1, 19 ; A. II-I, 18 ; 
length (No. 440, 1. XJ. Key West) 13 inches. 

Body elliptical, much compressed ; snout blunt, subtruncate, 
vertical from mouth to horizontal from upper edge of eye ; the 
profile from supraorbital to front of dorsal fin convex ; eye 3f in 
head ; mouth nearly horizontal ; maxillary nearly reaches ver- 
tical from middle of eye, its length 3 in head ; jaws without 
teeth in the adult ; dorsal spines separate, in the adult ; dorsal 
and anal fins falcate, the anterior soft rays reaching middle of 



1884.] * NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 123 

caudal fin; dorsal lobe 1^, anal U in length of body; ventrals 
reaching J distance to vent, their length 2f in head ; caudal 
very deeply forked, their lobes nearly half length of body. 
Color bluish above, golden below ; lobes of dorsal and anal 
very dark, rest of the fins pale, with bluish edges ; caudal bluish ; 
Pectorals golden and bluish; ventrals whitish. Body crossed 
by four black vertical bands ; the first is under the procumbent 
spine, the second under the third dorsal spine, the third and 
fourth under the soft dorsal. A black spot, representing a fifth 
band, on latter line between the last rays of dorsal anal ; this is 
sometimes obsolete ; the position of these bands appears to be 
subject to slight variation. The young of this species has not yet 
been described. 

Traohynotns fssciatuB. 

Trachynotus fasciatus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. l^hila., 1863, 86 (Cape 
San Lucas) ; Giinther, Fishes Cent. America, 1869, 434 (Panama^ 
San Jose and Nicaragua) ; Jordan ife Gilbert, Proo. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 
1881, 232 (Porto Escondido, Mexico) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. 8. 
Fish Com., 1882, 106 (Mazatlan, no description) ; Jordan & Gilbert, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 359 (Cape San Lucas, no description\ 

Trachynotus glaueoides Giinther, Proc. Zool. Soc., 1864, 150 (San Jose ; 
Nicaragua). 

Habitat. — Pacific Coast of Tropical America : Cape San Lucas, 
Mazatlan, Porto Escondido, San Jose, Nicaragua, and Panama. 

This species is the Pacific representative of Trachynotus 
glaucus, which species it strongly resembles. The difference in 
the profile is, however, constant and characteristic. 

Trachynotas kennedyi. 

Trachynotus A;«7ine<fytSteindachner, Icht^^yol., Beitrage, ii', 1875, 47, PL 

v:i, (Magdalena Bay) ; Giinther, Fish. Cent. Amer., 1869, 388 (in 

part, Panama). 
Trachynotus ovatus Lockington, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1876, 4 

(Lower California) ; Jordan ife Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 

375 (Panama, not of Cuv. & Val.). 
Trachynotus rhomboides Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 

625 (Panama, young). 
Trachynotus rhodopus Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. S. F.sh Com., 1882, 

106 (Mazatlan, not of Gill). 

Habitat. — Pacific Coast of Tropical America : Magdalena Bay, 
Mazatlan, Panama. 

This species is the Pacific Coast representative of Traxihynotus 
rJiOTTiboides^ from which it differs in the presence of a black axil- 



124 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

lary spot, and slightly in form of the profile- The young lack 
this spot, and cannot readily be distinguished from the young of 
Trachynotus rhomboides. It is therefore probable that all the 
references made by authors lo the occurrence of T, rhomboides 
(ovatus) on the Pacific Coast of Tropical America refer to this 
species. A series brought by Professor Gilbert from Panama 
(now unfortunately destroyed) is said to render this view very 
probable. We are informed by Professor Jordan that the specimens 
brought by Professor Gilbert from Mazatlan, recorded as T. 
rhodopus^ belong to this species, of which the latter cannot be the 
young, as was at first supposed. 

Traohynotns rhomboides. Bound Pompano ; Palometa. 

ChcBtodon rhomboides Bloch, Ichthyologia, ccix, about 1783 fon a draw- 

' mg by Plumier) ; Gmelin, Syst. Nat, 1788, 1259 (copied). 

Acanthinion rhomboides Lac6pede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iv, 1803, 500 
(copied). 
. Trachinotus rhornboides Cuvier & Valenciennss, Hist. Nat. Poiss., vlii, 
1831, 407 (Martinique) ; Guichenot "Po'ss. Ramon delaSagra, Hist. 
Cuba, 1845, 108'' (Cuba). 

Trachynotus rhomboides Liitken, Spolia Atlantica, 1880, 602 (West In- 
dies) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 974. 

Spinous dory Mitchill, Trans. Lit. and Ph 1. Soc, 1815, PI. vi, f, 10 (no 
dtscrption). 

Trachinotus fuscus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., viii, 1831, 
410 (Brazil). 

Trachinotus spinosus De Kay, N. Y. Fauna Fishes, 1842, 117, PI. xix, 
fig. 53 (New Yoik Harbor) ; S.orer, "Syn. Fish. N. A., 1846, 98." 

Lichia spinosus Baird, Ninth Smithsonian Rep., 1854, 22 (Beesley's 
Point, New Jersey). 

Doliodon spinosus Girard, U. S. and Mex. Bd. Surv., 1859, 22 (St. Jo- 
seph's Island, Texas) ; Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast N. A., 1861, 37 
(name only). 

Trachynotus ovatus Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., ii, 1860, 481 (in part, 
West Indian specimens, apparently not Qasterosteus ovatus, which is 
the Asiatic species) ; Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, 438 ; 
Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 332 ; Gill, Rep. U. S. Fish 
Com., 1871-2, 803 ; Baird, Rep. U. S. Fish Com., 1871-2, 825 (Wood's 
Holl, Mass.) ; Goode, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 112 (name only) ; 
Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1878, 376 (Beaufort, N. C, 
no description) ; Goode ife Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 339 

. (Marquesas Keys, Fla.) ; Goode, Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 1880, 24 

(name only) ; Goode, Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 1881, 36-39 ; Goode A 

Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 237 (name only) ; Jordan & 

Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 442. 

Habitat, — Atlantic Coast of America : Wood's Holl, New York, 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 125 

Beesley's Point, Beaufort, Marquesas Keys, Key West, St. 
Joseph's Island, Martinique, and Brazil. 

Head 31 in length ; depth If ; D. VI-1, 19 ; A. II-I, 18 ; length 
(No. 486, 1, XJ. Havana) 18 inches. 

Body broadly ovate, moderately compressed ; profile very 
evenly convex from procumbent spine to horizontal from upper 
edge of eye, where it descends almost vertical. The vertical 
portion is about li times the eye ; length of snout nearly equals 
the eye ; moiith nearly horizontal ; maxillary reaching to the 
vertical from middle of eye, its length 2 J in head ; jaws without 
teeth in adult ; dorsal spines short and thick, not connected by 
membrane in adult ; ventrals short, their tips scarcely reaching 
half way to anterior anal spine ; 3 in head ; caudal widely 
forked ; lobes about 2S in length of body ; dorsal and anal fins 
falcate ; anterior rays reaching almost to posterior end of fins ; in 
adults, dorsal lobe 21, anal lobe 4^, in length of body. Color 
bluish above, silvery below ; lobes of dorsal black in young ; in 
adults the fins are all bluish with lighter tips. 

The young differ from the adult as above described in the 
following respects : The profile is scarcely convex ; snout shorter 
and less vertical ; spines much longer and connected by membranes ; 
lobes of vertical fins shorter ; dorsallobe with black ; fins all much 
paler ; jaws with bands of villiform teeth; eye larger ; color much' 
paler. 

We have had no opportunity of comparing the American 
Trachynotus rhomboides with the East Indian Trachyriotus 
ovatus with which it has been identified by Dr. Giinther. We 
have been led to consider them as distinct by the following ob- 
servation of Dr. Liitken : " I will only remark that the Trachy- 
notus rhomboides of the Antilles has already its rhomboidal 
physiognomy dnd the falcations of its fins strongly prolonged 
at an age at which, in the Trachynotus ovatus of the seas of the 
Indies, these prolongations of the fins are quite short. I am of 
the opinion (with Mr. Gill) that these two species ought, at least 
provisionally, to be considered as distinct.'' 

As the antecedent probabilities are against the identity of these 
species in such widely separated faunae, there is less danger of 
•confusion in regarding the two as different. 

Traohynotns rhodopus. Permit. Great Pompotm. 

Trachynottm goreensis Giinther. Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., 1860, 483 
(specimens from Caribbean Sea ; in part, not of Cuvier ife Valenci- 



126 PROGEEDINQS OF THS ACADEMY OF [1884. 

ennes) ; Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 129 (West 
Florida, Jupiter*s Inlet) ; Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 
839 (West Florida, Marquesas Keys) ; Goode, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1879, 112 (name only) ; Goode, Bull. U. S. Fish Com., 1881, 36, 40 
(Key West and Jupiter's Inlet) ; Goode, Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1880, 
24 (name only) ; Goode & Bean, Proc. tJ. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 237 
(name only) ; Jordan & Gilbert;, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 442 ; Jor- 
dan & Gilbert;, op, cit, 1882, 974. 

Trachynotus rhodopus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1863, 85 (Cape 
San Lucas ; young). 

Trachynotus nasutus Gill, Prdc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1863, 85 (Cape San 
Lucas; very young). 

Trachynotus ca/rolirms, Poey, Syn. Pise. Cubensium, 1868, 371 (Cuba) ; 
Poey, Enumeratio Pise. Cubensium, 1875, 86. 

HabitaL — Both coasts of Tropical America : West Florida, 
Jupiter's Inlet, Marquesas E^eys, Key West, Cuba, Caribbean 
Sea, Cape San Lucas. 

Head 3 in length ; depth 2f ; D. YI-1, 19 ; A. II-I, IT ; length 
of specimen described (Key West), 2 J inches. 

Body oblong, elliptical, moderately compressed ; profile nearly 
straight from procumbent spine to nostril, where it descends 
nearly vertical, forming an angle ; vertical portion from angle to 
snout nearly equals the eye ; maxillary reaches slightly behind 
.vertical from middle of eye, its length 2f in head ; jaws with bands 
of villiform teeth (these disappearing with age) ; ventrals reaching 
J distance to vent, their length 2 in head ; tips of pectorals reach- 
ing slightly past tips of ventrals ; dorsal spines connected by a 
membrane, which is only characteristic of the young. Dorsal 
and anal fins falcate, their anterior soft rays less elevated than in 
Trachynotus rhomboides, but extending beyond middle of fins 
when depressed. Length in the young 4 in length of body ; caudal 
forked, lobes about 3 in body ; lateral line nearly straight, slightly 
curved upwards above the pectorals ; color bluish silvery above, 
silvery below ; dorsal, caudal and anal lobes blackish ; no cross- 
bars. 

This species grows to a much larger size than any other of the 
genus found in our waters ; specimens of 2 to 3 feet in length 
being not uncommon in Florida and Cuba. It has been identified 
with the Trachynotus goreensia of Cuvier & Valenciennes, by 
most American authors, this being a species from the West Coast 
of Africa. The basis of this identification appears to be insuf- 
ficient. According to Cuvier & Yalenciennes this Trachynotus 



1884.] NATURAL SGIEl^GES OF PHILADELPHIA. 127 

goreensis is a deeper fish than ours is at any age. Its outline and 
coloration are also different. 

Trachynotus maxillosus Cuvier & Valenciennes, also from 
Africa, comes much nearer our fish, but this differs too much to 
be safely identified with it. 

On the other hand, ouf young specimens correspond exactly to 
the two descriptions of little Trachynoti taken by Xantus at Cape 
San Lucas, published by Professor Gill ; the larger one (2 J inches 
in length) corresponds entirely to the T, rhodopus^ the smaller 
one (lyi^ inches in length) to T, nasutus. There is, however, no 
other record of the occurrence of our species in the Pacific. 

The drawings and notes made by Professor Poey , of the species 
called by him T, carolinus^ have been examined by Professor 
Jordan. They belong to T. rhodopus. T. carolinus is therefore 
as yet not known ffom Cuba. 

Traehynotns oarolinas. 

Gasterosteus carolinus Linnseus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1766, 490 (Carolina). 

Doliodon carolinus Girard, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1858, 168; 
Girard, U. S. & Mex. Bd. Surv., 1839, 22, PI. xi, fig. 4 (St. Joseph's 
Island, Texas) ; Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast if. A., 1861, 37 (name 
only). 

Trachynotus carolinus Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci, Phila., 1862, 438 ; 
Gill, op, dt.y 1863, 84 (Cape San Lucas) ; Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., 1863, 332 (name only) ; Gill, Rep. U. S. Fish Com., 1871-2, 
803 (name only) ; Baird, Rep. U. S. Fish Com., 1871-2, 825 (Wood's 
HoU) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1878, 377 (Beau- 
fort, N. C, no description) ; Goode ife Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1879, 129 (Pensacola, Fla.) ; Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1879, 112 (name only) ; Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 90 
(Wood's HoU, New York and Newport, R. I.) ; Goode, Bull. U. S. 
Fish Com., 1881, 36 ; Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
237 ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 596 (Charleston, 
8. C, no description) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1882, 359 (Cape San Lucas) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1882, 270 (Pensacola, Fla., no description) ; Goode, Bull. 21, 
U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1880, 24 (name only) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. 
N. A., 1882, 442 ; Jordan, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., I€i84, 45 (Eg- 
mont Key;. 

Trachinotus cupreus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., viii, 



1831, 414 (Martinique). 



TroAihiTioiys argentms Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. PoisSi, 1831, 
418 (Martinique) ; Storer, Syn. Fishes N. A., 1846, 98. 



128 FROGKEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

TrachynotUB a/rgenteus Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast N. A., 1861, 37 
(name only). 

TrachynotuspampaniLS Cuv. & Val., op. cit (Charleston, S. C.) ; Storer, 
Syn. Fish. N. A., 1846, 99. 

Trachynotus. pampamcs Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., ii, 1860, 484 
(Jamaica) ; Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, 262 (Cape San 
Lucas). 

BothrdlcBmu» pampanus Holhrook, Ich. S. Cav., 1860 (Charleston) ; 
Gill, Cat. Fish. East Coast N. A., 1861, 37 (name only). 

Lichia Carolina DeKay, N. Y. Fauna, iv, 1842, 114, PI. x, f . 3 (Sandy 
Hook) ; Storer, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1846, 96 ; Baird, Ninth Rep. 
Smith. Inst., 1854, 21 (Beesley's Point, N. J.). 

Habitat, — Atlantic (and Pacific) Coasts of America: Wood's 
HoU, Newport, Sandy Hook, Beesley's Point, Beaufort, Charles- 
ton, Pensacola, St. Joseph's Island, Egmoiit Key, Key West, Mar- 
tinique and Cape San Lucas. 

Head 4 in length ; depth 2f ; D. VI-I, 25 ; A. II-I, 22. Length 
(No. 434, L TJ., Key West) 15^ inches. 

Body oblong, comparatively robust ; greatest thickness 3 in 
greatest depth. Snout from mouth to horizontal from upper 
edge of eye nearly vertical, somewhat bluntly rounded ; profile 
from upper edge of snout to procumbent spine evenly convex. 
Mouth nearly horizontal, maxillary reaching to vertical from 
middle of eye, its length 2| in head ; eye 4^ in head, about as 
long as snout. Jaws without teeth in adult. Ventrals reach f 
distance to vent, about 2 in pectorals, 2^ in head. Dorsal and 
anal fins falcate ; anterior rays nearly reach middle of fins when 
depressed ; dorsal lobe 4 J ; anal 5^ in length of body. Color 
bluish above, silvery or slightly golden below; pectorals and 
anal light orange shaded with bluish ; caudal and upper portion 
of caudal peduncle with bluish reflections. 

On our South Atlantic and Gulf Coasts this is by far the most 
abundant species of the genus, and it is the one most esteemed 
as food. Its distribution in the West Indies is little known, the 
only positive record from points south of Key West being that 
of " Trachynotus cupreus '' from Martinique. The only specimens 
known from the West Coast are those taken by Xantus at Cape 
San Lucas. While we have no good reason to doubt that the 
specimens now in the National Museum really came from Xantus^ 
it is strange that no later collectors in Lower California and 
Sinaloa have found either this species or Trachynotus rhodopus. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 129 

Traehynotns oayennensis. 

Trachinotus oayennensis Cuvier & Valenciennes, H.'st. Nat. Poiss., vili, 
1881, 417 (Cayenne) ; Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., ii, 1860, 485 
(copied). 

? Trachinotus paUensis Cuv. & Val., op. city viii, 1831, 438 (Peru). 

Nothing is known of this species except what is contained in 
the two meagre descriptions noticed above. No difference is 
indicated by which the Pacific Coast fish (paitensis) is to be 
known from the Atlantic one. Both appear to differ from T, 
carolinus in the still longer vertical fins. 

Tracbynotufl marginatns. 

Trachinotus ma/rginatus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., viii, 
1831, 411 (Montevideo). 

This species appears to be allied to Trachynotus rhodopus and 
T. goreensiSy but the description is too brief to give much idea of 
its relations. 

Becapitulation. 

We have in this paper admitted eight species of Trachynotus^ 
as found in American waters. Some doubt is attached to the 
nomenclature of some of them. We give in the following list a 
brief indication of the questions remaining to be solved in each 
case : — 

Genus TSACHTKOTUS Lac^p6de. 

1. T. glauous Blooh. 

2. T. fasoiatuB Gill. 

3. T. kennedyi Steindachner (possibly to be considered as a geographical variety of 

T, rhombotdea or of T. ovatua), 

4. T. rhomboides Bloch (possibly identical with the East Indian T. ooatua Linnsens ; 

if so, to take the latter name). 

5. T rhodopUB Gill. Very improbably identical with T. g^eenait Cur. & Val.; pos- 

sibly identical with 7*. maxillotua Cuv. A Val., both of them being African 
species of prior date. Possibly not really found in the Pacific). 

6. T. oarolinns Linnaeus (possibly not occurring in the West Indies or in the 

Pacific). 

7. T. oayennensis Cuv. & Val. (imperfectly described ; possibly the Pacific form of 

T. paitenaia is distinct). 

8. T. mar^natas Cuv. A Val. (imperfectly described and doubtful). 



130 PBOOBBDINQS OF THB A0ADEM7 OF [1884. 



A BEYIEW OF THE AMSBIOAN SPECIES OF THE GENUS 8YK0DTT8. 

BT BETH E. MEEK. 

I have attempted in this paper to give a review of the American 
species of Synodua, with a detailed description of certain species 
imperfectly described elsewhere. The paper is based on speci- 
mens collected by Professor Jordan at Cedar Keys and Key West, 
Florida, and Havana, Cuba, belonging to the United States 
National Museum and the Museum of the Indiana University. 
All the Atlantic species here recognized, except Synodus saurus^ 
are contained in this collection. 

I am very much indebted to Professor Jordan for use of his 
library and for other aids. 

Analysis of American Species of Synodus. 

a. Snout short, obtuse, 3^ in length of premaxillary ; head some- 
what compressed, much deeper than broad ; anal fin com- 
paratively long, its rays about 14 ; head 3Hn length ; origin 
of dorsal midway between snout and adipose fin ; scales 
4-55-6 ( Trachinocephalus Gill). myops. 1. 

aa. Snout long, pointed, about 2^ in premaxillary; head depressed , 
little if any deeper than broad ; anal comparatively short, 
rays 10 to 12 ; head 4 to 4§ in length (Synodus). 
6. Scales large, 43 to 50 in lateral line ; origin of dorsal midway 
between tip of snout and adipose fin ; lateral line with a 
blunt keel posteriorly, 
c. First and last rays of dorsal coterminous when the fin is 
depressed ; black blotch of scapula very small or obso- 
lete ; D. I-IO ; A. I-ll to 12 ; scales 4-45-5. 

. intermedius. 2. 

cc. Tips of first dorsal rays not reaching last when the fin is 

depressed ; scapula with a large black blotch ; D. I-ll 

to 12; A. I-IO to 11 ; scales 4-48-6, anolis, 3. 

bb. Scales small, 55 to 70 in lateral line. 

d. Dorsal fin much higher than long; tips of first rays 
extending beyond tips of last when the fin is 
depressed ; length of fin If in length of longest ray, 
and 2^ in head; teeth large; D. 1-9; A. I-ll; 
scales 4-57-6. spixianus. 4. 



1884.] NATTJEAL SOIENOES OF FHILABSIiPHIA. 131 

dd. Dorsal fin slightly higher than long ; tips of first rays 
not extending beyond tips of last when the fin is 
depressed ; teeth small. 

c. Snout broader than long, the jaws subequal ; tail with 
a slight keel ; scales 3^-60-6. saurus, 6. 

ee. Snout longer than broad, the lower jaw included; 
tail without keel. 

/. Four, rows of scales between lateral line and adipose 
fin (6 in an oblique row) ; origin of dorsal fin 
nearer adipose fin than tip of snout ; scales on 
cheeks in about 4 to 7 rows, on opercles in 4 to 
5 rows. 

g. Head very small, 4| in length ; first rays of dorsal 
coterminous with last ray when the fin* is 
depressed ; cheeks with about 4 rows of large 
scales, opercles with about 4 ; ventrals 1| in 
head ; pectoral 2 in head ; D. I-IO ; A. 1-12 ; 
scales 6-61-6. scituliceps. 6. 

gg. Head 4 in length ; tips of first rays of dorsal not 
reaching tips of last when the fin is depressed ; 
scales on cheeks in about 7 rows, on opercles 
in about 6 rows ; ventrals 2 J in head ; D. I-IO 
to 11 ; A. I-IO to 11 ; scales 4-64-6. 

foetens. 7. 

ff. Six rows of scales between adipose fin and lateral 

line ; cheeks with about 9 rows of scales, opercles 

with about 8 rows; D. I-IO; A. I-ll; scales 

13-66-16. lucioceps, 8. 

SynodnB myops. 

Salmo myops Bloch & Schneider, Systema IchthyoL, 1801, 421 (St. 

Helena). 
Saurus myops CnY.GT AYalencienneSy Hist. Nat. Poiss., xxii, 1849, 485 
(South Cai olina, Martinique, Bahia, St. Helena) ; Giinther, Cat. 
Fish. Brit. Mus«., v, 1864, 398 (Cuba, Jamaica) ; Jordan & Gilbert, 
Syn. Fish. N". A., 1882, 281. 

4 

TracMnocephaltLS myops Poey, Syn. PIsc. Cub., 1868, 415 (Cuba). 
Salmo fastens Bloch., Ichthyolog'a, about 1790, taf. 384, fig. 2 ; Bloch & 
Schneider, Systema IchthyoL, 1801, 404 (not Linnaeus). 

Osmerus lemniscatus Lacepede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., v, 1803; 236 (on a 
drawing by Plumier). 



132 PBOGEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

Scmrtts truncatus Agassiz, Spix, Pise. Bras., 1829, 82, tab. 45 (Brazil). 

JSaurus bremroatris Poey, Memorias Cuba, ii, 1860, 305 (Cuba). 

TrachinocepTiahis bremrosPris Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 415 (Cuba) ; 
"anal rays 10 ;»' Poey, Enum., 1875, 144. 

Sdbitat, — Tropical Atlantic; Cuba; Jamaica; Martinique; 
Bahia ; St. Helena ; Brazil and South Carolina. 

Head 3f in length of body ; depth 6 J ; D. I-IO ; A. 1-14 ; scales 
4-55-6 (transverse series counted vertically from * dorsal fin to 
vent respectively). 

Body little compressed ; snout short, obtuse, 3^ in premaxillary ; 
mouth large, premaxillary If in head ; interorbital area concave, 
about 6^ in head, upper surface of head rugose. Dorsal slightly 
higher than long, its length 1^ in head ; origin of dorsal fin mid- 
way between tip of snout and adipose fin, slightly behind last 
rays of ventrals. Anal fin long, its base nearly equal to head ; 
pectorals reaching root of ventrals, 2 in head ; tips of ventrals 
almost reaching vent, ventrals 4^ in length of body; caudal 
forked ; teeth comparatively small ; lower jay^ slightly projecting. 
Color grayish, mottled with darker above; body with eleven 
cross-bars ; a black blotch on scapula ; a black streak extending 
from eyes around symphysis, forming a quadrated blotch on the 
side of each jaw, and one on the median line of each jaw ; dorsal 
fin faintly barred ; pectorals, ventrals and anal plain. 

This description is taken from a very young specimen, twenty- 
three inches in length, collected by Professor Jordan in Havana. 
In the above synonymy we have omitted references from the 
Pacific Ocean, thinking it not impossible that the Asiatic species 
(limhatus) is a species distinct from S, myops, Trachinocephalus 
brevirostris Poey, known only from a drawing made in 1857, 
seems to differ only in the presence of ten instead of fifteen anal 
rays. This is probably an error, or perhaps an accidental muti- 
lation. I have little doubt that it is a synonym of S. myops. 

Synodus intermedins. 

? ? ? Synodus Gronov., Mus. Ichth., ii, 1765, No. 151, tab. 7, fig. 1. 

?? ? Esox aynodua LinnsBUS, Syst. Nat., i, 1766, 516 (America). 

? ? ? Synodus synodus Bloch & Schneider, Systema Ichthyol., 1801, 
396. 

9 Saums synodus Cuv. & Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., xxii, 1849 (Mar- 
tinique ; Guadeloupe ; Bahia ; St. Helena). •' 

? ? ? Synodus fasciatus Lac^pede, v, 1804, 321. 



I 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 133 

8(mru8 intermedvus Agassiz, "Spix, Pise. Brazil, 1829, 81, tab. 44 

(BrazU).'' 
Synod/us intermedius Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 1875, 143 (Cuba, not of 

Synopsis). 

Habitat, — Cuba; Brazil. 

Head 4 in length of body; depth 6|; D.I-10; A.I-10; scales 4- 
44-4 (transverse series counted from dorsal and vent respectively). 

Body terete, rather robust; snout comparatively long and 
pointed, about 3| in head; mouth large; premaxillary about If 
in head; interorbital area concave, about 6^ in head; supra- 
orbital ridge present, terminating anteriorly before the nostrils. 

Origin of dorsal fin midway between tip of snout and adipose 
fin ; anterior rays of dorsal coterminous with posterior ones when 
the fin is defiexed ; fin higher than long, its length about 2 in 
head, lower jaw slightly projecting; teeth moderate, anterior 
palatine teeth largest, becoming smaller posteriorly. 

Lateral line with a blunt keel posteriorly, tips of ventrals reach- 
ing f distance to vent, their length about 1^ in head ; tips of 
pectorals extending to roots of ventrals, 1| in head ; caudal forked, 
lobes equal, scales large. Color yellowish above, lighter below, 
scales above lateral line punctulate with dark; breast flesh-colored ; 
sides with a row of irregular black markings ; scapula occasion- 
ally with a small black spot, faintly barred with black ; caudal 
not barred, dusky ; tips of middle rays darkest ; other fins plain. 

This description is taken from several specimens, the largest 5 
inches in length, collected by Professor Jordan at Havana. 

This is evidently the Sy nodus intermedius of Poey's Enumer- 
atio. I have been unable to examine the figure of Agassiz and 
Spix, but from the account given of it by Poey, we infer that it is 
taken from specimens of the present species rather than of S. 
cubanus. According to Poey, the species figured by Spix lacks 
the scapular spot. 

Synodus anolis. 

^ 8av/rus anoUs Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., xxii, 1849, 
488 (Bahia ; Martinique). 



^ Since the above was in type the following notes have been received by 
Prof. Jordan froni Dr. H. E. Sauvage, of the Museum of Paris : ^^Saurus 
anoUs C. & V. Bahia. Type. Length of body 245 m. Lateral line 
with 54 scales; 10 in a transverse series. A well-marked black spot on 
the scapular part of the gill-openings." There seems to be no doubt of the 
identity of anolis and cvAanua, 



134 paoGEEDiNas of the academy of [1884. 

Saurus iniermedius Giintber, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mas., v, 1864, 396 (Ja- 
maica ; Demarara ; Bahia ; not of Agassi z). 

Synodus intermedins Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 414 (Cuba) ; Jordan 
& Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 889 ; Goode & Bean, Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Mus., 1882, 239 (name only) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Mus., 1882, 249 (Pensacola, Fla.). 

Synodus cubanus Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 1875, 143 (Cuba). 

Habitat — Atlantic shores of Tropical America; Pensacola; 
Key West ; Cuba ; Jamaica ; Martinique ; Demarara and Babia. 

The description of Saurus anolis is so insnfflcient, that no 
certain identification can be made. 

This species has been sufficiently described by Jordan & 
Gilbert (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 249). The large specimens 
from Key West, examined by me, agree well with this account. 

SynoduB Bpizianns. 

Saurus spixiarms Poey, Memorias Cuba, ii, 1860, 304 (Cuba). 
SynoduB spixianu^ Poey, Syn. Pise. Cuba, 1868, 413 (Cuba) ; Poey, 
Enum. Pise. Cub., 1875, 397 (Cuba). 

Habitat, — Cuba ; Key West. 

Head 4^ in length of body; D. 1-9; A. I-ll ; scales 4-57-fi 
(transverse series counted from dorsal and vent respectively). 

Body oblong, nearly terete ; snout comparatively long and 
pointed, 3^ in head and about 2^ in premaxillary. Interorbital 
area concave, 6 in head. Eye 5 in head. Supraorbital striate. 
Branchiostegals 16. Origin of dorsal fin nearer adipose fin than 
tip of snout by length of dorsal fin ; tips of anterior rays reaching 
beyond tips of posterior ones when the fin is deflexed ; the fin is 
therefore much higher than long. Length of fin 1 1 in length of 
longest ray and 2^ in head. Yentrals moderate, reaching about 
I distance to vent, 1^ in head. Tips of pectorals not reaching to 
roots of ventrals, about 2 in head. Adipose fin situated over 
middle of anal. Caudal forked, its lobes equal. Teeth larger than 
in the other species. Palatine teeth becoming smaller posteriorly. 
Color light sandy gray, much mottled above with darker olive. 
Branchiostegals very pale, yellowish. Ventrals and anal pale and 
plain, lower lobe of caudal dusky, neither barred. Dorsal faintly 
barred with darker olive. 

This description taken from one specimen 8J inches long, col- 
lected by Professor Jordan in Havana. Numerous smaller ones 
from Key West have also been examined. 



1884.] NATUBAL SGIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 135 

BynodiiB bujuub, 

Osmerus radiis pinna ani undecim Artedi, Descript. Spec. Pise, 1738, 

22 (Mediterranean). 
8almo sawrus Linnaeus, Syst, Nat., i, ed. 12, 1766, 511 (Europe). 
Saurus tocertoCuvier & Valenc!ennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., xxii, 1849, 463 

(Europe, not of Risso). 
Bynodus lacerta Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1876, 68 (Bermudas). 
Saurus griseus Lowe, Trans. Zool. Soc, i1, 1841, 188 (Madeiia) ; 

Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., v, 1864, 894 (Madeira, St. Vincent, 

Naples, Mediterranean). 

I have not seen this species. Professor Goode (Bull. TJ. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1876, 68) makes the following reference to its occurrence 
in the Bermudas : — 

"A specimen seventeen inches long was taken off the ' ducking- 
Btoof in March, by a line fisherman. Its occurrence in this part 
of the Atlantic is very novel, but it agrees closely with a specimen 
of Saurus griseus sent to the United States National Museum by 
Dr. Giinther. Its color was dusky gray above, yellow below. Its 

formulae are as follows: Branchiostegals, 16-17 (on opposite 

31 
Bides); D. 12; A. 12 ; lateral line, 60; transverse line, -—-." 

BynoduB BoituUoepB. 

Synodus seituliceps Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 344 
(Mazatlan) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 864 
(Oape San Lucas) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. S. Fish. Com., 
1882, 106 (Mazatlan) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. S. F:sh. Com., 
1882, 109 (Panama.. 

Saurus fcstens Giinther, Cat. Pish, Brit. Mus., 1864, 396 (in part ; speci- 
men from Panama). 

Habitat, — Mazatlan, Panama. 

BynoduB fcBtens. 

Sahnofatens L'nnsBus, Syst. Nat., i, ed. 12, 1766, 513 (Carolina). 

Sauncs fcRtens Cuvier& Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., xxii, 1849, 471 
(Martinique, St. Domingo, Chaileston, S. C; Bahia, Rio Janeiro); 
Holbrook, Ichth. S. C, 1860, 187. 

Synodus fmtens G:il, Kept. U. S. Fish. Com., 1871-2, 810 (name only) ; 
Joidan & Gilbeit, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1878, 384 (Beaufort, N. C, 
no description) ; Goode, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 119 mame 
only) ; Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus , 1879, 342 (Key West) ; 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 105 (Beaufort, N. C. ; no descrip- 
tion) ; Goode & Bean, Pioc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 239 (Gulf of 
Mexico) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 585 (Charles^r 
ton, S. C.) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish, N. A., 1882, 28Q. 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OP [1884. 

? Coregonus ruber Lac^pede, v, 1804, 263 (on a drawing by Plumier). 
? Saurtis longvrostria Agassi z, "Spix, Pise. Bras., tab. 43, 1829'* 
(Brazil). 

Hdbitat, — Atlantic shores of America : Beaufort, Charleston, 
Cedar Keys, Key West, Martinique, St. Domingo, Rio Janeiro. 

This is the most common species of the genus on the United 
States Coast. It is well described by Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. 
Fish N. A., 1882, 280. 

SynoduB Inoiooeps 

8auru8 lucioceps Ayres, Pioc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sci., 1855, 66 (San 
Francisco) ; Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., v, 1864, 397 (copied). 

Synodus lucioceps Jordan & Gilbert., Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 457 
(San Francisco, Monterey Bay, Santa Barbara) ; Jordan & Jouy, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 13 (San Francisco, Monterey, Santa 
Barbara) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 42 ; Jordan 
& Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. A., 1882, 281. 

Sa/wrus fastens Lockington, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., about 1878 (errone- 
ously identified with the Atlantic species). 

HabitaL — West Coast of U. S.: San Francisco, Monterey, Santa 
Barbara. 

This species resembles Synodus foetens^ but has much smaller 
scales. This is shown especially when the number in vertical 
series is counted. The only accurate description is that of Jordan J 

& Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A,, 1882, 281. 






1884.] natubal soienoes ,0f philadelphia. isf 

May 6. .'^-\' 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Sixteen persons present. 

A Bare Human Tapeworm, — Dr. Leidy directed attention to 
some little tapeworms, which had recently been submitted to his 
examination by Prof. William Pepper. They were expelled, by 
the use of santonin, from a child of three years. The specimens, 
consisting of a dozen fragments, appear to be portions of three 
Tvorms, which reached a length of from twelve to fifteen inches, 
or more. Unfortunately the head is lost. The joints or proglot- 
tides are more than several times the breadth of the length. In 
a specimen of thirteen inches, comprising nearly a complete 
"worm, the joints of the anterior attenuated extremity are about 
the one-fifth of a millimetre long by nearly two-thirds of a milli- 
metre wide, while the posterior joints are half a millimetre long 
and two and a quarter millirnetres wide. Ripe joints at the 
posterior part of the body are pale brown, the color being due to 
the eggs. These occupy a simple uterus defined by the walls of 
the joints, and not divided into pouches diverging laterally from 
a main stem as is usual in most taeniae. A singular feature of 
the worm is the interruption of the series of ripe joints, here and 
there, by one or more completely sterile ones. The generative 
apertures open in the usual way on the lateral margin of one 
side. The mature eggs are spherical, measure 0*072 mni. 
diameter, and contjSn, fully developed, six hooked embryos. 

While differing greatly from the ordinary tapeworms infesting 
man, they approximate nearly the description of Taeniae jiavch 
punctata^ and probably pertain to this species. This has been 
but once previously observed, and was described in 1858 by Dr. 
"Weinland (An Essay on Tapeworms of Man), from specimens in 
the Museum of the Medical Improvement Society of Boston. 
These were also discharged by a child. The worm was estimated 
to be from eight to twelve inches. The joints were marked by a 
yellow spot, from which the species was named. The eggs 
measure from 0*054 to 0*06 mm. 

Our specimens indicate a worm almost the same size as the T. 
Jlavopunctata^ but the joints are shorter and wider, and exhibit 
no yellow spot, and the eggs are larger. In other characters the 
worms sufficiently accord to render it probable that they may 
pertain to the same species. It is probable that the worm is 
more common than would be supposed from the instances of its 
observation, and has perhaps escaped notice from its small size, 
and from the general ignorance of the distinction, not only of 
this, but of the ordinary species of tapeworms. 

A more complete account of the subject of this communication 
will shortly appear in the American Journal of Medical Sciences. 
10 



138 FBO0E£I)INO8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 



May 13. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair4 
Fifteen persons present. 

How Lycosa fabricates her Round Cocoon Dr. H. C. McCooK 

said that while walking in the suburbs of Philadelphia lately, he 
found under a stone a female Lycosa (probably L» riparia 
Hentz), which he placed in a jar partly filled with dry earth. 
For two days the spider remained on the surface of the soil, 
nearly inactive. The earth was then moistened, whereupon (May 
2) she immediately began to dig, continuing until she had made 
a cavity about one inch in depth and height. The top was then 
carefully covered over with a tolerably closely woven sheet of 
white spinning work, so that the spider was entirely shut in. 
This cavity was made against the glass side of the jar, and the 
movements of the inmate were thus exposed to view. Shortly 
alter the cave was covered, the spider was seen working upon a 
circular cushion of beautiful white silk, about three-fourths of an 
inch in diameter^ which was spun upwards in a nearly perpen- 
dicular position against the earthen wall of the cave. The 
cushion looked so much like the cocoon of the common tube- 
weaver, Agalena noevia, and the whole operations of the Lycosa 
were so like those of that species when cocooning, that the 
speaker was momentarily possessed with the thought that he had 
mistaken the creature's identity altogether, and again examined 
her carefully, only to be assured that she was indeed a Lycosa. 
After an absence of ha,lf an hour, Dr. McCook returned to find 
that in the interval the spider had oviposited against the central 
part of the silken cushion and was then engaged in enclosing the 
hemispherical egg-^mass with a silken envelope. The mode of 
spinning was as follows : the feet clasped the circumference of 
the cushion, and the body of the animal was slowly revolved ; the 
abdomen^now greatly reduced in size by the extrusion of the 
eggs — was lifted up, thus drawing out short loops of silk from 
the expanded spinnerets, which, when the abdomen was dropped 
again, contracted and left a fiossy curl of silk at the point of 
attachment. The abdomen was also swayed back and forwards, 
the filaments from the spinnerets following the motion as the 
spider turned, and thus an even thickness of silk was laid upon 
the eggs. The same behavior marked the spinning of the 
silken button or cushion, in the middle of which the eggs had 
been deposited. 

At this stage. Dr. McCook left for an evening engagement, with 
his ideas as to the cocooning habits of Lycosa very much con- 
fused, indeed, by an observation so opposed to the universal 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHtA. 130 

experience. Returning to his desk in an hour and a half, he was 
once more assured by the sight of a round silken ball dangling 
from the apex of the spider's abdomen, held fast by short threads 
to the spinnerets. The cushion, however, had disappeared. 

The mystery (as it had seemed to him) was solved : the Lycosa 
after having placed her eggs in the centre of the silken cushion, 
and covered them over, had gathered up the edges and so united 
tbem and rolled them as to make the normal globular cocoon of 
lier genus, which she at once tucked under her abdomen in the 
usual way. This was a most interesting observation, and Dr. 
McCook thought had not before been made ; at least Lycosa's 
manner of fabricating a cocoon had been heretofore unknown to 
liim ; and by reason of her subterranean habit the opportunity to 
observe it was rare. He had often wondered how the round egg- 
liall was put together, and the mechanical ingenuity and simplicity 
of the method were now apparent. The period consumed in th^ 
■whole act of cocooning was less than four hours ; the act of ovi- 
positing took less than half an hour. Shortly after the egg-sac 
"Was finished, the mother cut her way out of the silken cover. She 
liad evidently thus secluded herself for the purpose of spinning 
lier cocoon. While feeding the spider some flies, the cave was 
accidentally filled up, and no effort had been made to dig another^ 
although it is the custom of this genus, in natural environment ^ 
to remain pretty closely within such a habitation while carrying 
the cocoon. 

One month after the above date (June 4), the spider wad 
found with the young hatched, and massed upon her body from 
the caput to the apex of the abdomen. The empty egg-sac still 
clung to the spinnerets, and the younglings were grouped oyet 
the upper part of the same. The abdomens of the little spiders 
^ere of a light yellow color, the legs a greenish brown or slate^ 
color, and the whole brood were tightly compacted upon and 
around each other, the lower layers apparently holding on to the 
mother's body, and the upper upon those beneath. Twenty-foui^ 
hours thereafter, the cocoon-case was dropped, and the spiderlings 
clung to the mother alone. An examination of the cocoon showed 
that the young had escaped through the thin seam or joint 
formed by the union of the egg^cover with the circular cushion, 
when the latter was pulled up at the circumference into globular 
shape. There was no flossy wadding within — as is common with 
orb-weaving spiders, for example — nothing but the pinkish shells 
of the escaped young. On June 11, about one hundred of the 
spiderlings had abandoned the maternal perch, and were dispersed 
over the inner surface of the jar, and upon a series of lines 
stretching from side to side. About half as many more remained 
upon the mother's back; but by the 13th, all had dismounted. 
Meantime, they had increased in size at least one-half, apparently 
without food. 



140 PROGEEDINQS OF THE AGADEMT OF [1884. 

Note on the Amphibious Habit of Lycosa. — Dr. MoCook 
alluded to another interesting fact in the life-history of Lycosa, 
brought to his attention by Mr. Alan Gentry. This gentle- 
man, during the winter, visited a pond in the vicinity of Phila- 
delphia (German town) which was frozen over. He cut a slab 
from the ice about eight to ten feet from the bank, and was sur- 
prised to see several spiders running" about in the water. They 
. were passing from point to point by silken lines stretched under- 
neath the surface between certain water-plants. Several were 
captured , but unfortunately the specimens were not preserved. Mr. 
Thomas G. Gentry, who saw them, says that they were Lycosids, 
and from his description of the eyes he is evidently correct. It 
is a remarkable and novel fact to find these creatures thus living 
in full health and activity in mid-winter within the waters of a 
frozen pond, and so far from the bank in which the burrows of 
their congeners are so commonly found. It has been believed, 
heretofore, and doubtless it is generally true, that the Lycosids 
winter in deep burrows in the ground, sealed up tightly to main- 
tain a higher temperature. But the above observation opens up 
a new and very strange chapter in the winter behavior of these 
spiders, as well as in the amphibious nature of their habits. 

Fentastomum proboscideum. — Prof. Leidy exhibited specimens 
of this parasite, presented to him by Mr. Norman Spang, of Etna, 
Pa., who recently obtained them in Florida, from the lung of a 
large rattlesnake, Crotalus adamanteus,. They are cylindrical 
incurved, annulated, largest and rounded at the head, tapering 
behind, and becoming again larger and rounded at the end ; 
and terminating ventrally in a short conical point. There are 
six of them, with the following measurements : — 9 lines long by 
1^ lines at the head ; 13 lines by 1^ lines ; 24 by 2^ ; 28 by 2^ ; 
30 by 3, and 31 by 3. The species was first found by Humboldt 
in Crotalus horridus. It is common in the Boa constrictor , in 
which Professor Leidy had also observed it several times. It has 
likewise been found in a number of other serpents. Other species 
occur in different mammals, including man, reptiles and fishes. 
These singular parasites are regarded as the most degraded form 
of arachnida, in the mature stage being reduced to a worm-like, 
limbless body. 



May 20. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Eighteen persons present. 

The Nature of a Fasciated Branch'. — At the meeting of the 
Botanical Section on the 12th, Mr. Thomas Meehan called atten- 
tion to a paper contributed by him to the Proceedings of the 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHUiADELPHIA. 141 

American Association for the Advancement of Science, p. 277, 
vol. xix, 1870, in which, contrary to the accepted hypothesis that 
a fasciated branch was due to *' over-luxuriance," or a high con- 
dition of vitality, he showed that the result was due to a degra- 
dation of vital power. A number of phenomena conceded to 
result from low vital conditions, were shown to be inseparably 
connected with fasciation, the essential feature of which is the 
production of an extraordinary number of buds, with a corre- 
sponding suppression of the normal intemodal spaces. 

This is precisely the condition of a flowering branch ; and all 
its attendant phenomena find their analogue in a fasciated stem. 
Taking a composite flower in illustration — a sunflower, for 
instance — we find on the receptacle a coil of many hundred florets, 
each floret with a chaffy scale at the base. Each of these florets 
in morphology represents a branch, and the scale a leaf or bract, 
from the axil of which the branch would have sprung. If we 
imagine the head uncoiled, and everything in a normal vege- 
tative condition, as distinct from the condition of inflorescence, 
we might have a sunflower plant a hundred feet high or more. 
But with the approach to the flowering stage we have a suppres- 
sion of vegetative development, with a highly accelerated develop- 
ment of buds, out of which are morphologized the floral parts. 

The receptacle on which the involucral scales and other parts 
of inflorescence in a compound flower, had also its analogue in 
the thickened stems which bore the buds in a fasciated branch. 

The phenomena which indicated low vital power in the fasciated 
branch, were all manifested in a flower. Taking the test of vital 
power as the ability to retain life under equal circumstances, we 
find the leaves on a fasciated branch dying before those on the 
rest of the tree. On the balsam fir, an evergreen, the leaves are 
wholly deciduous ; or a deciduous ally, the larch, the leaves mature 
before the others. On other trees we find always the leaves 
enduring longer than those on the fasciated. We say the leaves 
on the latter have a lower vital power. In severe winters the 
branches in the fasciation wholly die, in many cases, while those 
on other portions of the tree survive, and again we say, because 
they have a lower vital power. Precisely the same circumstances 
attend infiorescence. The leaves in thjBir procession from a 
normal condition to petals lose this evidence of vitality in pro- 
portion to the degree of transformation. The petal dies before 
the sepal, the sepal before the bract, and the bract before the 
leaves, in the general order of anthesia, in a compound flower, 
though there are cases where, secondary causes coming into play, 
this rule would be reversed, but, in a general way, the soundness 
of the point would not be disputed. 

From all these facts in analogy it might be said in addition to 
the points brought out in the paper of 1870, above cited, that 
a fasciated branch is an imperfect and precocious attempt to enter 
on the jiowering or reproductive stage. 



142 PROOEEDINaS OF THE ACADEMY 07 [1884. 

On Rapid Changes in the History of Species. — ^Mr. Thomas 
Meehan exhibited flowers of the remarkable Halesia noted at page 
32, and remarked on the wide divergence reached without any 
intervening modifications from the original, and observed that it 
was another illustration of what he thought must now be gener- 
ally accepted, that the maxim of Ray " Naiura non facit 
saltum " itself needed modification. He had called attention to 
this particular departure, among others, in a paper before the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, in 18t4;^ 
what he desired to do now was to emphasize a few of the points 
brought out prominently in that paper, that ^ Variations in 
species, as in morphological changes in individuals, are by no 
means by gradual modifications; that suddenly formed and 
marked variations perpetuate themselves from seeds, and behave 
in all respects as acknowledged species ; and that variations of 
similar characters would appear at times in widely separated 
localities.*' 

In addition to the illustrations given in that paper, a remark- 
able one was afforded by the Bichardia sethiopica, the common 
^^ calla " of gardens, the present season. Some four inches below 
the perfect flower a mere spathe was developed, partially green, 
but mostly white, as usual, but in this case we do not call it a 
spathe, but a huge bract. In other words, the usually naked 
flower-scape of the Bichardia had borne a bract. Flowers with 
a pair of more or less imperfect spathes were not uncommon in 
sopie seasons; the peculiarity of the present season was the 
interval of several inches on the stem, which justified the term 
of bract to the lower spathe. From the vicinity of Philadelphia 
nuTubers had been brought to him, and others had been sent 
from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois — some hundreds of miles apart. 
What was the peculiarity in this season over others which 
induced the production of this bract, was one question. What- 
ever it may have been, it operated in bringing about a change of 
character, without the iptervention of seed, directly on the plant, 
and in many widely separated places at the same time. What is 
to prevent a law which operates exceptionally in one season, 
operating again and in a regular and continuous way ? So far as 
we can understand there can be no reason ; and, if it should, we 
have a new species, not springing from a seed, or one individual 
plant — constituting one geographical centre of creation from 
which all subsequent descendants emigrated and spread them- 
selves — but a whole brood of new individuals already widely 
distributed over the earth's surface, and entirely freed from the 
" struggle for existence " which the development of a species 
from a solitary individual presupposes. 

Aside from the great value of this illustration of how the 
whole character of a species might be modified simultaneously 

^ See Prop. Apier. Assoc. Ad^ Science, vol. zziii, p. B. 9. 



.1884.] NATURAL BOIENOES OF PHILABBLPHIA. 143 

over a wide extent of country, it afforded a lesson in environ- 
ment. External circumstances may influence modification, but 
only in a line already prepared for modification. This must 
necessarily be so, or change would be but blind accident, whereas 
palaeontology teaches us that change has always been in regular 
lines, and in coordinate directions which no accident has been 
able to permanently turn aside. Just as in the birth of animals, 
we find, that however powerful may be some external law of 
nutrition, which, acting on the primary cell of the individual 
decides the sex, yet we see that no accident has been able to 
disturb the proportion'of the sexes born, which has always been, 
so far as we know, nearly equal. So in the birth of species, 
making all allowance for the operation of environment, the 
primary plan has been in no serious way disturbed; we have to 
grant something to environment in the production of new forms, 
but only as it may aid an innate power of change, ready to expend 
itself on action as soon as the circumstances favor such develop- 
ment — circumstances which after all have very little ability to 
determine what direction such change shall take. 

We know that distinct forms do spring through single indi- 
viduals from seed, and that, after battling successfully with all 
the vicissitudes of its surroundings, a new form may succeed in 
spreading, through the lapse of years or ages, over a considerable 
district of country. But the idea that always and in all cases 
species have originated in this manner, presents, occasionally, 
difficulties which seem insurmountable. In the case of the simi- 
larity between the flora of Japan and that of the eastern portion 
of the United States, we have to assume the existence of a much 
closer connection between the land over what is now the Pacific 
Ocean, in comparatively modern times, in order to get a satisfac- 
tory idea of the departure of the species from one central spot ; 
and to demand a great number of years for some plants to travel 
from one central birthplace before the land subsided, carrying 
back species in geological time further, perhaps, than mere geo- 
logical facts would be willing to allow. But if we can see our way 
to a belief that plants may change in a wide district of country 
simultaneously in one direction, and that these changes once 
introduced, be able to perpetuate themselves till a new birth-time 
should arrive, we have a great advancement towards simplifying 
things. 



May 27. 

Mr. J. n. Redfield in the chair. 

Twenty-three persons present. 

Mr. Henry N. Rittenhouse was elected a member. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



144 PBOOEEDINOS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 



HEW FOSSILS FROM THE FOUR GROUPS OF THE NIAGARA PERIOD OF 

wesierk hew york. 

by euofne n. s. ringuebebg. 
Medina Group. 

SphirophTton arehimedei (n. sp.). PI. II> fig. 1. 

Frond large, thick ; growing in loose 'spirals that gradually 
decrease in size from below upwards ; about two coils occur in 
the space of the diameter. 

Surface on both sides crossed by broad, irregular, gently 
undulose, wavy plications, which radiate from the centre out 
towards the obtuse rounded margins in subspiral curves, which 
traverse about one-fourth of the coil, following the general 
spiral growth, which is sinistral. 

This fucoid is specially remarkable for its thickness and loose 
spiral growth. It differs from those figured by Hall by growing 
in decreasing spirals instead of expanding from below up. 

From the upper friable bands of the Medina sandstone at 
Lockport. 

Clinton Group. 

TRIAGRIHUS (n. gen.)* 

Calyx symmetrical, subelongate, ovoid to pyriform. 

Basals five, arranged in a bilaterally symmetrical series, the 
median of which is placed to the right of the anal, and is pen- 
tagonal ; the two next on either side are low quadrangular, and 
the outer adjoining two, which are wider than the others, are pen- 
tagonal and have their superior apices directed away from each 
other. 

The second ring is tripartite and comprised of the large anal 
and the lower elongated and expanded portion of the two lateral 
anterior radials. 

Anal very large, forming nearly one-third of the circumference 
of the calyx ; equilaterally heptagonal ; it rests on one of the 
quadrangular radials and laterally against the sloping sides of 
two adjacent pentangular ones. 

The third or true radial ring is equally quinquepartite and has 
with the second ring — which is really but a modified portion of 
the third — a bilateral symmetry, but differing from that of the 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES 07 PHILADELPHIA. 145 

basals in its axis, which is governed by the anal. Plates five, 
three small and two large, of subequal sizes; upper portion 
incurved so as to form part of the brim of the dome ; deeply ex- 
cavated above in the incurved portion, with dove-tailed notches 
to receive the brachials; first two radials on the posterior side 
small, resting on the sloping sides of the anal and the posteriorly 
expanded portion of the next radials ; lateral radials much elon- 
gated, so as to rest upon the basals; and have the elongated 
portion much expanded, especially anteriorly, where they meet 
under the anterior radial : anterior radial small, supported by the 
lateral radials upon their expanded portion, which in the dextral 
one is supported by three basals like the anal, while the other 
rests on the two wider pentagonal basals and consequently has 
an acute inferior angle instead of a truncate one. 

This anomalous genus should probably be placed next to 
Hyhocrinus with which it has some slight affinity. 

So far found only in the Clinton Group. 

TriaorinuB pyriformiB (n. sp.). PI. Ill, fig. 1. 

Calyx small, subpyriform. 

Base broad, truncate, with a slight, flat, wide depression to 
receive the column which was here evidently about as broad ; 
leaving only a fine sharp projecting marginal ring. 

Height to width as three to two. 

Basals medium ; first to the right of anal ; acutely pentagonal, 
height and width about equal ; the quadrangular plates are about 
one-half as high as the pentagonal ones ; height to width as one 
to two ; the two adjoining pentagonal plates are as high as the 
other, and are wider than high ; extending nearly half way around 
the basal ring. 

Second ring equally trichotomous. Anal large, slightly wider 
than high. 

First two posterior radials medium, obversely equiform with 
their lower and external lateral sides curving outwards ; lateral 
large radials slightly expanded posteriorly and widely anteriorly ; 
anterior radial equilateral, with lateral angles fitting into the 
expanded radials upon which it rests. The wide dove-tailed 
incisions to receive the brachials are about two-thirds as wide as 
the upper part of the plates, at their lower expanded portion ; 
above which point the upper part of the plate is rather abruptly 



146 PB00EEDINO8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

incurved. Height three-eighths inch. From the limestone of the 
upper portion of the Clinton Group at Lockport. 

Triaorinni globotna (n. sp.) PI. Ill, fig. 2. 

Calyx small, globosely subovoid ; base large, deeply excavated 
with rounding margins ; sides evenly rounding from the base to 
the lateral apices of the incurved projections of the radials. 

Basals incurved to receive the column, low at the sutures; 
quadrangular basals very low, height to width as one to three ; 
about one-half of their height is incurved into the excavated base. 

Anal large, almost as high as wide. 

Expanded portion of the lateral radials wide, forming more 
than two-thirds of the second ring. 

Anterior radial evenly rounding from the lateral sides to an 
acute inferior angle. 

Expanded portion of the brachial notches about one-half aa 
wide as the plate at that point. 

The specific features of this species in comparison with the 
other, are the ovoid calyx, much more deeply excavated and 
rounded base, narrower brachial notches in the radials, and the 
evenly rounded sides of the small anterior radial. Height same 
as last species ; width nearly equal to the height. The specimen 
from which the description is taken is slightly distorted by 
pressure. 

Locality and group the same as T, pyrifiyi^Tivis, 

Stiotopora obliqna (n. Rp.) PI. II, fig. 2. 

Flat, large, broad and long, of equal width ; with a central band 
of upward-curving rounding lines of growth, which are irregular 
in distance from each other, and as regards strength j they occupy 
from one-third to one-half of the surface, and are sometimes 
deflected slightly to one side or the other ; the outer ends of these 
striae of growth gradually disappear as they curve downwards 
and approach each other upon the flat, unstriated margins ; but 
occasionally one or two striae are more prominent than the rest, 
and extend further downwards and outwards. 

Cells arranged in longitudinal and rectangular transverse rows 
on the unstriated marginal thirds ; from which point the trans- 
verse rows are deflected downwards, and meet with a rounding 
curve in the central portion. 

The cells of the outer portions are sub-rhombio, with an out- 
ward inclination of their outer upper corners j deflected rows of 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 147 

cells rhomboid, becoming gradaally quadrangular towards the 
centre. 

FUKOISPOKGIA (n. gen.) 

Flattened ; spreading from a fixed point ; thinning out at the 
margin. 

From the atto^ched portions, numerous perforations, with 
smooth walls, radiate and branch out with many bifurcations 
and anastomoses in all directions towards the periphery, having 
numerous GomiQunications with the outer surface, which is quite 
spiooth. 

Fnn^spongia irregnlnriB (d. sp.) PI. Ill, fig. 3. 

Flat, rather thin, irreguUrJy spreading from a lateral or excen- 
tric point of growth. Surface moderately convex ; rather abruptly 
beveled off to a sharp margin, which is somewhat irregular in 
contour. Internal structure consisting of small, closely arranged 
radiating perforations, which, though apparently of a quite regular 
circular form separately, are very irregular in section, in conse- 
quence of the frequent bifurcations and intercommunications 
occurring in their outward course. They do not always open 
directly upon the rather smooth surface, but are directed outwards 
towards the margin and frequently end in furrows on the outside. 

The specimen from which this description is taken, is some- 
what weathered in the central part, so as to well show its struc- 
ture. From the siliceous bands of the Clinton at Lockport* 

Niagara Transition Group. 

Stietopora graminifolia (n. sp.). PL III, fig. 4. 

Very Long and narrow, ribbon-like; width one-eighth inch, 
even throughout, flat on the noncellular and slightly convex on 
the cellular side. 

The stride of the lines of growth are abruptly arched in the 
centre, where they are accompanied by undulations of the surface 
having the same general curve, but which are confined to the 
central portion ; the stri^ grow more crowded as they gradually 
approach the margin, which they continue to do for a distance 
about equal to the width of the flat surface, where they become 
lost just before reaching it by being merged with others in 
common longitudinal striae, which extend some distance down the 
side before they become finally lost. 



148 FR00EEDINQ8 OF THE AOADEMY 07 [1884. 

Central third occupied by five or six longitudinal rows of cells, 
which continue throughout its entire length ; from these the 
lateral cells are directed in nearly straight lines obliquely out- 
wards and upwards towards the margins, at an acute angle. Cells 
twice as long or longer than their width and are arranged irregu- 
larly in th^ rows, without any apparent order. 

The length of the specimen is two and one-fourth inches, 
which was not its entire length, several fragments having been 
lost off either end. 

From the compact, fine-grained Niagara Transition Group 
limestone, which was described by me in the American Naturalist y 
Sept., 1882, at Gasport. 

Niagara Group. 

Enoalyptoorinui inoonipeotni (n. sp.). PI. Ill, fig. 5. 

Calyx large, cup-shaped, wide, upper part with perpendicular 
^ sides; base rounding, obconical with a small excavation to 
receive the column. 

Column and arms unknown. 

Surface finely rugose ; rugsB giving evidence of irregular radia- 
tions from the centre of the larger plates. 

Basals concealed within the depression to receive the column. 
First radials medium, rapidly expanding. Second radials large, 
as high as wide. The rest of the plates, excepting the elongate 
interradials and interbrachials, wider than high. Radial plates, 
with the exception of the second, flattened or even slightly 
depressed, slightly wider than high. 

This species may be distinguished from U. crassus by the, 
comparatively, very shallow basal excavation which receives the 
column ; also by the finely rugose surface-markings, the rounding 
base and nearly parallel sides at the upper part of the calyx. 
And from ^, decorus by the longer calyx and surface-markings. 

From the Niagara limestone at Lockport. 

Comulitei oontraotni (n. sp.). PI. Ill, fig. 6. 

Shell much elongated, cylindrical or subcylindrical, very 
gradually tapering; regularly sharply annulate; longitudinally 
finely striate. 

Growing attached to foreign bodies or in groups when young. 

Annulations very sharply defined, equidistant ; about five to 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 149 

one-fourth inch in the larger specimens ; they rise by an even 
curve from the rounded, contracted, inter-annular spaces and 
form sharp angular annulations. 

Longitudinal striations prominent, closely arranged, and are 
strongest at the bottom of the trough-like depressions, having 
there the appearance of being minute plications produced by the 
contraction ; they grow fainter at the apex of the annulations, 
but continue over them to the next. The sloping sides of the 
annulations sometimes bear one or two inconspicuous annulations 
which do not interfere with the contour of the shell. 

The prominence and regularity of the annulations in the older 
portions of the shell will serve to distinguish it from (7. proprtuSj 
with which it is associated, and to which it sometimes bears a 
superficial resemblance in the younger attached part. 

From the Niagara shale at Lockport. 

Cornulitei nodoBna (n. sp.). PI. Ill) fig. 7. 

Shell small, elongate, tapering gradually to an attenuate, very 
sharp apex. 

Growing on small foreign bodies ; attached throughout. Sur- 
face smooth, ornamented by numerous closely arranged nodes, 
which increase in size as the shell enlarges, and are placed in 
regular rows across it ; the terminal ones being somewhat elon- 
gate and attached to the surface upon which it grows. 

The largest specimen found measures five thirty-seconds of an 
inch in length. 

From the Niagara shale at Lockport. 

Llngula bioarinata (n. sp.) PI. Ill, fig. 8. 

Shell small, ovoid in outline; beak very acute; transverse 
diameter widest half way from the beak ; valves evenly rounding, 
convex ; with two hardly perceptible parallel median ridges com- 
mencing at the beak and extending to the outer margin, widening 
regularly as the shell increases in size. 

Concentric striae fine, even, increasing regularly by several 
bifurcations. 

From the Niagara Shale at Lockport. 

The specimens described were all collected by myself, and the 
types are in my collection. 



150 I>B00EEDINQ8 OF tEE AOADEMT Ot [18844 

t:Xf LANATION OF PLATIlS. 

Plate II. 

1. Spirophptan a/rchvtnedeB (n:. sp.) 

Two whorls of a large specimen, natural size^ 

1 a. Lower side of a pait of a smaller frond^ showing more plainly the 

snbspiral undulations. 

2. SHctopora dbliqua (n. sp.) 

Katural size. 

2 a. A stnall portion of it enlarged, showing tlie oblique downward curyd 

of the transverse i^ws ; three dianiete^^ 

Plate m. 

1. Triaerim/us pyr^ormU (xl. gen. et spO ; natuhil size. 

a. Poster, or side ; enlarged three diameters. 
h. Anterior side ; enlarged three diameters, 
e. Basal view ; enlarged three diameters. 
d. tipper side ; enlarged three diameters^ 
6. Diagram of plates. 

2. iMatfimLB globosus (n. sp.) 

The lettering of the figures same as last^ 

8. Fungispangia irregiikmB (n. gen. et s^.) 
a. Section ; enlarged three diameters. 

4. Stictopora graminifoUa (n. sp.) 

a. Portion ; enlarged three diameters* 

5. MiccLljfptoerinus ineorupectits (n. sp.) 

6. OamuUtes contractUB (n. sp.) 

a. A group of three individuals growing together^ 
h. Surface of 6 ; enlarged three diameters. 

t, CormUites nodosus (n. sp.) 

a. Same individual ; enlarged three diameters* 

8. LinguUb bicarinaia (n. sp.) 
Interior of valve* 



1884«] NATURAL SOIENOEB OF PHILADELPHIA. 151 



June 3. 

Ml". Edward Potts in the chair. 

Fifteen persons present. 

A paper, entitled '' On the Mutual Relations of the Hemi- 
branchiate Fishes," by Theodore Gill, "was presented for publica-^ 
tion. 

Opposite Leaves in Salix nigrat — At the meeting of the Botanical 
Section on June 2, Mr. Thomas Meehan remarked that few 
botanists would expect to find opposite leaves in Salix; but in 8, 
nigra Marshall, they appear at a certain stage of growth, which 
has much significance. This species is of that section which has 
the flower coaetaneous with the leaves ; that is to sa}^ instead of 
the aments being sessile they terminate short branches. They 
are, however, not absolutely terminal, but appear so by the sup* 
pression for a time of the terminal bud. In the case of the female 
ament this terminal bud usually starts to grow very soon after 
the flowers mature, and forms a second growth, when the fertile 
catkin or raceme of fruit, becomes lateral. It is the first pair of 
leaves on this second growth that is opposite — all the rest are 
alternate as in the normal character of the genus. The leaves are 
so uniformly opposite under these circumstances, that there must 
be some general law determining the condition, which has not yet 
been developed* 

June 10* 

Mr. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., in the chair. 

Fourteen persons present. 

A paper, entitled '^ On the Anacanthine Fishes," by Theodore 
Gill, was presented for publication. 



June 17- 

Rev. H. C. McCooK, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Thirteen persons present. 

A Spider that makes a spherical Mud-daub Cocoon, — »The Rey. 
Dr. H. C. McCoOK said that in November, 1883, he received from 
Mr. F. M. Webster, Assistant State Entomologist of Illinois, two 
globular nodules of earth, about the size of a grape, which were 
thought to be the cocoons of a spider. Similar balls bad often 
been found attached, by a slender thread or cord of silk, to the 
underside of boards laid down on the ground. From some of 



152 PBOOEEDINQS OF THE ACADEMY 07 [1884* 

these Mr. Webster had bred a parasitic ichneumon-fly. One box, 
in which mud-balls had been placed the preceding summer, was 
found by him in the autumn (November) to contain such para- 
sites together with a number of young spiders, all dead. The 
spiders were not preserved, but the mud-balls were sent to the 
speaker for determination. One of these had an opening in the 
side about one millimetre in diameter from which evidently an 
ichneumon parasite had escaped. It contained the stiff, white 
cell commonly spun by the larva of this insect. The other 
resembled closely the spherical mud egg-nest of the wasp 
Eumenes, there being even a small nozzle at one pole, from which, 
however, unlike the mud-daub of the wasp, a slight silken cord 
protruded. Dr. McCook was much puzzled to decide upon the 
nature of these objects, but on the whole believed them to be the 
work of some hymenopterous insect, and not of a spider. Two 
ichneumons, which emerged from similar cells, were determined 
by Mr. E. T. Cresson to be Fezomachus meabilis Cresson. 

Subsequently Mr. Webster sent other specimens, some of which 
were opened. They contained silken sacks imbedded in the centre 
of the mud-ball, apparenth'^ of spider spinning-work, and within 
these were fifteen or twenty yellowish eggs, evidently of a spider. 
This, of course, modified the speaker's view, and he set aside the 
specimens, of which he had now a number, in the hope of hatching 
out the contents. The disjecta membra of two adult spiders 
taken near the balls, though much broken, enabled him to deter- 
mine them as Drassids (Drassoidse, a family of the Tubeweavers), 
and probably of the genus Micaria. Mr. Webster simply found 
these near the mud-balls, but did not know that they had any 
connection with them. Dr. McCook moistened the cocoons in 
order to give a natural condition more favorable for the escap>e 
of the spiderlings. should they hatch, and May 30, 1884, on 
opening a box, he found about thirty lively young spiders 
therein. On the bottom of the box was a dead ichneumon, which 
had cut its way put of the side of one of the balls, by a round 
hole. The spiderlings seemed to have escaped from their ball 
along the slight duct left at the point where the bit of silken 
cord was imbedded in the hard earth, and thence protruded, 
forming the cocoon-stalk by which the ball was attached to an 
undersurface. The appearance of the spiderlings indicated that 
they had been hatched two or three days when first seen. They 
were Drassids, evidently the same species as the broken speci- 
mens above alluded to. Thus the interesting habit of concealing 
her future progeny within a globular cradle of mud was demon- 
strated to belong to a spider, as well as to a wasp. That this 
particular species is much subject to the attacks of hymenopterous 
parasites is already proved ; but that it is more exposed than 
many other species which spin silken cocoons otherwise unpro- 
tected in the very same locality, does not appear. There is no 
evidence that so strange a habit has developed from necessity, 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 153 

and none that it proves more protective than the ordinary 
araneal cocoonery. 

Mr. Webster has found these mad-cocoons throughout the 
whole range of Illinois, a State of great longitudinal extent. 
Two balls from Southern Illinois are larger than the others, and 
composed of yellowish earth, but Dr. McCook had not yet suc- 
ceeded in breeding anything from them. The balls from Central 
Illinois are made out of the rich black soil common to the prairies ; 
the spiderlings hatched were from this section. He had named 
the species provisionally Micaria limnicunas {hmiiuSj mud; 
cunm, a cradle), but thought it possible that Hentz may have 
described the species among some one of his genus Herpyllus. 
The young have pale yellow abdomens, of uniform color, and legs 
and cephalothorax of a uniform livid or stone'<solor. The adults 
(females) are of a uniform dark amber color ; the cephalothorax 
glossy, leathery and smooth. The cephalic part is depressed 
below the thoracic part, sloping forward and downward. The 
body length is about one-fourth inch. 

The only spider cocoons known to the speaker at Jill resem- 
bling those of Limnicunse he had collected in a field at Alexandria 
Bay, New York, on the St. Lawrence River, 1882. They were 
attached by very loose spinning-work to the underside of stories. 
But the external case instead of being mud, was a mass of agglom- 
erated particles of old wood, bark, leaves, blossomd, the shells 
and wings of insects, etc. These were evidently gnawed off, 
gathered and placed together, and then held in position by deli- 
cate and sparsely-spun filaments of silk. Two of these chip-balls 
were opened, and contained whitish cocoons similar to those in 
the mud-balls of Limnicunse ; another had within it the charac^ 
teristic cell of some hymenopterous parasite, containing a dried- 
up pupa. A very thin veneering of yellow soil enclosed the 
silkeo case, but otherwise no mud was used. He put aside thi^ee 
specimens which remained, in the hope of hatching out and thils 
determining the species of the maker, but nothing ever appeated, 
and he had not wished to destroy such interesting specimens for 
the sake of knowing the condition of the interior. But on (Com- 
paring these specimens with those of Mr. Webster as now before 
him. Dr. McCook believed that they were the work of closely 
related, or perhaps even the same species. 

It is quite common for spiders of various and widely separated 
families to give their cocoons a protective upholstering of 
scraped bark, old wood, etc., and not unusual to find species 
that cover their egg-nests wholly or in part with mud. But the 
speaker was not aware that any species had yet been published 
as making cocoons like either of the above-described forms. He 
believed, therefore, that the facts were wholly new to science — 
certainly they were new to the field of American Araneology. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 
11 



154 PBO0EEDINQ8 07 THE AOADXMY OF [1884. 



OH THE MUTUAL BELATIOVS OF THE KBMIBBAHCHIATE FI8HE8. 

BT THEODORE OtLL. 

§ 1, Introductory, 

In my "Arrangement of the Families of Fishes," (1872, p. 13, 14) 
before I was aware of the peculiarities of the shoulder girdle, and 
only knowing the characters assigned to the order by Cope, 1 
retained the Hemibranchii in the order Teleocephali, but in the 
introductory commentary (p. xxxix) I raised the group to ordinal 
rank, to which it seems entitled. Prof. Cope, however, is entitled 
to the credit of having first appreciated the distinctness of the 
group as a whole, although the characters assigned to it were not, 
perhaps, of the highest systematic value. As now understood, 
the order seems to be definable as follows : — 

HEMIBBANCHII. 

= EemibrcmeMi, Cope, Pt^c. Am. Ass. Adv. Science, v. 30, p. 388, 1872. 
= Hemibranchii, Gill, Arrangement Families Fishes, p. xxxix, 1872 (Based 

on shoulder girdle). 
= BemilfranehU Cope, Proo. Am. Phil. Soc., v. 18, p. 25, 1873. 
= Hemtbranehii, Gill, Johnson's New tJniversal Cyclopedia, v. 2, p. 872, 

1877 (defined). 
= Hemibranchii, Jordan & Gilbert, SyD. Fishes N. Am., p. 887, 1882. 
Accmthopterygii, fam., aiiet, plilr. 

In the " Arrangement of the Families of Fishes " (1872, pp. 
13, 14), six families were recognized for the Hemibranchs, whose 
combinations and correspondence with the families of previous 
authors are shown in the following abstract : — 

''(H. Gasterosteiformes.) 

(Gasterosteoidea.) 

188. Qaiterosteida QasterosteidiB, Gthr., 1, 1-7. 

134. AtOorhpnchidm Autorhynchoida, GiU, P. A. N. S. Phil., 1862, 288. 

(Aulostomoidea.) 

185. AiOostamidcB FUtulariidcB, Gthr., iii, 620, 585-588. 

136. Fiihda^mdat FUtaUmidm^ Gthr., iii, 521Mi34. 



1884.] NATURAL 80IENCES OF FHHiADELFHIA. 155 

(H. Centrisoiformes.) 

137. Oentriscida OentriseidcBy Qthr., m, 518-524. 

188. Amphigaidm CentrUddoi, Gthr., ill, 518, 524-527." 

In the " Introduction to the Study of Fishes " (1880, p. 507), 
Dr. Oiinther has referred the Aulorhynchoid fishes to the family 
Fistulariidse. 

In the " Synopsis of theFishes of North America " (1 882, p. 387), 
five families were recognized for American species by Messrs. 
Jordan & Gilbert, and grouped as follows : — 

'' * Bones of head produced into a long tube, which bears the 
short jaws at its end. 

a. Body short, compressed, scaly ; no teeth ; spinous dorsal 
present. . . . ... Centriacidss, 60. 

aa. Body elongate ; teeth present. 

b. Dorsal spines none ; a long caudal filament ; no scales. 

FistvlariidsB^ 61 

lib. Dorsal spines present, disconnected ; no caudal filament. 

c. Body covered with ctenoid scales. Aulostomatidas^ 62. 

cc. Body scaleless, with bony shields. 

Aulorhynchidsej 6S. 

** Bones of head moderately produced ; ventrals 1, 1 ; dorsal 
preceded by free spines ; body scaleless, naked or mailed. 

Ga8tero8teid»y 64." 

On a recent review of the forms of the order, I am more than 
ever convinced of the aptness of the classification proposed by 
myself in 1872 and submit the following table and characters 
which wiU, I think, amply justify that confidence. Far from 
being able to see any close afiSnity between the Aulorhynchidse 
and Aulostomidae, I am unable to appreciate any very distinctive 
differences from the Oasterosteidse, and the close afiSnity between 
Aulorhynchus and Spinachia is such that I regard the family 
Aulorhynchidse simply as a convenient one at the most, and as 
expressing the culmination in one direction of the tendency 
characteristic of the order. I should be scarcely disinclined to 
dissent from any who should combine the Gasterosteidss and 
Aulorhynchidse in one family. 



156 PBOCEEDINQS 07 THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

§ 2. Synopsis of Families, 

I. Dermal armature absent or developed only as plates on sides or 

back ; vertebrse numerous (30 to 86) ; pubic bones connected 
with scapular arch ; spinous dorsal represented by isolated 
spines. 
1. VertebrsB anteriorly little enlarged; ventrals subthoracic, 
with enlarged spines (Oasterosteoided). 

a. Branchiostegal rays three; ventrals with one ray each; 

snout conic or but slightly tubiform. Gasterosteidas. 

b. Branchiostegal rays four ; ventrals with four rays each ; 

snout tubiform Aulorhynchidae, 

S. Vertebrae anteriorly (first four) elongate; ventrals sub- 
abdominal or near middle, without spines, but with 6 (or 5) 
rays (Aulostomoidea), 

c. Dorsal spines developed, weak ; body compressed, moder- 

ately long, with ctenoid scales. . . Aulostomidas. 

d. Dorsal spines undeveloped ; body depressed or sul> 

cylindrical, very long, without scales (caudal with the 
two middle rays produced into a long filament). 

Fistulariidas. 

II. Dermal armature superficial, developed anteriorly and espe- 

cially about the back ; four anterior vertebrae much elongate ; 
tail with its axis continuous with that of the abdomen; 
branchihyals and pharyngeals mostly present (fourth 
superior branchihyal and first and fourth superior pharyn- 
geals only wanting) ; pubic bones not connected with the 
scapular arch ; a spinous dorsal fin developed {Macrorhamr 

ft 

pTiosoidea) Macrorhamphosidag, 

III. Dermal armature connate with the internal skeleton, and 

developed as (1) a dorsal cuirass in connection with the 
neuropophyses and (2) lateral shields connected with the 
ribs ; vertebrae reduced ; six or more anterior vertebrae 
extremely elongate, with normal articulations of centra ; 
tail with its axis deflected from that of the abdomen by 
encroachment of a dorsal cuirass over the dorsal fin; 
branchial system feebly developed (fourth superior bran- 
chihyal and all the superior pharyngeals wanting) ; pubic 
bones not connected with the scapular arch; a spinous 
dorsal feebly developed under the posterior projection of 
the dorsal buckler. (Amphisiloidea) . . AmphisUidm. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES 07 PHILADELPHIA. 157 

§ 3. Diagnoses of Groups. 

GASTEBOSTEID^. 

8ynony7M as fcmviXieB. 

<C AtraetosomeSf Dum^ril, Zool. Anal., 14e fam., p. 124^ 1806. 
<^ Aecmti, Kafinesque, Indioe d'lttiolog. Siciliana, 15. ord., p. 18, 1810. 
<[ Atraetomia {Ca/ranxia)y Rafinesque, Ajialyse de la Nature, 8e famu, p. 
— , 1815. 

< Scomberaidea, Cuvier, Rhgne Animal [1. ed.], t. 2, p. 311 (319), 18J7. 
<^ JPercoidesf Latreille, Fam. Nat. du Regne Animal, p. 135, 1825. 

< Omtranotides, Risso, Hist. Nat. de TEurope Merid., t. 3, p. 426, 1826. 
<< ZeidoB, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc. v. 2, p. 241, 1839. 
<[ TriglidoB (Qasterosteini), Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 5d 

(Saggio Bistrib. Metod. Animali Yertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 82), 

1832. 
■= Gasterosteidce, Bonaparte, Nuovi Annalidelle Sci. Nat., t. 2, p. 133, 1838; 

t. 4, p. 275, 1840. 
= Qa%tero8te%d(B, Girard, Expl. and Surv. for R. R. Route to Pacific Oo., 

V. 10, Fishes, p. 84, 1858. 
= GMteroateaidei, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Pise. Archip. Ind., p. zxiii, 1869. 
= Oct8tero8teid(B, Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 1, 1859. 
= Oast&rosteoidce, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. A., p. 39, 1861. 
= GasterostetdcB, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., v. 20, p. 338, 1872. 
= Gasteroatei, Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. der Wissensch. (Wien), 

B. 67, 1. Abth., p. 34, 1873. 
= GasterosteidcB, Giinther, Int. to Study of Fishes, p. 504, 1880. 
= Gastero8teid(E, Jordan & GUbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., pp. 387, 392, 1833. 
JPercaides [?], Latreille, 1825. 
IhiglidcB, Subf. Gaaterosteini, Bonaparte, 1832. 

Hemlbranchs with the anterior vertebrae little enlarged, a more 
or less fusiform body, conic or moderately produced snout, sides 
naked, or with a row of bony shields, and ventrals subthoraeic, 
each with a large spine, and one or two rays. 

Apeltinse. 

Gasterosteids with post-thoraoic ventrals, pubic bones widely 
separated behind and extending on the sides, a moderately 
projecting snout, and a moderate caudal peduncle. 

APELTS8. 

= Apeltee (Brevoort), Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. A., p. 89, 1861 ; Canad. 

Nat., n. s., V. 2, p. 8. 
= ApeUes, Jordan, Man. Vertebrates Northern U. S., p. 249, 1876. 

< Gasterost&u8y Sauvage, Nouv. Arch. Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, t. 10, pp. 

7, 29, 1874. (Subgenus). 



158 PBO0EEDINO8 OF THE AOADEMY OF [1884. 

Apeltines with the branchial apertures restricted and three free 
dorsal spines. 

Type, A quadracus = Oasterosteus quadracus Mitch. 

GasterosteinsB. 

Synonyms as stibfamiUes, 

< Oasterosteini, Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52 (Saggio Dis- 

trib. Metod. Animali Yertebr. a Saogue Freddo, p. 82), 1882 ; Nuovi 
Annali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2, p. 133, 1838 ; t. 4, p. 275, 1840. 

< GasterosteiTUB, Gill, Cat. Fishes £. Coast N. A, p. 39, 1861 ; Canad. 

Nat., n. s., y. 2, p. 8, 1865. 

Gasterosteids with post-tlioracic ventrals, pubic bones con- 
nected and constituting a triangular median plate, a moderately 
projecting snout, and a moderate caudal peduncle. 

EUCALIA, Jordan. 

^^Mtealiaf Jordan, Man. Vertebrates Northern U. S., p. 248, 1876. 
Gasterosteus sp., Eirtland, Agassiz, et al, 

Gasterosteines with the branchial apertures confluent, and four 
or five non-divergent and equally reclinable free dorsal spines. 
Type, E. inconstans z= Oasterosteus inconstans Kirtland. 

PY008TEUS. 

< LeiwruSf Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes^ etc.,. v. 2, pp. 175, 242 

(subgenus). 
= Pygostms (Brevoort), Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. A., p. 39, 1861 ; 

Canad. Nat., n. s., v. 2, p. 8. 
== Pygosteus, Jordan, Man. Vertebrates Northern IT. S., p. 249, 1876. 
= Gasterostea, Sauvage, Nouv. Arch. Mus. d'Hlst. Nat. Paris, t. 10, pp. 

7, 29, 1874. (Subgenus). 
Gasterosteas sp., Artedi, Linmeus, Lac^pede, Cuvier, Fleming, Cnv. & 

Val., Girard, Gunther, etc. 
Gasteraea/rUhtu sp., Pallas. 

Gasterosteines with the branchial apertures confluent (the 
branchiostegal membrane having a free inferior margin), and 
seven to eleven generally divergent spines. 

Type, P. pungitiua = OanteroBteus pungitiuB L. 

GA8TEB08TEU8. 

< GasterostetiSf Artedi, Genera Piscium, p. 52, 1738. 

< Gasterosteus, Linnasus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, t. 1, p, 295, 1758. 

< Gasterosteus, Lac^pede, Hist, des Poissons, t. 3, p. — , 1802. 

< GcbsteracanthtiSy Pallas, Zoographia Bosso-Asiatica, t. 8, p. 228 (1811), 

1881, 



1884.] NATURAL S0IEN0JC8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 159 

< Oasterotteus, Cuvier, R^gne Animal, Ire 6d,, t. 2, p. 800, 1817. 

(Subgenus). 

< Gaaterosteus, Fleming, Hist. Brit. Animals, p. 219, 1828. 

< GasteroBteus, Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 4, p. 

479, 1829. 
X Gaaterostetts, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, eto., v. 2, pp. 175, 

242, 1889. 
X Leiv/ruSj Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 175, 242. 

(Subgenus). 

< GasterosteuSf Girard, Expl. and Surv. for R. R. Route to Pacific Oc, ▼. 

10, Fishes, p. 85, 185S. 

< GasterosteuSy Gtinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 1, p. 2, 1859. 

= Gaaterosteus, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. A., p. 89, 1861 ; Canad. Nat., 
n. s., V. 2, p. 8, 1865. 

< Gasterostetu, Sauvage, Nouv. Arch, Mus. d^Hist. Nat. Paris, 1. 10, pp. 

7, 9, 1874. (Subgenus.) 
=- Geuteroetetu, Jordan, Man. Vertebrates Northern U. S., p. 248, 1876. 

Gasterosteines with the branchial apertures restricted (the 
branchiostegal membrane being attached below), and two free 
divergent spines. 
Type, G. aculeatus L. 

8pinaohiin». 
Synonym/y, 

Spinachiana, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., v. 14, p. 283, 1862. 
Spirutehiinofj Gill, Johnson's New Universal Cycl., v. 4, p. 558 (under 
"Stickle-back »'), 1878. 

Gasterosteids with a very projecting subtubiform snout, sub* 
abdominal ventrals, and elongated caudal peduncle, 

SPIKACHIA. 

= Les Gastres {8pin€Lchia)y Cuvier, R^gne Animal, t. 2, p. 820, 1817. 

= Bpinachiay Fleming, Hist. Brit: Animals, p. 219, 1828. 

= Polycanthvs, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 175, 

242. 
= GastrcBa, Sauvage, Nouv. Arch, Mus. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, t. 10, pp. 7, 

29, 1874. (Subgenus). 
GoBteroateus sp., Linn., et s^l, 

Spinachlines of unique type. 

Type, S. vulgaris = Qastero^eus spinachia Linn, 

AULOBHYNCHIDiE. 

Synonyms asfctmUy names. 

= AfdorhynehpidcBy Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. [v. 14], p. 288, 1862. 
= Avlorhy^^iday Gill, Arrangement Families Fishes, p. 14, 1872. 



160 PBOGEEDINOB OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

= AtUarhynchidcBy Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes, N. Am., pp. 887, 391, 

1883. 
FUtuUmiidcB, gen., Giinther. 

Synonym as 9ubfom,Uy name, 
• = AviorhyncMnmy Gill, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. [v. 13], p. 169, 1861. 

Hemibranchs with the anterior vertebrse little enlarged, an 
elongated subcjlindrical body, elongated tubiform snoat ; sides 
with a row of bony shields, and ventrals subthoraoic, with a 
spine and four rays each. 

ATTLOBHTirCHIJS. 

= AiOorhynchut, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Be. Phila. [v. 13], p. 169, 1861. 
= AtUi8cop8y Peters, Monatsber. K. Preuss. Akad. Wiss., 1866, p. 510, 
1866. 

Aulorhynchids with a smooth-skinned crown and tube, lateral 
plates unarmed and hidden in the skin, dorsal spines (25-26) 
moderately short, and naked back. 

Type, A.Jlavidus Gill. 

AULICHTHTS. 

^ Atdtchthys (Brevoort), Gill, Proo. Acad. Nat. Bci. Phila. [v. 14], p. 334, 

1862. 
AtUarhynchtu sp., Steindachner. 

Aulorhynchids with a corrugated crown and rostral tube, lateral 
plates each armed with a longitudinal posteriorly spinous ridge, 
dorsal spines (about 25) very short and transversely triangular, 
and reclining in grooves, behind each of which is a small plate. 

Type, A, Japonicus (Brev.) Gill. 

AULOSTOMIDiSS. 

Synonymy, 

< Aulostomides, Latreille, Fam. Nat. du R^gne Animal, p. 129, 1825. 

< AulostomatidcB, Cantor, Oat. Malayan Fishes, p. 211, 1850. 

= Aulostomatoideif Blocker, £num. Sp. Pisoium Archip. Ind., p. xxiii, 
1859. 

< Aulostomatoids, GUI, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. PhUa. [v. 13], p. 168, 1861. 
= Aulostomidatf Gill, Arrangement Families Fishes, p. 14, 1872. 

< Aulostomateidm, Cantor, Day, Fishes of India, v. 1, p. 360, 1878. 

'= AulostomatidoB, Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., pp. 387, 390, 

1883. 
BoueTies enftuts, gen., Cuvier. 
MsMaridc^ gen., Giinther, et al. 



1884.] NATURAL SOJENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 161 

Hemibranchs with the first four vertebrse elongated, the form 
elongated compressed, with an elongated tubiform mouth; the 
body covered with cycloid scales, with subabdominul yentrals 
composed of six rays but without spines, and with a series of 
dorsal spines. 

AXTLOSTOICA. 

= Aulottomaf Lac^pede, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 5, p. 857, 1808. 

< Polypteriehthys^ Bleeker, J^atqurk. Tgdschr. Nederlandsch Indie, v. A, 

p. 608. 
Fistularia sp., Linn. 
8olenostomu8 sp., GronoWf 

Aulostomids with a much compressed bod}', rudimentary teeth, 
8-12 dorsal spines, opposite oblong dorsal and anal (with 23-28 
rays each), and a cuneiform caudal. 

Type, A. chinensis = Fistularia chinensis Linn. 

FISTULABIIDiSS. 

BynonyfM a% family names, 

< SipJionostomeSf Duni6ril, Zool. Anal., 28e fam., p. 188, 1806. 
Centrischini f Rafinesque, Indice d'lttiologia Siciliana, p. 34, 1810. 

< 8ip7io8tofnia {Aulostomia), Rafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, 20e fam., 

p. — , 1815. 

< Bouchei en flute, Cuvier, Regne Animal [Ire ifid.], t. 2, p. 848, 1817 ; 2e 

^., t. 2, p. 267, 1829. 

< Aulostomides, Latreille, Fam. Nat. du Regpe Animal, p. 129, 1825. 

< Centrisecidee, Risso, Hist Nat. de I'Europe Herid., t. 8, p. 476, 1826. 

< FietularidcB, Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animal! Veitebr. a Bangue Freddo, p. 85), 1882; Isis, 1888, 
col. 1200. 

< Scarnberida (FUtula/rincB), S^aifison, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., 

T. 2, pp. 175, 240, 1880. 

< Fistularidm, Bonaparte, Nuoyi Annali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2, p. 182, 1888 ; 

t. 4, p. 190, 1840. 

< Fistulariotdei^ Bleeker, £num. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, fam. 133, 

p. xxvi, 1859. 

< FistulariidoB, Gtinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 8, p. 629, 1861. 

< FiitulariidcB, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sc, v. 20, p. 389, 1872. 

= FistulariidcBj Gill, Arrangement Families Fishes, p. 14, 1872. (Named 
only.) 

< FUtularicB, Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. der Wissensch. (Wien), 

B. 67, 1. Abth., p. 85, 1873. 

< FistulariidcBf Gunther, Int. to Study of Fishes, p. 507, 1880. 

= FistuUtriidcB^ Joidan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., pp. 887, 888, 1882. 



162 PBO0£EDINOS OF THB AOADEBCT OF [1884. 

Synonyms as subfcmily names. 

< Fistularini, Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, t. 52 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animal Yertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 35), 1832 ; Isis, 1833, 
col. 1200. 

< Fistidarini, Bonaparte, Nuovl Annale delle 8c. Nat., t. 2, p, 132, 1838 ; 

t. 4, p. 190, 1840. 
= FistuXa/nna, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 175, 
240, 1839. 

Hemibranchs with the first four vertebrae very long; a very 

elongated and somewhat depressed body ; a long tubiform 

snout; without scales, with the ventrals near the middle, and 

having five or six rays each, but no spines, and without dorsal 

spines (the two middle rays of the caudal produced and united 

into a long filament). 

FISTJLiLBIA. 

< Solenostomus, Klein. 

< Fistvla/ria, Linn., Syst. Nat., 10. ed., v. 1. 

= Fistularia, Lac, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 5, p. 349. 
= CJumnorhynchuSy Cantor, Cat. Halayan Fish., p. 211. (Proi)Osed on 
account of preoccupation of Flstiilaria by Donati.) 

Fistularlids of unique genus. 
Type, F. tabaccaria Linn. 

MACBOBHAMPHOSIDiES. 

Synonyms as family names, 

< AphyostomeSj Dum^ril, Zool. Anal., 5. fam., p. 106, 1806. 

= CerUrischini, Rafinesque, Indice d'lttiologia Siciliana, p. 34 (33. ord.*), 
1810. 

< Siphostomia (Aulostomia), Bafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, 20. fam., 

p. — , 1815. 

< BoucTies enfiute, Cuvier, Begne Animal, t. 2, p. 348, 1817. 

< Aulostorrddes, Latre'Ue, Fam. Nat. du Begne Animal, p. 129, 1825. 

< CmPriscides, R sso. Hist. Nat. de I'Europe Merid., t. 3, p. 476, 1826, 

< Fistularidai (Ceutriscini), Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52 

(Saggio. Distrib, Metod. Animal. Vertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 35), 
1832 ; Isis, 1833, col. 1200. 

< FistvlaridoB, Bonaparte, Nuovi Annali delle So. Nat., t. 2, p. 132, 1838 ; 

t. 4, p. 190, 1840. 

< FistuUiridcRj Bonaparte, Cat. Metod. dei Pesci Europei, pp. 7, 70, 1846. 
= Centriscmdeij Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indioo, p. xxiii, 

1859. 

< CentriicicUBf Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 3, p. 518, 1861. 

' Mdcroramphosits i& included in the 35. ord. SHuridi (p. 35.) 



1884.] NATUBAL SGIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 163 

= OentriicidcB, Gill, Arrangement Fam. Fishes, p. 25, 1872. 

< Cenirisci, Fitz'nger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. der Wissensch. (Wien), B. 

67, 1. Abth.. p. 35, 1878. 
= Omtnscidai, Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. A., p. 887, 1882. 

Subfamily synonyms, 

< OeTUrisciniy Bonaparte, Giorn. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animali Vertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 85), 1832 ; Isis, 1833, 
p. 1200. 

< Centriscini, Bonaparte, 1850. 

= Centriscina, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1862, p. 234, 1862. 

< OrthiehthyincB, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1862, p. 234, 1862. 

Hemibranchs with the four anterior vertebrsB much lengthened; 
bony plates anteriorly and especially about the back ; an elongated 
tubiform mouth ; abdominal ventrals with a spine and several 
rays ; a small distinct spinous dorsal about the middle of the 
body ; with the branchihyals and pharangeals mostly present, the 
fourth superior branchihyal, and first and fourth superior pharyn* 
geals only wanting. 

XACBOBHAMPHGSXrS. 

:= MdcrorhampTiosus, Lac^pede, Hist. Nat. des Poissons, t. 5, p. 136, 

= Centriscus, Cuvier, R^gne Animal, 1. ed., t. 2, p. 350, 1817. 

> Orthichthys, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1862, p. 234, 1862. 

Macrorhamphosids with an oblong body, graduating into the 
caudal peduncle, straight back, and about seven dorsal spines. 

Type, if. scolopax = Centriscus scolopax Linn., 1166. 

As Messrs. Jordan & Gilbert have recently shown (Proc. XJ. S. 
Nat. Mus., V. 5, p. 515, 1883), the only species referred by Linnaeus 
at first to the genus Centriscus, was the G. scutatus (afterwards 
taken as the type of -4m/)/im7e),and consequently Centriscus can- 
not be properly used as the designation of the present genus. The 
name Macrorhamphosus, being the first applicable, although 
imposed by mistake, may be used for it. It is unfortunate that 
the change should have to be made, and, although fully con- 
versant with the status years ago, I hesitated to propose it. 
Nevertheless with such excellent authorities as Messrs. Jordan 
& Gilbert to recognize its necessity, I no longer refuse to 
accede to the change. 

CENTBISCOfS. 

= Oentriscops, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1862, p. 234, 1862. 
Oentriscus sp., Richardson, et al. 



164 PROOEEDINOS OF THE AGADEBfY OF [1884. 

Macrorhamphosids with a deep body, abruptly contracted 
caudal peduncle, an excurrent peaked back, and about four to five 
dorsal spines. 

Type, G. humerosus = Centriscus humerosus Richardson. 

AMPHISILIDiB. 

Family Synonyms. 

= AmphisHmdeij Bleeker, Enom. Sp. Piscium Archip. Ind., p. xvi, 1859 ; 

Atlas Ich. des Indes Norland., t. 5, p. xt, 1865. 
= AmphistlidcB, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., v, 20, p. 338, 1872. 
= AmphisilidcB, Gill, Arrangement Families Fishes, p. 25, 1872. 

Suhfamtly Synonym, 
= Amphrnlina, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (v. 14). p. 234^ 1862. 



< CentriseidcB, pt., Gunther, 1861. 

< Oentrisci, pt., Fitzmger, 1873. 

Hemibranchs with six or more anterior vertebrse extremely 
elongated, the caudal much abbreviated, paired selliform dorsal 
plates connected with the neuropophyses of the dorsal vertebrae, 
and lateral ones developed in connection with the ribs, an elon- 
gated tubiform mouth, abdominal ventrals, two dorsals, and with 
the entire caudal portion of the body deflected downwards by the 
encroachment of the dorsal cuirass over the dorsal fins ; and with 
the '^ fourth supra-branchihyal, and all the superior pharyngeals 
wanting " (Cope). 

CXNTBISGXrS. 

= CentriseuSf Linn., Syst. Nat., 10. ed., v. 1. 

< CentriscuSf Linn«, Syst. Nat., 12. ed., v. 1. 

< AmphmU (Klein), Cuvier, R6gne Animal, t. 2, p. 350, 1817. 

= AcerUraehmey Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (v. 14), p. 234^ 1862. 
= AmphisUe, s. g. Acentraehmey Liitken, Vid. Hedd. Naturhist. Foren. 
Kjobenhavn, 1865, p. 215, 1866. 

Amphisilids without a movable spine connected with the pos- 
terior process of the dorsal cuirass. 
Type, G. scutatus. 

AMPHIBILE. 

< AmphinU^ Klein, Hist. Piscium Nat. promov. Miss., p. 28, 1744 (not 

binomial). 

< AmphUiUy Cuv.'er, Regne Animal, t. 2. p. 350, 1817. 

= AmphisUe, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. (v. 14), p. 234, 1862. 
= AmphUUe, s. g. AmphwiUy Liitken, Vid. Medd. Naturhist. Foien. Kjo- 
benhavn, 1865, p. 215, 1866. 



i 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 165 

Amphisilids with a spine at the posterior process of the dorsal 
cuirass. 

Type, A^ strigata = Amphisile sp., Klein. 

§ 4. Extinct Families. 

In addition to these types, all represented in the existing 
faunas, there are two fishes no longer living, which cannot be 
referred to any of the families as now restricted, but appear to be 
types of peculiar ones. They are the Urosphenfistularis and Bham- 
pho8U8 aculeatus of Agassiz ; both have been found in the cele- 
brated fish-beds of Mount Bolca. These have been referred to the 
family Fistulariidse by Dr. Giinther, but one of them is more nearly 
related to the Macrorhamphosidse and Gasterosteidae. They are 
imperfectly known, but appear to be distinguishable as family 
types by the 'following characters, which will doubtless be sup- 
plemented by others when well-preserved specimens or character- 
istic parts shall be critically examined. 

UBOSFHENIDiB. 

Hemibranchs with the first four vertebrae much elongate, a 
moderately elongated body, a long tubiform mouth (ventrals 
abdominal ? dorsal unknown), and a very large cuneiform caudal. 

BHAMFHOSIDiES. 

Hemibranchs with the anterior vertebrae normal (not elongated) 
and separate, about 22 (8 abdominal and 14 caudal) vertebrae 
in all, plates on the nape and shoulders only, with a tubiform 
mouth, subthoracic ventrals, a dorsal spine behind the nuchal 
armature, and the second dorsal and anal far behind and opposite. 

§ 5. The Pegasidee. 

Finally, there is a family which has been shifted from place to 
place in the system, and which has been referred by Prof. Cope 
to the order Hemibranchii. Its type was regarded as a chon- 
dropterygian by Linnaeus and the elders, as a syngnathoid fish 
by Cuvier ; first isolated in a family by Latreille ; received the 
family name Pegasidae from H. Adams in 1854 ; was pronounced 
to be related to the Agonidae by Steenstrup in 1866 ; placed next 
to them by Giinther (Int., p. 482, 1880), and relegated to the 
Hemibranchii by Cope. It has also been regarded as the repre- 
sentative of a peculiar order (" ordo 12. Pegasi "), of the " sub- 



166 PEOOBEDINaS OF THE AGADEBfY OF [1884. 

legio " Lophobranchii by Bleeker, and as a suborder (HypoBto- 

mides) of the order Lophobranchii by A. Dum^ril. Having no 

skeleton to examine, I retain it in the present order solely on the 

authority of Prof. Cope, and with some doubt as to its right 

herein. 

PEQASIDiSS. 

Family SynanymB^ 

< Bpherionidif Rafinesque, Lidioe d'lttiolog. Siciliana, p. 40, 1810. 
<^ Pomamchiaj Rafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, 25. fam., 1815. 

= Hypostomideaf Latre.lle, Fam. Nat. du R^gne Animal, p. 117, 1825. 
<[ SyngnathidcB, Bonaparte, Giom. Aocad. di Scienze, v. 52 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animali Yertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 39), 1832 ; Isis, 1883, 

c. 97, 119. 

< 8yngnathid<B, Swainson, Nat. Histi and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 195, 

881, 1839, 

< SyngnathidcBj Bonaparte, Nuovi Annali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2, p. 130, 1888 ; 

t. 4, p. 185, 1840. 
<^ JERppocampidcB, Naido, Atti Congress! Scienz. ItaL rao. et ord., y. 1, p. 

70 (1842), 1845. 
= PtgasidcB, Eaup, Archly fur Naturg., 19. Jahrg., B. 1, p. 227, 1853 ; also 

Cat. Lophobr. Fishes Brit. Mus., p. 3, 1856. 
= Ptgastda, Adams, Manual Nat. Hist., p. 94, 1854. 
:= JPRgaaaideiy Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indioo, p. 3^, 1869. 
= JPRgand<B, Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit, Mus., y. 8, p. 146, 1870. 
:=PBg<uid(B, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Ady. So!., y. 20, p. 339, 1872. 
= Pigasi, Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. E. Akad. der Wissensch. (Wien), B. 67, 

1. Abth., p. 49, 1873. 
= BigasidcB, Cope, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc., v. 13, p. 25, 1873, 

SiibfamUy Synonyms, 

= Pegomni, Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Bcienze, y. 52 (Saggio Distrlb. 

Metod. Animali Yertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 39), 1832. 
£= PiBgasini^ Bonapaite, Nuoyi Annali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2, z, p. 130, 1838; 

t. 4, p. 186, 1840. 
= JPegasini, Nardo, Atti Congressi Scienz. Ital. rac. et ord., y. 1, p. 70 

(1842), 1844. 
t= FRgctnni, Bonaparte, Catal. Metod* Pesci Europei, pp. 9, 89, 1846.^ 

Hemibranchs? with the snout projecting and the mouth 
inferior. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENGES Of PHILADSIiPHIA. 16T 



OK THE AKAOAHTHIVE FIBRES. 
BY THEODORE QILL. 

Under the name Anacanthini have been grouped those Teleost 
fishes which have ^Wertical and ventral fins without spinous 
rays ; the ventral fins, if present, are jugular or thoracic ; air- 
bladder, if present, without pneumatic duct " (Giinther, Int. to 
Study of Fishes, p. 53T, 1880). These characters are not re- 
inforced by any others, but nevertheless the fishes so character- 
ized have been segregated by most ichthyologists into an "order." 
The propriety of such valuation was disputed by the present 
writer in 1861 (Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. Am., p. T ), and the group 
degraded to the rank of a suborder, and subsequently (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1868, p. 255), the genus Zoarces was trans- 
ferred to it and associated with the Lycodinae and Gymnelinae in 
the same family. The American ichthyologists have generally 
acceded to the propriety of this degradation of the Anacanthini 
to subordinal rank. Most have also conceded the propriety of 
the association of Zoarces with the forms indicated, as has also 
Prof. CoUett of Norway (Den Norske Nordhavs Expedition 
18T6-18T8; Ficke, p. 78-T9, 1880), although Prof. Cope has still 
retained Zoarces among the Blenniidse. The subordinate rank 
of the Anacanthini appears indeed to be too evident to need 
further emphasis in this place, and its value as a suborder, or 
even as a natural and homogeneous group,maybe justly questioned 
and denied. Nevertheless, for the sake of convenience at least, 
the collection may be provisionally (and only provisionally) pre- 
served. The group under various names has been adopted by 
European authors, and the following are synonyms, exclusive of 
those pertaining to the Heterosomatous types. 

JUGULABES OB ANACANTHINI. 

Byn<mymy. 

X \.Hol6brancheB'\ JugulaireSt Dum^ril, Zoologie Analytique, p. Ill, 1806. 
X IHblohranches'} ApodeSf Dum^ril, Zoologie Analytique, p. 117, 1806. 
X Ohorizopict, Rafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, p. — , 1815. (Suborder.) 
X [ Tetrapodes'} Jugulaires, De Blainville, Journal de Physique, t. 83, p. 

265, 1816. (Suboider.) 
X {.Apodss^ De Blainville, Journal de Physique, t. 88, p. 265, 1816. 



168 PBOOEEDINQS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

X [Malaeopterygisns'i Subbranchieiu, Cuvier, Regne Animal, Ire ed., t. 2, 

p. 211, 1817. (Tribe.) 
X JugulairM Malaeopterygiens, Risso, Hist. Nat^ de I'Europe, t. 3, p. 214, 

1827. (Tribe.) 
X Apodes, Risso, Hist. Nat. de I'Eurdpe, t. 3, p. 189, 1827. (Order.) 
X Lotes, Oken, Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte, 1816. 
X McUacopterygii, Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Sci., v. 52 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animali Vertebr* a Sangue Freddo, p. 86), 1832 ; Isis, 1883, 

col. 1202. 
X Buhhrachiomi iStemoppgii). Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52, 

(Saggio Distrib. Hethod. Animali Yertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 57), 

1832 ; Isis, 1833, col. 1202. 

< MaXacopterygeSj Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc^, v. 2, pp« 

167, 107, 1839. (As order.) 

< Anacanthinij Miiller, Abhand. K. Akad. Wissenscb. Berlin, 1844, p. 199, 

1846. (As order.) 

< Oadij Bonaparte, Catalogo Metodico dei Pesci Europei, pp. 5, 22, 1846. 

(As order.) 

< Phyaodysti, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. Am., p. 7, 1861. (As suborder 

of Teleocsphali), 

< Anaeanthini, Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., y. 4, p. 317, 1862. (As 

order.) 

<[ Anaoanthini, Hackel, G^nerelie Morphologie der Organismen, B. 2, p. 
cxxvii, 1866. (As suborder.) 

>= AnacantJiinif Gill, Arrangement Families Fishes, p. 31, 1872j (As sub- 
order of Teleocephali,) 

> Anacanthini, Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Science, v. 20, p. 341, 1872. 

> Seyphohranchiii Cope, Proc. Am. Assoc. Adv. Science, v. 20, p. 341, 

1872. 
c= Anacanthini or c7t^^uZare«, Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 
783,1882. (As group or suborder.) 

T'wo open questions aflfect the constituency of the group. 

Pt'of. Cope, in his memorable "Observations on the systematic 
relations of the Fishes", defined the group, which he referred to 
his " order " Percamorphi, in the following terms : — 

1. "Anacanthini. Basis cranii simple, no tube; post-temporal 
bifurcate ; scapular foramen between scapula and coracoid ; 
superior pharyngeals three, horizontal, third little larger ; dorsal 
fin rays flexible, jointed. Includes the families Gadidse and 
Macruridse^ both with isocercal caudal vertebrfle.^' 

This definition is quite applicable to the typical Oadidm and 
Macruridae, but there are several forms which have generally 
been associated with them (and which have even been usually 
considered to be more nearly allied to the Qadidae than are the 



1884.] NATURAL S0IENGE8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 169 

Macruridse) which do not exhibit the combination of characters 
signalized. Such fishes have been designated as the families 
BrotulidXj Ophidiidae, Fierasferidae^ and Congrogadides. These 
have the characters assigned by Prof. Cope to his Scyphobranchii, 
at least as much as the genus Zoarces (referred to that group as 
a genus of Blenniidae), but none of the genera are mentioned 
under either title. Probably Prof. Cope had no skeletons of any 
of the families in question. We are therefore left in doubt (1) 
whether he would associate them with the Oadidae and Macruridas 
and modify the characters of the including group Anacanthini, or 
(2) whether he would refer them to the Scyphobranchii, next to 
Zoarces and the Bl§nniides generally. 

Messrs. Jordan & Gilbert, in their excellent ^' Synopsis of the 
Fishes of North America," incidentally (p. 783, in a foot-note) 
refer to the ^^Anacanthini or Jugulares " as a '^ group or suborder" 
of Acanthopteri, and conclude the " order Acanthopteri " with 
the series of families generally combined under the former name. 
After having first admitted the family Brotulidse (p. 79), they 
finally referred its constituents to the family Gadidse (p. 794), 
admitting, however, the families Congrogadidm (p. 790), Fieraa- 
feridsg (p. 791), Ophidiidae (p. 792), and Macruridss (p. 810). 
The question now arises whether the last thought of the eminent 
ichthyologists is an advance on their first thought. 

A preliminary investigation into the structure of the Jugular 
or Anacanthine fishes, leads us to different conclusions from those 
enunciated by the several great authorities, whose views we have 
mentioned. That lamentable inattention to anatomy, and poverty 
of the museums in anatomical preparations and skeletons, which 
is the opprobrium of the institutions of this country, has pre- 
vented anything like an exhaustive examination, and will forbid 
the rapid progress here of scientific ichthyology till the want is 
supplied. My own small private collection, supplemented by the 
data published by others, has alone rendered even the present 
outline of the system of the Anacanthini possible. The details 
will therefore have to be filled in when science shall have estab- 
lished itself more thoroughly here, or when a citizen of a more 
fortunate land shall take up the subject. Enough is now known, 
however, to almost assure us that the present outline cannot be 
far out of the way. 

n 



170 PBOGSEDINaS OF THE AOADBlffT OF [1884. 

Thanks to the kindness of my venerable friend, Prof. Poey, of 
Havana, I obtained, many years ago, the cranium of the West 
Indian Brotula (B. barhata) and briefly indicated the most salient 
characteristics of the type in a foot-note to an article *^ On the 
Affinities of several doubtful British Fishes " (Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila., 1864, p. 200). Thei note, published in this rather 
irregular maniiei', hds doubtless escaped the attention of Messrs. 
Cope j Jordan and Gilbert, for otherwise they would certainly have 
recognized the validity of the family Brotuliidse. The type in 
question, indeed, has but little affinity with the Gadidse, and it 
gives me a pleasure, the greater because it is so rare, to find my- 
self in accord with Dr. Gunther in combining it rather with the 
Ophidiina, Fiei'asfeiina and Congrogadina, in contradistinction to 
the Gadidae. I must, however, entirely dissent from that gentle- 
man in considering the combination as of simply family value, in 
associating with them the Ammodytina, and also as to the suf- 
ficiency of the diagnosis. 

The several groups are distinguishable as follows :— * 

SUF'BBFAHILY QADOIDEA. 

Synonymy, 

> OadoideOy Gill, Cat. fishes E. Coast N. Am., p. 7. 1873. (Kamedonly.) 

> MacTuroideay Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. Am., p. 7, 1878. (Named only.) 

Jugulares with the orbito-rostral portion of the cranium longer 
than the posterior portion, the cranial cavity widely open in front; 
the supraoccipital well developed, horizontal and cariniform 
behind, with the exoccipitals contracted forwards and overhung 
by the supraoccipital, the exoccipital condyles distant and feebly 
developed, with the hypercoracoid entire, the hypocoracoid 
with its inferior process convergent towards the proscapula, and 
the fenestra between the hypercoracoid and hypocoracoid* 

GADIDiES. 

i^m% Synonyms, 

< Jtigulaires onAueJUnoptereSf Dum^ril, Zoologie Analytique, p. 118, 1806. 

< OadiniOf Rafinesque, Analyse de la Nature, p. — , 3e fam., 1815. 

< MeirosomeSt De BlainvUle, Journal de Physique, t. 83, p. 265, 1816. 
X Oadini, Rafinesque, Indice d'lttiolog. Biciliana, p. 11, 1810. 

< Oadoidesy Risso, Hist. Nat. de I'Europe M^rid., t. 3, pp. 104, 214, 1826. 

< Qadoldet^ Cuvier, R^gne Animal, Ire 6d., 2, p. 211, 1817 ; 2e 6d., t. 2, p. 

330, 1829. 



1884.] NATURAL S0IEN0E8 OF PHILADXLPHIA. Itl 

< Gadites, Latreille, Fam. Kat. du K^gne Animal, p. 125, 1825. 

< Gaditei, Stark, Elements of Nat. Hist., v. 1, p. 423, 1828. 

< OaditMy McMurtrie, Cuv. Animal Kingdom, v. 2, p. 243, 1831. 

< QadidcB, Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52 (Saggio Distribw 

Metod. Animali Vertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 37), 1832. 

< OadoidecB^ Bich, Fauna B., Americana, y. 3, p. 241, 1836. 

< Oadid(By Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 188, 299, 

1839. 

< QadidcBy Bonaparte, NuoyI Annali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2, p. 132, 1888 ; t. 

4^ p. 194, 1840. 

> BroamiidcB, Adams, Manual Nat. Hist., p. 104, 1854. 

> PhyddcB, Adams, Hanual Nat. Hist., p. 104, 1854. 
X MerluciidcB, Adams, Hanual Nat. Hist., p. 104, 1854. 

> Oadida^ Adams, Manual Nat. Hist., p. 104, 1854. 

< GadidcBy Kaup, Archiv. fur Naturgeschiohte, Jahr. 1858, B. 1, p. 86, 1858. 

< Gadid<Bf Girard, £xpl. and Surv. for R. R. Route to Pac. Oc, v. 10, 

Fishes, p. 140, 1858. 
X Gddoidei, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xxvi, 1859. 

< GadidcBf Gunther, Cat Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 826, 1862. 

< Gadid(B, Gill, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 15, p. 247, 1863. 

< GadidcB, Cope, Proc* Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci., y. 20, p. 341, 1872. 
= GadidcBf Gill, Arrangement Families of Fishes, p. 3, 1872. 

< Gadif Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. E. Akad. der Wissensch. (Wien), B. 67, 1. 

Abth., p. 48. 1873. 

< GadidcR, Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 400, 794, 1882. 

Subfamily Synonyms. 

» 

X Mwrlucda^ BafinesquC) Analyse de la Nature, p. — ^ Ire S. fam., 1815. 

< Gadmif Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animali Yertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 87), 1832. 

> GadincBj Swainson, Nat. Hist and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 188, 299, 

1839. 
X MerlucciiKB, Swainson, Nat. fiist. and Class. Fishes, etc., y. 2, pp. 188, 

300, 1839. 

> PhycincBf Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 186, 301, 

1889. ' 

X BrosmincB, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., y» 2, pp. 188, 

301, 1839. 

X Gctdinif Bonaparte, Nuovi Annali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2^ p. 1832, 138 ; t. 4. 
p. 194, 1840. 

> LoHnif Bonaparte, Nuovi Annali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2, p. 132, 1888 ; t* 4. 

p. 194, 1840. 

< Gadtna, Eaup, Archiv fiir Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 1858, B. 1, p. 86, 

1858. 
X GadiformeSf Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xxvi, 1859. 

> GadincB, Gill, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 15, pp. 229, 248, 248, 1868. 

> Lotin(B, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 15, p. 230, 1868. 



1T2 PB00XEDING8 OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

> Phycina, Gill, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 15, p. 280, 1883. 

> OUiaUnm, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 15, p. 230, 1863. 

> BrosmincBy Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 15, p. 230, 1863. 
= GadincBj Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 794, 1882. 

Gadoidea with a moderate caudal region coniform behind, and 
with the caudal rays procurrent above and below; submedian 
anus, moderate suborbital bones, terminal mouth, jugular ven- 
trals, dorsal furniture commencing nearly above the pectoral 
region, variously developed, and anal contined mostly to the 
posterior half of the length. 

This group is, perhaps, still a composite one, and all the forms 
retained in it, otherwise called Gadinse by Messrs. Jordan & Gil- 
bert, do not have the '^ frontal bone single, normal." The Gadinae, 
Phycinse and Brosminse (Gill, op. cit.) are thus characterized, and 
are typical constituents, but the Lotinse, and apparently Ciliatinffi 
or Oninse, have doubled or paired frontals. Unfortunately the 
only skeletons of these types accessible to me are articulated, and 
cannot be critically examined. It seems probable, however, that 
they may be segregated in a peculiar family. 

MEBLUCIIDiB. 

Family Synonyms, 

< MerlueiidcBf Adams, Manual Nat. Hist., p. 104, 1864. 

= MerluciidOf Gill, Arrangement Families of Fishes, p. 3, 1872. 

JugtUaires, gen., Dum^ril. 

Oadinia, gen., Rafinesque. 

MetrosameSf gen., BlainviUe. 

OadoideSf gen.f Risso. 

OadidcB, gen., Bon., Swains., Adams, Gunther, Giraid. 

Qadoidei, gen«, Bleeker. 

Oadiy gen., Fitzinger. 

Subfamily Synonyms. 

< Iferluceia, Rafinesqae, Analyse de la Nature, Ire S. fam., 1815. 

< Jferluecina^ Swainson, Natural History of Fishes, Amphibians and 

Reptiles, v. 2, pp. 118, 300, 1839. 
= MerhmincBy Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 14, pp. 243, 244, 1868. 
= MerluciiruBy Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 795, 1882. 
Oadini, pt., Bon. 
Oadina, pt. 

Gadoidea with a moderate caudal region coniform behind and 
with the caudal rays procurrent forwards, the anus submedian,' 
moderate suborbital bones, terminal mouth, subjugular ventrals ; 



L 



1884.] NATUBAL 80IENGE8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 173 

dorsal double, a short anterior and long posterior one, a long 
anal corresponding to the second dorsal ; ribs ivide, approximated, 
and channeled below or with inflected sides, and paired excavated 
frontal hones with divergent crests continuous from the forked 
occipital crest. 

BBEGMACEBOTIDiSS. 

Synonymy. 

= Bregmacerotida, Gill, Arrangement Families of Fishes, p. 3, 1872. 

BlenniicUBy gen., Richardson, 

GadidcB, gen., Gunther, Day. • 

Oadoidea? with a robust caudal portion truncate or convex 
behind, almost without procurrent caudal rays above or below, 
with an antemedian anus, moderate suborbitals, terminal mouth, 
jugular ventrals abnormally developed; an occipital ray, and 
behind a continuous dorsal fin, confined to the caudal portion, 
and an anal nearly similar to the long dorsal. 

BANICEPITIDiB. 

Family Synonymi, 

= New Family, Pamell, Mag. of Zool. and Bot., v. 1, p. — , 1887. (Not 

« named, bat indicated.) 

-= BanieepitidcB, Gill, Arrangement of Fam. of Fishes, p. 3, 1872. 

Jugulaires, gen., Dum^ril. 

Oadinea, gen., Hafinesque. 

Qadoides, gen., Cuvier. 

OadidcB, gen., Bonaparte, et al. 

Qadoidea, gen., Bleeker. 

Oadi, gen., Fitzinger. 

Subfamily Synonym. 

= Banicepini, Bonaparte. 

Ghuloidea ? with a moderate caudal portion, coniform behind, 
and with caudal rays procurrent, submedian anus, moderate sub- 
orbital bones, terminal mouth, jugular ventrals, dorsal (typically) 
double, an anterior small and posterior long one, anal corre- 
sponding to second dorsal, and rudimentary pyloric caeca in 
reduced number (^). 

MACBUBIDiB. 

« 

Family Synonyms, 

< Lophionotes, Dum^ril, Zoologie Analytique, p. 129, 1806. 

< Traehinidij Rafinesque, Indice d'lttiolog. Siciliana, p. 12, 1810. 

< CephaJosomei, Blainville, Journal de Physique, t. 88, p, — ^ 1818. 



174 PB00EEDING8 OF THB AOADElfT OF [1884. 

= ZiSpidolepridegy Risso, Hifrti, Nat. des Poissons de I'Europe M^rid., t. 8, 
p. my 1826. 

< OadoideBj Cuvier, R^gne Animal, Ire dd., t. 2, p. 211, 1817 ; 2e 6d., t. 3, 

p. 330, 1829. 
= LepidolepridoR^ Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 

179, 261, 1889. 
= MacruricUB, Bonaparte, Nuovi Annali delle Bel. Nat., t. 2, p. 132, 1888 ; 

t. 4, p. 194, 1840. 
= Leptdo8omatid(Bf Adams, Manual Nat. Hist., p. 101, 1864. 

< Gadoidei, Bleeker, Enum. Sp, Piscium Archipel, Indico, p. xxvi, 1859. 
= MacruridcB, Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mas., v., 4, p. 390, 1862. 

= MaeruridcB, Cope, Proc. Am, Assoc. Adv. Sci., y. 20, p. 841, 1872. 

;^ MacruridcB, Gill, An^iuigepiei)t Families of Fishes, p. 3, 1872. 

= fiaerourif Fitzmger, Sitzungsber. E. Akad. der Wissensch. (Wien), 6. 

67, 1. Abth., p. 48, 1873. 
= MacruridcBy Jordan & Gilbert, Syn, Fishes N. Am., p. 400, 810, 1882. 
Qadinictf gen., Rafinesque, 1815. 
Qa^idc^ s. fapi., Bpnaparte, 1882, 
Qadaidfiiy s. lam,, BleeJ^er. 

QuhfafM^ 8^nonym$, 

< TrachiniOf Rafinesque, Analyse dfi la Nature, p. — , 2e s. fam., 1815. 
= JUaertmrini, Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animal! Veitebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 37), 1832. 
= Macrurini, Bonaparte, Nuovi Aimali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2> p* 132, 1838 ; 

t. 4, p. 194, 1840. 
= Maerurinif Eaup, Archiv fur Naturgeschichte, Jahrg. 1858, B. 1, p. 86, 

1858, 
= Macrouriforme»f Bleeker, Enum. Sp, Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. zzvi, 

1859. 

Gadoidea with an elongated tail tapering backwards and 
destitute of a caudal fin, postpectoral anus, enlarged suborbital 
bones, inferior mouth, subbrachial ventrals, a distinct anterior 
dorsal, and a long second dorsal and anal conyerging on end of 
tail. 

The several families thus defined are certainly, or in the case 
of the Kanicepitids and Bregmacerotids, presumably typical Ana- 
canthines, and exhibit the cranial and scapular characteristics 
signalized for the superfamily Gadoidea. The group thus defined 
is quife a natural one and perhaps may be deemed worthy of 
continued isolation under the name Anacanthini or Jugulares, 
although the propriety of assigning to it subordinal rank is very 
doubtful. 



1884.] NATURAL SOnSNOES OF PHILADEIiPHIA. 1*75 

How very different the other forms approximated to the group 
are, may be appreciated from the following diagnoses. 

SUFESFAMILT OFHIDIOIDEA. 

Synonymy. 

> BrottOaidea, Gill, Cat. Pishes E. Coast N. Am., p. 7, 1873. (Named 

only.) 

> Ophidioidea, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. Am., p. 7, 1873. (Named 

only.) 

Jugulares with the orbito-rostral portion of the cranium con- 
tracted and shorter than the posterior, the cranial cavity closed 
in part by the expansion and junction of the parasphenoid and 
frontals, the supraoccipital horizontal and cariniform poste- 
riorly, the exoccipitals expanded backwards and upwards behind 
the supraoccipital, the exoccipital condyles contiguous, and with 
the hypercoracoid (scapula, Parker) fenestrate (or foraminate) 
about its centre, and the hypocoracoid with its inferior process 
divergent from the proscapula. 

These characters are exhibited in the Brotula barbata (specimen 
in coll. T. G.), Brosmaphycis marginatus (MSS. note), Pteridium 
ater (cranium behind, Emery,* f. 27), Ophidium barbatum 
(cranium above, E., f. 26 ; scapular arch, E., f. 44), Fieraa/er aciis 
(cranium, E., f. 18-22; scapular arch, E., f. 35-36), Echiodon 
ientatus (cranium, E., f. 23-25 ; scapular arch, E., f. 37-38), and 
Encheliophis vermicularia (scapular arch, E.,* f. 89). The 
osteology of the Congrogadidse and Brotulophididse is entirely 
unknown and it is only assumed that they belong to this group 
on account of general agreement in superficial characters. 

BBOTULIDiES. 

Synonyms as Family Names, 

= BroMidcB, Adams, Manual Nat. Hist.,, p. 104, 1854. 

< Brotuloideif Bleaker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xzv, 1859. 

= Brotulaida, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. [v. 15], p. 252, 1863. 

* The references indicated by " E., *' are to Prof. Emery's excellent memoir 
on "FieraBfer" in the Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei" 1879-80 (pp. 
167-254, pi. la-9a>. -How useful and indeed indispensable this memoir 
has been may be judged from th^ r^ferei^ces. 



176 PaOOEEDINOS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

= Brotuloid8, Gill, Proo. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. [v. 16], p. 200, 1864 (cra- 
nial characters indicated). 
^ Brotulida, Gill, Arrangement Families of Fishes, p. 3, 1872. 



Gadaideiy gen., Cuvier. 
Oadido^ gen., Bonaparte. 
OphidiicUB, s. fam., Giinther. 
Gadij gen., Fitzinger. 
OadidcBy s. fam., Jordan & Gilbert. 



Synonyms as Subfamily Namies. 

= BrotultMB, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 188, 
801, 1839. 

< Brotulinay Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 371, 1862. (Defined.) 

> Brotulinmj Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Bci. Phila. [v. 14], p. 280, 1863 ; [v. 

16], p. 252. (Defined.) 

> Brosmophycina^ Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. [v. 14,] p. 280, 1868 ; 

[V. 15], pp. 252, 253, 1863. 

> BythiHnm, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. [v. 14], p. 280, 1863 ; [v. 

15], p. 253, 1868. 

> Sirembinm, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. ScU Phila. [v. 14], p. 280, 1868; [v. 

15], p. 258, 1863. 

< Brotulini, Emery, Atti R. Accad. dei Lincei (3), v. 7, p. 168, 1880. 

< Brotulma^ Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 794, 1882. 

Ophidoidea with jugular ventrals reduced to one or two rays, 
and the anus in the anterior half of the length. 

This family is quite rich in deep-sea types, and may be divided 
into various subfamilies, four of which (Brotulinse, Brosmophy- 
cinse, Bythitinae, and Sirembinse) have already been indicated and 
defined (see synonymy). The deep-sea forms chiefly belong to 
the subfamily Brosmophycinae, and perhaps one or two still undif- 
ferentiated ones whose definition is not at present possible. 

BBOTULOFHIDIDiES. 

Synonymy, 

= BroiulophididcBf Gill, Arrangement Families of Fishes, p. 8, 1872.* 
OphidiidcB {Brotulina\ gen., Giinther. 

Ophidioidea with subbrachial (or thoracic) ventrals reduced to 
simple filaments, and anus in the anterior half of the length. 

The single genus Brotulophia^ for which this family has been 
distinguished, is still very imperfectly known, and its aflSnities 
are doubtful. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. Ill 

OFHIDIIDiES. 

Family Synonyms. 

< PantoptereSf Dum^ril, Zoologie Analytique, p. 115, 1806. 

< Ofidini, Rafinesque, Indice d'lttiolog. Siciliana, p. 38, 1810. 

< OphididcBj Bonaparte, Giom. Accad. di Scienze, v. 52 (Saggio Distrib. 

Metod. Animali Vertebr. a Sangue Freddo, p. 38), 1882. 
<' OphidiicUB, Bonaparte, Nuovi Annali deUe Sci. Nat., t. 2, p. 138, 1838 ; 
t. 4, p. 276, 1840. 

< OphidtmidcB, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Pishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 49, 

259,1 1839, 

< OphidiidOf Adams, Manual Nat. Hist., p. 105, 1854. 

< Ophidina, Kanp, Cat. Apodal Fish. B. M., p. 153, 1856. 

< OphididcB, Rich, Encycl. Brit., 8th ed., v. 12, p. 268, 1856. 

< OphididcB, Girard, Expl. and Sunr. for R. B. Route to Pacific Oc, v. 10, 

Fishes, p. 187, 1858. 

< Ophidioideij Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xxv, 1859. 

< Ophidiida, Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 370, 1862. 
= OphidiidcB, Gill, Arrangement Fam. of Fishes, p. 3, 1872. 

= OphidiidcBj Putnam, Proc. Bostcm Soc, Nat. Hist., v. 16. p. 339, 1874. 

< Ofldiideif Emery, Atti R, Accad. dei Lmcei (3), Fis.Mem., v. 8, p. 168, 

1880. 
= OphididcB, Joidjin & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., pp. 400, 792, 1882. 



AnguiUiformet, gen., Cuvier. 
XiphaideSj gen., Risso, 1826. 

Subfamily Synonyms, 

< Ophidiini, Bonaparte, NuoyI Annali delle Sci. Nat., t. 2, p. 133, 1838 ; 

t. 4, p. 276, 1840. 

< Ophidines, Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, p. 260, 1839. 

< OphidiiformeSf Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. xxv, 

1859. 
= Ophidiinti, Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 376, 1862. 
= Ofidiina^ Emery, Atti R. Accad. dei Lincei (3), v. 7, p. 168, 1873. 

Ophidioidea with chin ventrals, represented by bifid barbel- 
like filaments, and the anus in the anterior half of the length. 

This family is well-marked by the encroachment of the ventrals 
forwards under the chin and between the rami of the mandible, 
on which account the species were supposed to have barbels 



' At p. 49, regarded as one of the '* Families of the Gymnetres ; at p. 159 
as ttie 4. subfamily "Ophidoninap " of the "tribe Gymnetres" (family not 
differentiated), and at p. 259, mentioned as '<3. subfkm. Ophidonidie." 



1*78 PROCEEDINaS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

analogous to those of the Mullids and to be destitute of ventrals. 
Their homology was not even recognized by those who studied 
their anatomy, Prof. Agassiz, for instance, in his Recherches sur 
les Poissons fossiles, representing them as apodal. 

There are three or four genera, Ophidiumj Genypterus, and 
Leptophidium. 

Leptophidium^ although recognized as a mere subgenus by 
Messrs. Jordan & Gilbert, is very distinct. 

FIEBASFEBIDiES. 

Family Synonytna. 

< Oinnotiniy Rafinesque, Indice, d'lttiolog. SicUiaiu, p. 87, 1810. 
= Fiera8ferid(B, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 1864, p. 203, 1864. 
= Fiera8fer%dcB, Gill, Arrangement Fam. of Fishes, p. 8, 1872. 

> Merasferi, Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. der Wissensch., v. 67, 

1. Abth., p. 43, 1873. 

> EnchelyopheSy Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. der Wissensch., v. 67, 

1. Abth., p. 4H, 1873. 
= FierasferidiBf Putnam, Proc. Boston Soc, Nat. Hist., v. 16, p. 839, 1874. 
= FierasferidcB, Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N« Am., pp. 400, 791, 1882, 



OphidiidcBf gen., Bon. 

OpTUdioidei ophidiif&rmes, gen., Blkr. 

Ophidiida, 8.-fam., Gfinther. 

SubfamUy Synanym$, 

= Fierasfertnfif Giinther, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 4, pp. 870, 881, 

1862. 
= Mera»f&rinif Emery, Atti R. Accad. dei Lmcei (3), v. 7, p. 168, 1878, 

Ophidioidea without ventrals, and with the anus thoracic or 

jugular. 

CONGROGADIDiES. 

Family 8ynonym». 

= OongrogadidcBf Gill, Arrangement Families of Fishes, p. 8, 1872. 

< OongrogadidoBf Jordan & Gilber^, Syn. Fishes of N. Am., p. 790, 1882 

Subfamily SynonyvM* 

< OongrogadincB, Giinther, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., y. 4, pp. 870, 888, 

1862. 

< Oongrogadinij Emery, Atti R. Accad. dei Lincei (3), v. 7, p. 168, 1873. 

Ophidioidea without ventrals, the anus in the anterior half of 
the length, and branchial membranes united beneath but free 
from the throat. 



1884.] NATTJBAL SOIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 179 

The family is perhaps composite and has been constituted or 
retained for three genera ( Gongrogadus = Mach^rium^ Halio- 
phis, and Scytalina) which may prove to have little or no affinity 
to each other. It is entirely provisional and must remain of very 
uncertain value till the forms can be anatomically investigated. 
It is only by an assumption, perhaps, if not probably illegitimate, 
that Haliophis has been referred to the group. " Riippell says 
* Apertura brancbialis parva,' " but Dr. Giinther, " by a comparison 
of the figure " was " induced to suppose that, as in Gongrogadus^ 
the gill-opening is of moderate width, the gill-membranes being 
united below the throat, and not attached to the isthmus."^ 
I should not have been induced, by the figure to make any such 
assumption, for th^ liken^ss to Gongrogadus is very slight. The 
single specime^ of Scytalina in the National Museum cannot be 
dissected. 

0UFEBFAMIL7 LYCODOIDEA. 

:= Lyeodoideoy Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coasjb ^. Am^, p. 7, 1873. (Named 
only,) 

Jugulares with the orbito-rostral portion of the cranium con- 
tracted and shorter than the posterior, the cranial cavity open in 
front, but bounded laterally by expansions of the annectant 
parasphenoid and frontals, with the supraoccipital declivous and 
tectiform behind, the occipitals above inclined forward along the 
sides of the supraoccipital, and th^ e^occipital condyles distant, 
with the hypercoracoid foraminate about its centre and the hypo- 
coracoid with an inferior process convergent to the proscapula.' 

These characters are formulated from a skeleton of Zoarces 
anguillaris in the possession of the writer. 

LYCODIDiES. 

Family Synonyms. 

X Zoarehidmf Swainson, Nat. Hist, and Class. Fishes, etc., v. 2, pp. 184, 

283, 1839. 
> LyeodidcBy Gunther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 4, p. 319, 1862. 
= LycodaidcBf Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 15, p. 255, 1863 (De- 
fined) ; V. 16, p. 203, 1864. (Cranial characters indicated.) 

^ Gunther, Cat. Fishes in Brit. Mus., v. 4^ p. 389. 

I The nostrils are single on each side as in many Blennioidea. 



180 PBOCEEDINQS OF THE ACAOSMT OF [1884. 

= Lyeodida^ Gill, Arrangement Fam. of Fishes, p. 3, 1872« 

> Zoareay Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. k. AkadL der Wissensch. (Wien), B. 67, 

1. Abth., p. 43, 1873. 
Gadida and Ophidini, pt., Beinhardt. 
Blennioidei and Ophidoidei, pt., Bleeker. 
BUnnMda, pt., Gill, Kroyer. 
Lycodida and Blenniida, gen., Gunther. 

SubfanUly SynonytM. 

> OymneUna, Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. ScL Phila., y. 16, pp. 256, 261, 1863. 

> Zoareina, Jordan & GQbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 783, 1882. 

> LyeodincB, Jordan & GUbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 783, 1882. 

= Lycodida^ Collett, Noreke Nordhavs-Exped. 1876-78 ; Fiske, p. 77, 1880. 
= Zoareida, Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 400, 1882. 
= LycodidcPf Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 783, 1882. 

Lycodoidea of a more or less angailliform shape, tapering back- 
wards; dorsal and anal elongated and conflaent with candal, 
invested in a thick skin ; ventrals jugular and rudimentary or 
suppressed, and branchial apertures lateral and not confluent. 

The chief group of this family, or the subfamily Lycodinse, is 
a characteristic deep-sea type, and represented by many species 
varying greatly in elongation, and with the extreme terms tolerably 
well connected by graduated representatives. Nevertheless, the 
two sections of Lycodes, defined by Prof. Collett (op. cit^ p. 84), 
seem to be entitled to generic rank, and corroborated by other 
species obtained by the U. S. Commission of Fish and Fisheries. 
The name Lycodes must be retained for the robust species, while 
Lycenchelys may be used as a designation for Collett's second 
group which have " the body elongate ;" height of the body con- 
tained from twelve to twenty-four times in the total length. The 
genera would then be LycodeSj LycenchelySy X4ycochpsi8, Lyco- 
donu8j and Lycocara (= UronecteSj Gthr.). 

In the preceding diagnoses of the superfkmilies Gadoidea, 
Ophidioidea and Lycodoidea, little more is given than what may 
serve to neatly differentiate the several groups, but the charac- 
ters given are reinforced by many others, such as the cranial 
foramina, details in the relations of the bones, and characters of 
the vertebrae. The relations of the Brotuloidea appear to be 
almost as intimate, if not indeed more so, with the Lycodoidea 
than with the Gadoidea. But a comparison of the cranium of a 
Lycodid with that of a Blenniid, must convince the ichthyotomist 



1884.] NATTJBAL SOIENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 181 

that there is a close affinity between the two. Indeed, it is quite 
possible, at least, that Prof. Cope might retain his diagnosis of 
the Anacanthini, and refer the Brotuloid families to his Scypho- 
branehii by the side of Zoarces and his other Blenniidse. Prof. 
Emery has also perceived the great differences exhibited in 
cranial characters by the Ophidioidea from the Gadoidea and has 
even contended that they should be approximated to the Gobioi- 
dea.^ In view of these facts, it is evident that the group of 
Anacanthini not only has a very uncertain tenure, but it may 
have either to be entirely abolished as being an unnatural combi- 
nation of different types, or to be limited to the Gadoidea. 

But it is possible that the group as retained by the most recent 
ichthyologists may be even more heterogeneous than has been 
supposed. Several other types have been generally associated 
with the forms already indicated, but the pertinence of the Ammo- 
dytidse,' Ateleopodidse and XenocephalidsB to it is doubtful, 
and it is almost certain that the Gadopsidse are not at all 
related to any of the fiEtmilies already discussed ; nevertheless, to 
complete the summary of the families generally referred to the 
Anacanthini, their synonymy and characteristics are here given : — 

AMMODYTIDiES. 

Family SynonyrM, 

= AmmodytidcBy Bonaparte, Catal. Metod. Pesci Europe!, pp. 7, 40, 1846. 

= AmmodytidcB, Gill, Arrangement of Families of Fishes, p. 8, 1872. 

= AmmodytcB, Fitzinger, Sitzungsber. K. Akad. der Wissensch. (Wien), 

B. 67, 1. Abth., p. 43, 1873. 
= Ammodytidoij Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 414^ 1883. 



OadidcR, s. fam., Bonaparte. 
CaryphcBnidcB, gen., Swainson. 
Ophidioideij s. fam., Bleeker. 
OphidiidcBf s. fam., Gtinther. 



' 'Attenendomi ai risultati delle mie ricerche anatomiche, io debbo, tra 
le due opinion!, adottare quella del Canestrini e considerare gli Ofidiidei 
come affini di Gobioidi, coi quali hanno caratteri comunl assai important!, 
in ispecie nella struttura del oramo." Emery, op, cit,, p. 169 ; see also p. 
187. 

' The only skeleton at present accessible to me, has been so badly pre- 
pared that I do not venture to base any opinion upon it. I hope soon to 
have a clean disarticulated one. 



182 PBOOEEDINGS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

SuhfamiXy Synonyms. 

= Ammodytinif Bonaparte, Kuoyi AimaU delle Sci. Nat., p. 188, 1838 ; t. 

4c, p. 276, 1840, 
= Ammodyteiformes, Bleeker, Enum. Sp. l^iscium Arohipel, Indico, p. xzy, 

1859. 
= AmrnodyHnOy Giinther, Cat. t^ishes Brit. Mus., v. 4^ p. 884, 1862 f 
= AmmodytincB, Gill, Cat. Fishes E, Coast If. A., p. 40, 1861. 
> ArgyrotcmincB, Gill, Cat. Fishes E. Coast N. A., p. 40, 1861. 

Anacanthini ? with an elongated, almost parallelogrammic body, 
with a dorsal lateral line, postmedian anus, narrow suborbitals, 
terminal mouth with protractile jaws, enlarged suboperculum, 
widely cleft branchial apertures, lamelliform pseudobranchise, a 
long dorsal and long but postmedian anal with articulated rays, 
low pectorals and no ventrals. 

ATELEOFODIDiES. 

Synonyms as Family Navnes, 

=^ AUUopodoidAi^ Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Arohipel. Indico, p. xxvi, 
1859. (Not defined ; made the type of a distinct order — '^Ateleopodi— 
au forte cum Siluris a<^'imgendi.") 

= AteleopodidcB, Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 4, pp. 81d, 898, 1862. 

= AteUopodidoif Gill, Arrangement Families of Fishes, p. 8, 1872« 

Synonym as SubfamUy Namst 
== AteUopodiniy Bonaparte, 1850. 

Anacanthini ? with an elongated tail tapering backwards, but 
provided with a narow caudal, antemedian anus, moderate subor- 
bitals, inferior mouth, thoracic ventrals reduced to double or 
simple filaments, a short anterior dorsal only, and a long oval 
continuous with the caudal. 

XENOCEFHALIDiES. 

Synonyms, 

= XenoeephaliformeSt Bleeker, Enum. Sp. Piscium Archipel. Indico, p. 

xxvi, 1859. 
= Appendix to the Anacanthini Gadoidei, Giinther, Cat. Fishes in Brit 

Mus., V. 4^ pp. 318, 399, 1862. 
Gadoidei, s. fam., Bleeker. 

Anacanthini? with a ''small body," a distinct caudal, post- 
median anus ; head very large, truncated, cuirassed with plates 



1884.] NATURAL S0ISN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 183 

and armed with spines; jugular? ventrals of five rays and one 
short dorsal, and a short anal, both near the caudal. 



Two other types referred by Dr. Giinther to the Anacanthini 
certainly do not belong to the group and are true Acanthoptery- 
gian fishes. They are the Gadopsidse and Ghiasmodontidse. 

GADOPSIDiES. 

Syrumymy, 

= OadopiidcBj Giinther, Cat. Fishes Brit. Mus., v. 4, pp. 817, 818, 1862. 
< Oadopndas Cope, Proc. Am. Philos. Soo, Phila., v. 13, p. 31, 1878. 
BlennHdatf gen., Stemdachner. 

CHIASMODONTIDiES. 

Family Synonyms, 

= Chuumodantida, Gill, Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N. Am., p. 064 

1882. (Defined.) 

Qadid<B, gen., Giinther. 

Subfamily Synonym. 

= Chia8modontin(Bf Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fishes N Am., p. 795, 1882. 



184 PBOCEEDINaS OF THE AGADEMT OF [1884. 



June 24. 
Dr. W. S. W. RusGHENBEBGEB In the chair. 

Fifteen persons present. 

A paper entitled " Notes on the Geology and Natural History 
of the West Coast of Florida," by Jos. Willcox, was presented 
for publication. 

Some Modifications observed in the Form of Sponge Spicules,— 
Mr. Bdw. Potts remarked that whatever view we may prefer to take 
as to the position which sponges occupy in the animal kingdom 
— whether they are regarded as colonial flagellate monads with 
Saville Kent, or with Haekel take a much higher place among the 
metazoa, or perhaps, with still greater probability, fill an inter- 
mediate place between these, the formation and development 
of the spiculse in both the Calcarea and Silicea seem likely to 
remain for a long time one of the most perplexing problems. 
Many terms of this conundrum will readily occur to the mind of 
any one who has worked in this field and observed the spicnlse 
from their earliest appearance to full maturity, and it is not the 
design of the present communication to refer to them now more 
particularly. 

An instance, however, in which a singular modification of 
character has apparently been effected by the chemical condition 
of the environment seems deserving of mention. Amongst the 
sponges to which he had alluded in former communications as 
encrusting certain old pipes, recently removed from the water- 
works on the Schuylkill River, in Philadelphia, some portions 
were much more deeply colored with rust than the others ; the 
statoblasts, particularly, seeming to be mere pseudomorphs of 
their originals in iron oxide. Fragments of this character were 
boiled in nitric acid, washed out and mounted for comparison 
with other matter similarly treated, but free from such dis- 
coloration. 

The mature normal skeleton spicule of this sponge, Meyenia 
Leidyi^ is smooth, robust and shorter than that of any other 
American species. Yery rarely the fine line of the axial channel 
is visible, but in the specimen under examination the size and 
exterior appearance of the spiculse remaining as before, the hardly 
noticeable channel has become a wide canal, open at both ends, 
and occupying more than one-half the breadth of the spicule. 
This does not occur merely in occasional instances, but universally 
throughout the fragment of sponge so affected. (See fig. 5, 
Plate IV.) 

The birotulate spicules of this sponge also are short and of a 



1884.] NATUBAL S0IEN0B8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 185 

pecnliarly substantial appearance, with entire reflexed margins, 
yet in the present preparation they could with difficulty be 
detected as mere ghosts of their normal shapes. The two discs 
rarely remained together, their characteristic entire margins were 
gone, the rotules being represented merely by a line of very fine 
rays. The speaker ventured no suggestion as to the influences or 
the method by which these changes had been effected, but referred 
the fact to the consideration of students more competent to deal 
with the mechanical and chemical constitution of these bodies. 

Lieut. Thos. L. Casey, Eng. Corps, TJ. S. A., was elected a 
member. 



July 1. 

Mr. Thos. Meehan, Yice-President, in the chair. 

Thirteen persons present. 

A paper entitled " On a supposed new species of Cristatella," 
by Edw. Potts, was presented for publication. 

Volcanic Dust from Krakatoa. — Prof. H. Cabvill Lewis 
remarked that in connection with the cause of the beautiful red 
sunsets of last autumn and winter, which had been recently the 
subject of much discussion in the scientific periodicals, he had 
been interested in examining some volcanic dust which had been 
ejected from the volcano of Krakatoa, and which he had received 
through the kindness of Rev. Wayland Hoyt,D. D., of this city. 

This dust, which, on August 27, 1883, fell thickly upon the 
decks, rigging and masts of the bark William H. Besse, bound 
from Batavia to Boston, is of a light gray color and harsh to the 
touch. It is essentially a pulverized pumice, by far the greater 
part of it consisting of fragments of volcanic glass. These 
fragments are sometimes twisted, but generally in flat angular 
transparent scales, which are filled with minute bubbles, and, of 
course, are isotropic. Angular fragments and crystals of trans- 
parent plagioclase, occasionally showing the hemitropic striations, 
and giving bright colors in the polariscope, together with more 
irregular and rounded fragments of dark green and brown 
pyroxenic minerals, probably augite and hypersthene, are scat- 
tered very occasionally among the glass particles. Grains of 
magnetite, often well rounded, also occur, and may be picked 
out and examined separatelj^ by a magnet covered with tissue- 
paper. 

As it is this dust which is regarded as the cause of the uni- 
versal red skies which followed so soon after the eruption, 
attempts have been made, both in Europe and America, to dis- 
cover traces of it in snow or elsewhere, 

13 



186 PBOODDINaS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

In the Bnbnrbs of Philadelphia, some dust was collected by 
Mr. Joseph Wharton,* this winter, from melted snow, and from 
the presence in it of certain rounded and filamentoas glass par- 
ticles supposed by him to be volcanic. Some of it had been 
submitted by him to the speaker for examination. It appeared 
to be composed of particles of quartz, coal, cinders, vegetable 
matter, etc., among which are certain glass}^ hairs and rounded 
globules. These bear no resemblance to the angular glass frag- 
ments composing the Krakatoa dust, which is remarkably free 
from either filaments or globules ; and the supposed volcanic 
glass particles in the Philadelphia dust are most probably of local 
origin — from blast-furnaces, foundries, or the like. 

Accompanying the specimens of dust from Krakatoa, were 
extracts from the log of the bark, which present several points 
of interest. A point of special importance is the record of a 
sudden barometric fluctuation, due to a great atmospheric wave, 
which, starting from the volcano at the time of the eruption, has 
been shown to have '' traveled no less than three and a quarter 
times round the whole circumference of the earth." ^ 

Extracts from log of bark William H. Besse, from Batavia 

towards Boston. 

^^Aug. 26. This day commences with light airs and calms. 
Light airs throughout the day. At 5.30 P. M., wind hauling 
ahead, let go starboard anchor with thirty fathoms chain, clewed 
up and ftirled all sail. Adam light bore W. 1-4 S. and E. by S. 
Throughout the afternoon and night heard heavy reports, like 
the discharge of heavy artillery, sounding in the direction of 
Java Island. Yery dark and cloudy throughout the night, with 
continual flashes of lightning. Barometer 30.15. 

^^Aug. 27. Commences with strong breezes, and thick, cloudy 
weather. Barometer 30.12. At 9.30 A. M., pilot left ship. Hove 
the lead every fifteen minutes. At daylight noticed a heavy bank 
to the westward which continued to rise ; and, the sun becoming 
obscured, it commenced to grow dark. The barometer fell sud- 
denly to 29.50, and suddenly rose to 30.60. Called all hands, 
ftirled everything securely, and let go the port anchor with all 
the chain in the locker. By this time the squall struck us with 
terrific force, and we let go starboard anchor with eighty fathoms 
chain. With the squall came a heavy shower of sand and ashes, 
and it had become by this time darker than the darkest night. 
The barometer continued to rise and fall an inch at a time. The 
wind was blowing a hurricane, but the water kept very smooth. 
A heavy rumbUng, with reports like thunder, was heard con- 
tinually ; and the sky was lit up with fork lightning running in 
all directions, while a strong smell of sulphur perv^ed the air, 

1 See his letter in iVMie X«^0r, Jan. 22, 1884. 
• Xiihtrfy vol. XXX, p. 12. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIEN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 18*7 

making it difficult to breathe. Altogether, it formed one of the 
wildest and most awful scenes imaginable. 

The tide was setting strong to the westward throughout the 
gale, at the rate of ten knots per hour. At 3 P. M. the sky- 
commenced to grow lighter, although the ashes continued to fall. 
The barometer rose to 30.30, and dropped gradually to 30.14, 
when it became stationary. The whole ship, rigj^ing and masts, 
were covered with sand and ashes to the depth of several inches. 

^^Aug. 28. Commences with light airs and thick, smoky weather. 
Hove up starboard anchor, and hove short on port anchor. Dead 
calm throughout the day and night. Saw large quantities of 
trees and dead fishes floating by with the tide ; the water having 
a whitish appearance, and covered with ashes. This day ends 
with a dead calm, and thick, smoky weather. 

^^Aug. 29. This day commences with calms, and thick, smoky 
weather. Made all sail throughout the day. Moderate winds, 
and thick, smoky weather. Passed large quantities of driftwood, 
cocoanuts, and dead fishes. At 8 P. M., passed Anjier, and could 
see no light in the lighthouse, and no signs of life on shore. 
Furled all light sails, and stood under easy sail throughout the 
night. Day ends with moderate winds and cloudy weather. 
Barometer 30.14. 

^^Aug. SO. Commences with moderate winds and cloudy 
weather. At daylight made all sail with a fresh breeze from the 
westward. Found the water for miles filled with large trees and 
driftwood, it being almost impossible to steer clear of them. 
Also passed large numbers of dead bodies and fish. Kept a 
sharp lookout on the forecastle throughout the day. At 1 A. M., 
sighted Java Head lighthouse ; but the wind hauling ahead, we 
kept away, and went round Prince Island. Latter part, fresh 
breezes and thick, smoky weather, Friday and Saturday, passed 
large quantities of ashes in the water. Saturday, crew employed 
in cleaning ashes off masts and rigging. Water had a green 
color." 



July 8. 
Mr. TnoBftAS Meehan, Yice-President, in the chair. 

Eleven persons present. 

A paper entitled " Catalogue of Sponges collected by Mr. Jos. 
Willcox on the West Coast of Florida," by Henry J. Carter, was 
presented for publication. 

The following were oird§re(l to be printed : — 



188 PB00EEDINQ8 OF THE AOADBBfY OF [1884. 



K0TB8 OK THE GEOLOGY AHB KATITBAL HI8T0BT OF THE WEST COAST 

OF FLOBIBA. 

BY JOSEPH WILLCOX. 

The following notes apply especially to the Counties of Levy 
and Hernando in Florida. That portion of the Peninsula consists 
of a fine grained limestone composed largely of foraminlfera, 
several species of which have been determined by Prof. Heilprin. 
The limestone is covered with sand, in some places with a thin 
layer only, while, at other localities, wells sunk to the depth of 
25 or 30 feet have failed to indicate the presence of rocks. In 
many places the rocks are exposed above the surface of the 
ground. They are hard and compact when dry ; but, when they 
are permanently wet, they are comparatively soft, and are eroded 
with facility. In fact, throughout a large portion of the State 
numerous and long subterranean caverns abound, that serve as 
aqueducts to convey the water supplying the many large springs, 
for which this territory is noted. 

The subsidence of the surface ground into these caverns has 
caused many sink-holes. Three miles south of Gainesville, within 
a space of less than 100 acres, nearly fifty funnel-shaped sink- 
holes exist, f^om 20 to 200 feet in diameter at the top, and from 
10 to 50 feet deep. 

These are near to Payne's Prairie, a lake covering a space of 
about forty square miles. This lake has no outlet, and its surface 
rises and falls, as is usual in such cases, according to the 
abundance or scarcity of rain. 

It covers an area that was dry land a few years ago. The 
creek, which now supplies water to it, formerly flowed into a sink 
hole near those mentioned above. This creek undoubtedly was 
the active agent in eroding the caverns into which the material 
formerly occupying the space where the sink-holes now exist 
was precipitated. Some sink-holes are large and the subsidence 
moderate. Examples of the latter case may be seen in numerous 
shallow ponds and cypress swamps. Many large lakes probably 
owe their existence to the same cause. 

The limestone is, in some localities, replaced by a chert rock, 
in which the casts of shells are still visible. This rock forms the 



1884.] NATURAL SGIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 189 

only material suitable for the manufacture of stone implements, 
that the writer has seen in Florida. 

The coast is fringed with a strip of land four to six miles wide 
that is low, level and rocky, from Cedar Keys to Anclote Key, 
seventy-five miles farther south. 

A large portion of this land is swampy; and much of it is 
covered with water, when the tide is unusually high ; while the 
highest portion of it is only 3 or 4 feet above the level of high 
water. 

It is covered with a shallow, rich soil, which sustains a dense 
growth of hard wood, in addition to many palmetto and red 
cedar trees. 

At a distance of from eight to twelve miles apart small rivers 
empty into the Gulf. They have their sources chiefly in large 
springs, which are supplied by long, subterranean caverns. They 
have cut crooked channels through the limestone rocks, not only 
on the mainland, but through the shoals to the deep water of the 
Gulf. 

These rocks, the foundation of the mainland, extend westward 
under the water of the Gulf of Mexico ; and for the distance of 
several miles from the shore great shoals exist ; making navigation 
impracticable, except for small vessels. At low tide the rocks 
are exposed to view in numerous instances, far from shore. In 
fact such a great number of low islands exist along the coast, 
separated from each other by shallow bays and creeks, that it is 
difficult to determine what should be classed as the shore line. 

Many of these islands are overflowli with water at high tide. 
In such cases they are covered with mud : those nearest to the 
sea usually sustaining a dense growth of mangrove trees ; while 
others nearer the mainland are covered with saw-grass and bull- 
rushes. 

A soft and unctious mud covers the bottom to the depth of a 
few inches in the shoal water ; and an abundance of sea weeds 
thrives there. These afford shelter to vast numbers of moUusks, 
crustaceans and worms, to the life of which those waters are well 
adapted. 

The coast undoubtedly extended much farther into the Gulf, at 
a time not very remote. On the bottom of the shoals and rivers, 
and along the shores, the limestone rocks are eroded in a very 
rough and uneven manner. No smooth surfaces are to be seen : 



190 PBOOEEDINaS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

nothing but sharp, unsightly projections, depressions and deep 
holes. Along the rivers the waves make many small caverns 
imder the shove. 

East of the narrow, rocky belt, lining the shore, the land is 
sandy and rises to the height of about 200 feet at a distance of 
from twelve to twenty miles from the coast. The highest land 
near the coast is at Mount Lee, in Hernando Co., twelve miles from 
the Gulf, and four miles east of the source of the Homosassa River. 

The summit of this hill is 200 feet above the sea, and it 
terminates abruptly, on the west side, in a rocky bluff 100 feet 
high. From the top an extensive view may be obtained of the 
surrounding country, an opportunity seldom afforded in middle 
and southern Florida. Under this hill are several caverns which 
have not been opened for exploration ; but the noise from falling 
stones indicates a considerable depth in them. A rib of a manatee 
has lately been dug from the soil in a small cave in the side of 
the hill. The limestone at this place is hard and fine grained ; 
and if found to be free from fissures, it will prove to be a desirable 
building stone. The surface of this rock is rugged and unsightly; 
having been eroded in the usual, uneven manner. 

About five miles northeast of Mount Lee the writer discovered a 
second locality of Nummulites Willcoxi, at an altitude of nearly 
200 feet above the sea. They are associated with Orbitoides and 
Heterostegina and Pecten, as determined by Prof. Heilprin. 

The shore of the Gulf of Mexico abounds with multitudes of 
shells of king-crabs, suggestive of a great mortality among them. 
At low tide the writer found one king-crab lying upon its back 
with Fasciolaria tulipa on top of it, eating its vitals. Near by 
was found another lying on its back, upon which were 25 moUusks 
(Melongena corona) eating it. 

In Clearwater Harbor, north of Tampa Bay, the sea-urchins, 
during the first week in April, are covered with shells arranged 
upon them with system and dexterity, so that they are obscured 
from view. 

Prof. Leidy, when informed of this habit, suggested that it 
might have some connection with the process of spawning. This 
suggestion is plausible, as in the same waters in January, though 
abundant, none of them were found to be covered with any 
material. Prof. A. Agassiz ^ states that " the sea-urchins, in 

^ See Seaside Studies in Nat. History, page 101. 



1884.] NATUEAL SOIENOSS 01 PHILADSLPHIA. 191 

Boston Harbor, have a habit of covering themselves with sea- 
weeds, packing it down snugly above them, as if to avoid observa- 
tion : and this habit makes them difficult to find." In Clearwater 
Harbor the white shells, with which the sea-urchins cover them- 
selves, make a conspicuous object, so that the animal underneath 
can easily be found. They evidently do not seek concealment 
from an enemy, as the seaweeds would more effectually accom- 
plish that object. 

The shell mounds of the west coast are very numerous ; and 
they indicate the former favorite camping grounds of the Indians. 

The largest accumulation of shells is at Cedar Keys. A portion 
of that town is built upon the mound ; and great quantities of the 
material, consisting almost exclusively of oyster shells, have been 
used in grading the streets. ^ 

Oysters are very abundant and of good size in the vicinity of 
Cedar Keys, and along the coast as far as forty-five miles farther 
south. The following small rivers flow into the Gulf of Mexico 
near the oyster beds : — Wakasassa, Withlacooche, Crystal River, 
Little Homosassa, Homosassa and Cheeshowiska. 

Near the outlets of these rivers are numerous small islands, 
too low to be habitable, except when elevated by artificial means. 
At each river the Indians selected an island for their camping 
ground, to which they carried oysters ; the shells, in the course of 
a long time, making large mounds. Human bones, stone imple- 
ments and fragments of pottery are frequently found among the 
shells. 

Prof. Wy man, having examined many fresh-water shell mounds, 
on and near the St. John's River, states in the Memoirs of the 
Peabody Academy of Science, vol. i. No. 4, 18T5, on page 49, 
that " Stone chips are not common, and were generally found 
separately, or only a few together ; but in no instance in collec- 
tions indicating a place for the manufacture of arrow heads or 
other implements." Such a place for the manufacture of stone 
implements may. be seen on John's Island at the mouth of the 
Cheeshowiska River. Having visited this island mound several 
times, the writer has found there at least a half bushel of stone 
implements, in the various stages of manufacture; and at the 
present time many bushels of the stone chips may be seen there, 
all made of the chert rock referred to above. 



192 PBOOEEDINaS OF THE AOADEBfT OF [1884. 

On this island may also be found shell implements of several 
patterns, made from the shells of Busy con pyrum. 

The stone implements found there are similar to those figured 
on Plate II, in the Memoir referred to, and the shell implements 
are similar to those on Plate YII of the same. Near Dwight's 
Landing, on the shore of Clearwater Harbor, is an Indian mound 
Composed chiefly of the shells of Busycon pyrum and Fasciolaria 
tulipa; the former greatly predominating in numbers. Nearly 
all of these shells have a hole in the side near the top, about 
three-quarters of an inch in diameter, all neatly and uniformly 
made. 

It is presumed that the animal was detached from the shell by 
the Indians, by means of an instrument inserted through this 
hole. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 193 



OH A SUPPOSED NEW SP CIES OF GBISTATELLA. 

BY BDW. POTTS. 

I wish to announce the discovery in October last, within the 
waters of Harvey's Lake, Luzerne Co., Pa., of vast colonies, or, 
technically speaking, of aggregations of colonies of a species of 
Gristatella, exhibiting some peculiarities that seem to distinguish 
it from C. mucedo of Europe and from both the known American 
forms. 

Harvey's Lake is a beautiful sheet of water, lying at an altitude 
of about 1200 feet above sea^level, amongst partially wooded hills 
of no great height, and taking rudely the shape of the capital 
letter T. Its greatest length is about two miles. The depth 
throughout the larger part of this extent is said to be very great, 
increasing rapidly a few feet from the shore. The first groups of 
this beautiful polyp were found upon a large inclined log or stump 
in deep water, within one or two feet of the surface. Here the 
colonies appeared as scattered vermiform masses much longer 
than those of C. Idas of Leidy, and nearly rivaling in length 
those of (7. ophidioidia of Hyatt. The longest were estimated 
at about six inches. Instead, however of following the sinuous 
lines, described by the latter author as characteristic of his 
species, these assumed, generally, single or continuous curves, 
like a parted letter or rude C. Afterwards, in three or four 
instances, we found them occupying entirely novel situations. 

The tops of fallen trees or large branches lying 20 or 30 feet 
from the shore, and spreading to a diameter of 10 or 12 feet, were 
covered by hundreds or thousands of these colonies, clinging to 
or twining around every branch and twig, yet with so slight an 
attachment that the motion of raising a twig above water caused 
them to drop off by dozens. While hanging temporarily by one 
end they assumed a spiral form, closely twisting upon themselves. 
Their gelatinous common ectocyst, nearly a line in thickness, 
lined the branches as far as we could reach or see. Its persist- 
ence upon those twigs brought away with us is rather remarkable, 
as after remaining seven months in water it is still easily recog- 
nizable. It exhibits under the microscope a plexus of fine liues 
like a very delicate mycelium, which indeed may now have 
replaced the normal structure. 



196 PBOGEEDINaS 07 THE ACADEMY 07 [1884. 

used. These are frequently collected into spherical groups, and 
one or more may occasionally be seen in the act of circulation 
or of violent revolution — ^the result probably of ciliary currents 
within the coenoecium. These granular masses adhere to the 
stomach and other internal organs, obscuring their outlines and 
making it nearly impossible to detect the appearance of the 
secondary polypides ; they follow, however, so soon after the first, 
that it is believed that several heads are considerably advanced 
before the separation of the valves of the statoblasts. The ten- 
tacles of the first polypide, however, are generally much better 
developed when it appears, than are those of the succeeding 
forms, indicating a nearer approach to maturity. The effect of 
ciliary action is quite evident in this immature condition, but the 
cilia themselves are minute and difficult of definition. The gran- 
ular bodies and groups which obscured the body of the coenoBcium 
become gradually absorbed, or in some way eliminated, remaining 
latest in the caudal projection and finally entirely disappearing. 

The whole coenoecium then becomes beautifully transparent, 
disclosing not merely the structure of the individual polypides 
even when retracted, but the fine lines of the numerous retractor 
muscles may be readily traced from their connection with the 
stomach branchia, to their insertion in the disc or opposite 
portion of the endocyst. The fact that the insertion of these 
muscles occur in nearly parallel or radial lines upon the disc of 
the coenoecium may account for the term used by writers who speak 
of the cells of the coenoecium ; but there are no cell walls, and, 
when entirely retracted, the stomachs of the individual polypides 
pass through the lines of muscular filaments and lie wherever they 
can find room. This " finding room " for their several personalities 
is often a matter of considerable difficulty to them, and of no little 
amusement to the observer, who, when a colony is disturbed will 
see the first few polypides retire with some appearance of graceful 
ease, but the laggards must struggle to tuck themselves into a 
bed where six or eight are already lying, and repeated jerks and 
jostles are necessary before they can finally hide themselves, as 
they seem to think, by drawing the transparent coverlid of the 
endocyst together over their heads. 

The cells of the outer layer of the endocyst are in this genus 
larger and of greater depth than the corresponding , series in 
Fectinaiella ; and in both genera appear to be of the same char- 



1884.] NATURAL S0DSN0E8 07 PHILADELPHIA. 197 

acter over the whole surface of the coenoBcium, there being no 
such arrangement of locomotory apparatus upon the lower surface 
in Cristatella as Prof. AUman describes and figures in the case 
of C. mucedo.^ In both genera, also, by a delicate manipulation 
of the light under a high power of the microscope may be 
detected- the fine lines of transverse and longitudinal muscular 
tissue which form the third and fourth layers of Prof. Hyatt's 
series, and are visible also under the thinner cell structure of the 
evaginated polypide. 

As generally accepted, the ectocyst, which, in Pectinatella^ 
forms a solid and constantly thickening mass of gelatinoid 
matter, is in this genus thrown off as a fugitive film, or, more 
generally, a pavement layer of effete matter that supports the 
colonies and upon which their locomotion is effected. When the 
young colonies have been liberated from the floating statoblasts 
in my jars, they float, as has been already described, with their 
discs at the surface of the water, and this delicate, invisible fllm 
spreads upon the surface, uniting the neighboring colonies and 
forming a common basis of support from which they do not 
appear voluntarily to remove. In a natural situation on a stream 
or pond the wind or currents would probably soon waft them 
against some solid substance which they would afterwards 
colonize and inhabit. As has been said, no especial contrivance 
appears to exist for facilitating the locomotion of these colonies, 
and, while their power in this respect is, of course, unquestion- 
able, the writer is inclined to doubt whether it is exercised 
voluntarily and with a purpose, or is not rather an accidental 
result of the frequent contractions and expansions of the retractor 
muscles disturbing the position of alternate portions of the 
disc. This seems the more plausible, as we do not flnd in this 
species any method of prehension in the colonies, but merely a 
gelatinous or slimy cohesion to the ectocyst. 

At maturity the evagination of the polypide in the species 
under consideration is complete, leaving not only no " invaginated 
fold" but exhibiting the whole digestive system of the polyp 

^ '^In the middle of the flattened under surface is an oval disc resembling 
the foot of a gasteropodous mollusk. On this disc, which is contractile 
and admits of frequent changes of shape, the colony adheres to neighboring 
objects or creeps about on submerged leaves and stems of aquatic plants, 
etc." 



198 PBOOEEDINQS OF THE AOADJBMY OF [1884. 

some distance beyond the surface of the coBnoecium. The total 
length of the digestive tract is rather less than that of the 
lophophoric arms and about equal to that of the outer rows of 
tentacles. These are fewer in number than in any other described 
species, ranging from 52-60.^ In the great majority of the 
polyp heads which have been examined the number was 54 ; far 
less frequently they range upward through 56 and 58 to 60, in 
only one instance passing that number. On the other hand the 
tentacular hooks of the statoblasts are more numerous than in 
G. ophidioidea, and about the same as in the other species. 

Three species of the genus have been already described, G. 
mucedoy Cuvier, in Europe, and C. Idss, Leidy, and C. ophidioidea^ 
Hyatt, in America. The differences existing amongst them are 
not considerable, and it admits of question whether all should 
not be merged under the prior title. In the present condition of 
the subject it would seem that the species now brought forward 
is at least as clearly differentiated from any of the former ones 
as they are from each other. I will therefore name it, provision- 
ally, Cristatella lacustris. 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE IV. 

Fig 1 represents a transverse section through the centre of a statohlast of 
this species, Cristatella lactutris; a, a, the exposed chitinous surfaces 
of the valves ; b, b, the reflexed ; c, c, the bent, incnrved retentive 
hooks ; d, d, section of the annulus, or ring of air cells surrounding 
the chitinous body of the statohlast; e, e, the part of the rim at 
which the valves separate at the time of germination, as is shown on a 
larger scale in 

Fig. 2, which represents one end of the section of a similar statohlast in 
the act of separation, the parts indicated hy letters corTesi>onding to 
those on fig. 1, with the addition of /, a delicate film which is being 
stripped'from the under surface of the annulus, and g^ g, which suggest 
the relative sizes and frequency of the papillas upon the exposed 
surface of the valves. 

Fig. 8 exhibits for comparison a corresponding section of the statohlast of 
Pectinatella magnificat Leidy, lettered as before; a, a, the exposed 
surface of the valves ; b, b, the single series of anchorate hooks ; 
dy d, sections of the annulus, itself divided by the line e, e, along 



* In C. mueedo and C. Idee these are said to be "about 80." In C, 
ophidioidea, * * not above 90. ' ' 



1884.] NATURAL S0DSN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 199 

which the separation of the valves hi this genus is effected, as 
shown in 

Fia. 4, much the larger portion of the annulus with all the hooks (which 
are formed by expansions of its dermal surface) remaining upon one 
side, and a smaller part, composed of coarser air cells upon the other. 
It will be noticed that in Pectinatella the annulus is formed of two 
distinct series of cylindrical cells, short upon one side of the separating 
line, several times this length upon the other. The corresponding 
cells of Cristaiella are much more complicated, being formed about 
numerous transverse lines upon the internal surface. The figures have 
been carefully drawn by the aid of the camera lucida. 

Fig. 5. Outline views of the skeleton and statoblast spicules of the sponge 
Meyenia Leidyi : ^ the normal skeleton spicule ; B and (7, side and 
end views of the normal birotulate ; a, &, c, the corresponding features 
as modified by their environment upon the iron pipes as described. 



PBOCKEDINQS 0? THE 



[1884. 



Mr. Thomas Meehas, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Fifteen persons present. 

A paper entitled " The Geology of Delaware," by F, D. Chester, 
vas presented for publication. 

On Elasticity in the Filamenta of Eelianlhus. — Mr, Tdohab 
Meehan remarked that in many composite flowers the pollen is 
ejected from the apex of the staminal tube, and it became a matter 
of interest to ascertain the mechanism by which this is accom- 
plished. The flowers of compositee are much frequented by pollen- 
collecting insects, Honey-gatherers seldom resort to them. It 
■is difficult on this account to watch the flow of pollen in the open 
air, as it ia collected by the insects as fost aa it appears. Some 
flowers of Selianthue lenticularis, Dougl., were gathered, and for 
the purpose of study placed in saucers or 
water in a room where insects could not dis- 
turb them. In this way it was observed that 
after the corolla tube had reached its full 
length, very early the following morning the 
staminal tabe commenced to grow beyond 
the mouth of the corolla, and by about 9 
A. M. had extended to a distance of about oae- 
fourth the whole length of the corolla. The 
pollen then commences to emerge through the 
upper portion of the staminal tube, which, 
the stamens narrowing, has the apices free. 
During the day the pollen continues to pour 
out, till by Dightfall a large amount has 
' accumulated at the apex of the tube, A 
floret at this stage of growth is represented 
by flg. I. The morning of the second day 
the arms of the pistil emerge and commeoce 
to expand, and at once the staminal tnbe 
begins to descend, exhibiting at the end of 
the second day the appearance indicated by 
'■ ^ fig. 2. By the end of the third day, the 

staminal tube has retired entirely within the 
tube of the corolla, and with the pistil, commences to wither. A 
careful examination shows that through the whole course the 
column of united anthers remains entirely of the same length. 
It is the filaments only which are elastic. . These stretch ftUy 
one-half their length. They are attached to the tube of the 
corolla at the inflated portion a short distance above the acbene, 
and extend to about midway between this point and the end of 
the tubular portion at the base of the limb; but when the anther 
tube is extended as described in fig, 1, the filaments occupy the 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0B8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 201 

whole of this space. This pollen could fall on the stigma of the flower 
of the previous day, but as the stigma is already covered by pollen 
of its own, other pollen is hardly likely to be of much service ; and 
even if this outer circle did profit by the pollen of the inner, it would 
not be cross-fertilization in any legitimate sense of the word. We 
may say emphatically that the arrangements favor self-fertilization. 

An interesting feature is the change in the form of the floret 
on the second day of expansion. At the point where the stamens 
are inserted on the corolla, the tube is somewhat inflated and 
covered by short hair. On the first day this infiated portion is 
elongated, and the whole tube uniformly cylindrical, as in fig. 1. 
On the second day the inflation is depressed, and the corolla 
hypocrateriform as in fig. 2. This is probably owing to the 
partial withering of the corolla, but it is worth noting as a guide 
in the study of the fiorets of compositse — ^the normal form is that 
exhibited before the anthers mature. 

The extension of the staminal tube is evidently mechanical, 
and is due solely to the upward growth of the stigma, which, 
partly it seems by the incurved points of the stamens, and 
partly perhaps by the expansion of the arms of the pistil, is able 
to carry the tube up with it. This force being removed as soon 
as the arms emerge, the elastic stamens draw the tube down 
again to its normal location. This portion of the observation 
was made by Mr. Alois Lunzer, the artist of the Flowers and 
JF'erna of the United States, then engaged in making a painting of 
the flower for that work. 

The effect of this process is to render the plant strictly a self- 
fertilizer. The arms of the pistil are covered with rigid hair 
having an upward direction. By the pushing upwards of the 
pistil in its endeavor to escape from the embrace of the stamens, 
these hairs brush the pollen upwards, and it is in this way that 
the pollen is forced through the fissures at the apex as already 
described. When the arms emerge, they are completely covered 
with own-pollen, which remains till the stigmas mature. 

Helianthus lenticularis is the common annual sunflower of the 
Western plains, and believed by Professor Asa Gray to be the 
parent of the garden sunflower. This is not in bloom at the 
present date. One species, Helianthus hirsutus, is in bloom, and 
exhibits similar features, and they are probably characteristic of 
the whole genus, and perhaps of other composite plants. In 
Centaurea the apex of the anther tube is closely united, and is 
taken up with the development of the pistil, which finally escapes 
through a rupture at the side. But in this case there seems to be 
a cotemporaneous growth of the filaments. At any rate there is 
no elasticity, and the staminal tube is not drawn back to the tube 
of the corolla. Pollen is, however, brushed out by the stigmatic 
hair, and each floret receives own-pollen as in Helianthus. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 
14 



202 PBOOEEDiNas or the aoademt or [1884. 



GATALOOirX OF KABIHE SPDITOES, COLLECTED BY KB. JOS. WILLCOX, 

ON THE WEST COAST OF FLOBIBA. 

BY HENRY J. OABTEB, F. B. 8., ETO. 

The fragments of the sponges collected by Mr. Willcox which 
reached me from Philadelphia on June 12, 1884, are all numbered, 
1-69, and have been taken from specimens which, bearing the 
same nambers, have been retained at Philadelphia for identifica- 
tion, when the result of my examination shall have been received ; 
hence the numbers in the catalogue will be found to correspond 
with those on the specimens at Philadelphia. 

It should be remembered that they are all dry specimens, and 
that what I have to examine are only " fragments," hence there 
is very little to be said of each beyond name, form, consistence 
and color, together with the form and dimension of the spicule 
respectively, while they are arranged in accordance with the class- 
ification that I have proposed in my " Notes Introductory to the 
Study and Classification of the Spongida," published in the 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, for 1815, vol xvi, 
p. 1, etc.^ 

Catalogue. 

Obd. II. CBRATINA. 
Fam. 2. APLY8INIDA. 
No. 19. Aplysina cauliformis, Crtr. ("Annals and Mag. Nat. 
History,'' 1882, vol. ix, p. 2T0), 

Ord. III. PSAMMONEMATA. 

Fam. 1. BIBULIDA. 

Group 2. Pabasponqiosa. 

No. 41. Paraspongia ? sp. Allied to the officinal sponge, 

but with more arenaceous (sand-bearing) fibre. 

' AsBBBViATioirs. — ''Ann." for Annals and Mag. of Nat. Hist. 

"Bk." for Bowerhank, monograph of British Spon- 

giada, vol. iii. 
"Sdt." for Schmidt. 
Measurements of the spicules those of the largest present, showing their 
dimensions across and longitudinally. 



1884.] NATUBAL SOnSNCES 07 PHILABXLPHIA. 203 

Fah. 2. HIBCINIDA. 

Group 3. HiRCiNiosA. 

No. 23. Etrcinia? sp. Massive, erect, lobate. Surface 

even, minutely reticulated; projecting arenaceous tags; con- 
sistence resilient. Color now brown. 

No. 26. Hircinia ? sp. Fragment too insignificant for de- 
scription. 

No. 31. Hircinia tubulosa, Crtr. Consisting of a conical mass 
of erect tubular processes. Consistence resilient. Color light 
sponge. Fibre scantily cored with arenaceous substance (named 
after its form). 

No. 36. Hircinia ? sp. Sessile, with solid cylindrical erect 

branches or processes interunited. Consistence resilient. Color 
now sponge-btown. ? = No. 23. (Note. — As the fibre of these 
Hirciniss was invested with sarcode different from the color of the 
fibre itself, there is no saying what color the latter was in its 
natural state.) 

No. 52. Hircinia ? sp. Sarcode destroyed by Spongio- 

phaga communis j Crtr. (See ^ Parasites of the Spongida," Ann., 
1878, vol. ii, p. 168.) Look at the white substance under a micro- 
scope, to see the filaments of the parasite. 

No. 53. Hircinia? sp. Branched; branches solid, cylin- 
drical. 

No. 64. Hircinia J sp. Has grown over sedgy leaves. 

No. 55. Hircinia ? sp. Sessile, composed of erect conical 

tabes. 

Group 16. Abenosa. 

No. 59. Spongelia, Sdt., Javara, Sdt. 

No. 57. Spongelia avar a f Sdt. Red sarcode (Sp.Adriat.Meeres, 
p. 29, taf. 3, fig. 6). 

No. 51. Spongelia, Sdt. ? sp. = Dysidea, Bk. Fragment 

much worn. 

No. 44. Spongelia, Sdt. ? sp. 

No. 43. Dyaidea^ Bk. Like No. 39, but fibrous. 1 Spongelia, 
Sdt. 

No. 24. Spongelia, Sdt., Jpallescens, Sdt. (Sp. Adriat. Meeres, 
p. 28). Dysidea, Bk. 

No. 39. Dysidea tenerrima, Crtr. Merely sarcode and sand 
producing " columnar " structure. No fibre ; thus bearing much 
the same relation to the Hirciniosa that the Holorhaphidota do 



204 FBOOEEDINGB Of THE AOADElfT OF [1884. 

to the Rhaphidonemata, viz., a minimum of Eerasine (named 
after its structure). 

Oed. IV. RHAPHIDONEMATA. 

Fam. 1. CHALINIDA. 

Group 1. DiaiTATA. 

No. 13. Chalina oculata^ 6k. A delicate growth. 

No. 26. Chalina oculata, Bk. A form of. 

No. 28. Chalina oculata, Bk. Has grown over woody stems. 

^ No. 29. Chalina oculata^ Bk. Short-branched delicate growth, 

•^t No. 42. Chalina oculata^ Bk. Form of. 



%.v^ 



Fam. 2. C A VO CHALINIDA. 

Group 6. ACULEATA. 

No. 22. Tuba soraria, Duchass. de Fonb. et Michel. (Spongiares 
de la mer Caraibe, PI. 8, fig 2. Harlem, 1864. Also see "Ann." 
1882, vol. ix, p. 2T7, under " Cavochalinida," W. Indian Sponges). 

No number. Tuba sororia (D. et M., PI. 8, fig. 2). Covered, 
with empty holes, formerly the abodes of a parasitic polyp. 

Obd. V. ECHINONEMATA. 
Fam. 1. 

Group 4. EOHINOCLATHBATA. 

No. 16. Echinoclathria ? sp. Dense mass of erect, small, 

round, short-Jointed branches, polychotomously dividing and 
ending in short processes with rounded terminations ; knotty on 
the surface, chiefly from the presence of a small parasitic polyp. 
Consistence hard. Color now gray. Texture dense. Spicule of 
one form only, viz. : acute, short, robust, sub-capitate, the shortest 
internally and the longest echinating the fibre. Size, about 14 
by 1 — 1800 in. (Like ClathHa coralloideSj Sdt., Sp. Adriat. Meeres, 
taf. V, figs. 10 and 11.) 

No. 2?. Echinoclathria f sp. The same as No. 16, but with 

compressed interuniting branches ending in pointed terminations, 
but no parasitic polyp. Spicule about 18 by 2 — 1800 in. 

No. 30. Echinoclathria ? sp. Fragment too ]!hsignificant 

for general description. Compressed, interuniting branches, 
ending in pointed divisions. Consistence firm. Color light 
sponge-yellow. Fibre short-jointed, bearing internally and exter- 
nally capitate acuates, the latter the longest and projecting in 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADSLPHIA. 205 

tufts, mixed with a small echinating, spinous acuate (? Dictyo- 
cylindrus, Bk.). 

No. 3T. Echinoclathriat sp. Dense mass of compressed, 

proliferous, interuniting branches arising from a contracted base, 
growing on the valve of an Arca^ terminating in compressed, 
somewhat^xpanded divisions. Surface subhispid. Consistence 
hard, tough. Color now brown. Bearing a parasitic polyp 
{Palythoa). Fibre short-jointed, amber-colored, bearing three 
forms of spicules, viz. : 1, robust, acuate with globular tubercu- 
lated head, about 23 by 2 — 1800 in. in its greatest dimensions; 2, 
long smooth acuate, 20 by ^—1800 in.; 8, echinating spicule, 
clavate, spined, small, 6 by i— 1800 in. (-^o^e.— If the " tubercu- 
lated head " is not an accidental form, it is a markedly distin- 
guishing character.) 

No. 38. The same as No. 27. 

No. 46. Echinoclathrial sp. Fragment useless for general 

form. Flimsy branched, interuniting, ridged. Consistence firm. 
Color now whitish gray. Fibre tough, short-jointed, amber- 
colored, bearing two forms of spicule, viz. : 1 , large, long and short 
robust acuates, less in diameter at the large end than in the 
middle of the shaft ; 2, echinating, short spinous acuate. 

Fam. a. AXINELLIDA. 

Group 6. MULTIFOBMIA. 

No. 6. Reniera digitatOj Sdt. (Spong. Adriat. Meeres, p. ?6, taf. 
f , fig. 11.) Massive, sessile lobate. Surface cellular, roughened 
by ridges and small processes. Consistence firm. Color orange. 
Structure cellular. (? A species of the genus Higginsia^ Higgin, 
"Ann.," 18TT, vol. 19, p. 291 ; vol. xiv, fig. 1.) 

No. T. Higginsia coralloidea, Higgin ("Ann.," 1. c). 

l^oAb. Axinellid,? gen, et Q^, Fragment shreddy, branching, 
tough, brown color. Fibre short-jointed, very tough and amber^ 
colored, hispid, bearing three forms of spicules, viz. : 1, robust, 
simple, acuate, long and short ; 2, fine, long, setaceous, acuate ; 
3, small, navicular anchorate, fiesh-spicule. The acuates are 
situated pfirtly in and partly projecting from the fibre echin- 
atingly, with the anchorate plentifully scattered about their base 
of attachment. (? Glathria Sdt., Sp. Adriat. Meeres). 

No. 35. Axinella polypoides, Sdt. (Sp. Adriat. Meeres, p. 3, 
taf. 6, fig. 4). 

No. 45. Higginsia carqlloides^ Higgin ("Aifin.," 1. c). Erect 



206 PB00£EDINQ8 OF THE ACADElfT OT [1884. 

branches, compressed interuniting, roughened by small projecting 
processes. Consistence now hard. Color whitish gray, spicules 
of two forms, viz. : 1, large acerate, smooth, 40 by 2 — 1800 in. ; 2, 
small acerate, spinous, partly in and partly out of the fibre, pro- 
jecting echinatingly from the surface. 

Obd. VI. HOLORHAPHIDOTA. 
Fah. 1. BENIEBIDA. 
Oroup 1. Amobphozoa. 

No. 5. Halichondria panicea, Bk., attached to sea-weed, covered 
with white Melobesia. 

No. 12. Halichondria panicea, Bk. 
No. 34. Halichondria panicea^ Bk. 
No. 58. Halichondria panicea^ Bk., much worn. 

Fam. 2. ISODICTYOSA. 
No. 17. Isodictya^ Bk. ? sp. Fragment of a branch. Con- 
sistence crumbly. Color white. Spicule acerate, 11 by | — 1800 
in. (Where the spicule is acerate, which is generally the case, 
the species are ill-defined, as yet.) 

Groups. Thalyosa. 

No. 48. Reniera J sp. Fragment of a cylindrical, solid branch, 

in which the fibre is entirely composed of small acerate spicules, 
about 13-1800 in. long. (These species, for the foregoing reason, 
are, as yet, ill-defined, except where their general form is peculiar.) 

No. 49. The same. 

Group 6. Haliohondbina. 

No. 32. Halichondria incrustanSj Mihi. Variety with "angu- 
lated " (Bk.) anchorate and smooth acuate. Consistence crumbly. 
Color white. Fragment massive, attached to a dark green, dry, 
gelatinous, now hardened mass, which, if not one of the " Camosa," 
is probably the remains of a compound tunicated ascidian. 

Suberites par excellence. Groups 10^ 11 and 12. Cavernosa^ 

Gompacta^ Laxa. 

10. Cayebnosa. 

No. 3. Suberites^ sp. Fragment useless for general form, as 

the whole is broken down into a mass of spicular pulp and fibre. 
Color yellowish. Spicule of one form only, viz., pin-like; shaft 
smooth, slightly fusiform and curved ; head oval ; size, 30 by 
1—1800 in. (? = No. 18,) 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 207 

No. 10. Haphyrus Griffithsii^ Bk. Branched tubular variety, 
therefore might be designated " ramotubulata," Crtr. (The 
first instance of this form that I have seen.) 

No. 11. The same, but the usual massive, solid form. N. B. — 
It is Cliona celata, which, after having destroyed the oyster-shell 
in which it generally burrows, grows into the free form called 
by Dr. Bowerbank " Baphyrus Griffithsii " (Mon., vol. iii, pi. 64). 

No. 18. Suberitest sp. Fragment branched and interuniting 

most irregularly. Surface covered with short warty and digiti- 
form processes. Consistence light corky. Color ochre-yellow. 
Structure cellulo-cavemous. Spicule of one form only, viz., pin- 
like ; shaft smooth, slightly fusiform and curved ; head oval, often 
followed towards the shaft, by an annular inflation ; size, 30 by 
1—1800 in. 

No. 33. Suberites ? sp. Fragment useless for general form ; 

further than that it is very irregular and interuniting, suberite- 
like. Consistence flrm. Color white. Structure cancello-cavern- 
ous. Spicule of one form only, viz., pin-like ; shaft smooth, 
slightly fusiform and curved ; head globo-conical ; about 65 by 
1—1800 in. 

No. 1. Suberites ? sp. Massive, erect, sessile, terminating 

in small, conical processes. Consistence now firm. Color gray 
outside, yellowish inside. Structure cancello-cavernous. Spicule 
of one form only, viz., pin-like ; shaft smooth, slightly fusiform 
and curved ; head nearly oval ; point obtusely rounded ; size 25 
by 1 — 1800 in. in its greatest dimensions. (If the obtuseness of 
the point is not accidental, this is a good character.) 

11. Compact A. 

No. 4. Suberites ? sp. Taking the form of the Serpula- 

tubes over which it has grown, interuniting and enclosing shells. 
Consistence hard now and compact. Surface villous. Color 
yellowish gray. Spicule of one form only, viz., pin-like ; shaft 
smooth, slightly fusiform and curved ; head oval, often prolonged 
posteriorly ; size 60 by 1—1800 in. 

No. 8. Suberites ? sp. Taking its form from the sedgy 

leaves over which it has grown. Consistence cheesy, now hard. 
Color greenish outside (adventitious ?), yellowish within. Like 
Hymeniacedon carnosa, Bk., in consistence and structure, if not 
in th^ form of the head of the spicnle, 



208 PBOOEEDINaS OF THE AOADEBfT OT [1884. 

No. 40. SuberitesJ sp. Irregularly branched. Id teruniting, 

ending in roand-topped processes. Consistence compact. Color 
reddish yellow. Spicule of one form only, viz., pin-like ; head 
globular with posterior projection, tricuspid like in profile. 
(? SuberUes marsa, Sdt., Sp. Adriat. Meeres, p. 67, taf. 1, fig. 2.) 

12. Laxa. 
No. 20. Halichondria aanguinea, Bk. (Mon., voL iii, pi. 32, 

fig. 6). 

Pam. 13. DONATINA. 

No. 47. Tethya lyncurium^ Bk. (pi. 15, fig. 17, op. cit.). Robust 
form with large cavernous excavations on the surface, and bundles 
of spicules sunk in the dry, dark, chondroid tisane. 

Fam. 14. QEODINA. 

No. 21. Oeodia tuberculosa, Bk. (Proc. Zool. Soc, 1872, p. 676, 
pi. 46). 
No. 50. The same. Cylindrical fragment. 

0»D. VIII. CALCAREA.. 

No. 9. Ascaltis Lamarckii, Hseckel (Die Kalkschwamme, vol. 2, 
p. 60, Atlas, taf. 9, fig. 5). Massive, growing among sand and 
round the stems of sea-weed. Enveloping sand. {Clathrina, 
Gray.) 

Numbers absent, viz., 2, 14 and 56. 

Observations. 

Lest it should be thought that it is only necessary to present 
a fragment of a sponge to have its name and description pointed 
out as readily as this might be done with a plant in botany, the 
former being expected from the accumulated product of a few 
years, while the latter is one of centuries, I would append the 
following remarks on the above " Catalogue " : — 

The family of Hircinida requires to be generally reviewed, but 
the time for this has not arrived, since if not by iactual specimens 
preserved when fresh in a wet state, it must be done by a review 
of all the illustrated descriptions of this kind that have been 
published; while considering that the specimens of Hircinida 
are exceedingly numerous and very much alike, nothing but an 
opportunity of this kind holds out any hope of their ever being 
collated, divided and finally arranged in such a manner as would 
be useful tp tbe student. Ii^ the spiculiferous sponges the form 
of the spicule often facilitates t;}iis,but in %Yxfi Hircinida generally, 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 209 

when divested of the sarcode, which often has a particular color, 
there is absolutely nothing left but the homy fibre covered with a 
heterogeneous assemblage of foreign objects, viz., sand, frag- 
mentary sponge-spicules and other microscopic bodies, which 
vary in amount and kind with those which are most plentiful in 
the locality where the sponge may be growing, if we except the 
general form which the skeletons composed of this fibre may 
retain. 

The Suherites par exellence, too, like the Sir cinix, require a 
similar treatment, for here the skeletal spicule, being for the most 
part simply pin-like, is so similar and so slightly varied in form, 
that, in most instances, this alone would be insufiScient for dis- 
tinction. However, the skeletal spicule is often accompanied by a 
flesh-spicule of a spini-spirular or other form, which lessens the 
difl^culty; but they can seldom be seen without mounting a 
microscopic fragment in balsam, when the transparency renders 
them (if there are any) plain, which the wet sarcode previously 
rendered obscure. This should be done with all the specimens 
above mentioned, as it involves an amount of time which I now 
have not at my disposal ; hence can only recommend the student 
to consult my initiatory attempt to do this in the " Annals '' of 
1882 ("West Indian Sponges," etc., vol. 9, p. 349, etc., pl.xii, figs. 
25-30). 

See also, for the group Donatina and species Donatia lyncurium, 
"General observations " (lb. ib., p. 358, etc.). 

In my division of the Echinonemata, the first groups of the 
families Ectyonida and Axinellida respectively, viz., *^ 1 " and 
" 6 " i, e. " Pluriformia '' and " Multiformia " are merely pro- 
visional terms for including a vast number of species which here- 
after will have to undergo description, illustration and division, 
when they shall have been usefully collated, etc., after the manner 
already mentioned, but so much time, taste, labor and opportunity 
will be required for this, that many years must pass before it even 
approaches completion. 

The number of species of sponges that exist and have still to 
be discovered has been chiefiy foreshadowed to me by the dry 
specimens in the British Museum, upon which my proposed 
" Classification '* has been based, but cannot be put forth with 
any certainty under such circumstances, more especially the sub- 
division of the orders. 



210 PBOOEEDINOS OF THE AOADEBfT OF [1884. 



July 22. 

Mr. Thomas Meeban, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Eleven persons present. 



July 29. 
Mr. Thomas Meishan, Yice-President, in the chair. 
Eight persons present. 

Sexual Characteristics in Zinnia. — Mr. Thomas Meehan, 
referrinor to some sp-called double Zinnias on the table, remarked 
on the change of sexual character which followed the change of 
a tubular to a ligulate floret This was not confined to Zinnia^ 
but occurred in Dahlia, and, he believed, all composite flowers. 
It must be a well-known fact, but had not, so far as he knew, 
been placed on record. It was well worthy of study by those 
interested in the laws of sex. In Zinnia a single ligulate floret 
would often be surrounded by tubular and hermaphrodite ones; 
but it would have the purely pistillate character of the ray florets. 
In like manner, when, in the double Dahlia, the tubular florets 
became ligulate, the neutral character of the ray florets followed 
with them. It was evident that in these cases there was an 
intimate connection between the form of the floret and its sexual 
character. There was even a difference in the form of the akene 
in the different florets of Zinnia, The ligulate female floret had 
a broad akene, tapering at the summit, and with the apex very 
hairy ; while the akene of the tubular hermaphrodite floret was 
truncate, and entirely smooth. 

He made some further remarks on the growth of the floret in 
connection with that of the staminal tube. In many compositse 
the growth of the pistil continued for a day or two after the 
corolla had ceased to grow, pushing up often to a length douhle 
that of the corolla. In Zinnia the growth of the floret was 
enormous on the last day, often doubling its previous length in 
twenty-four hours. It always remained longer than the pistil, 
until it withered away, when the expanded arms of the pistil were 
exposed. The anther cells burst before the floret opened, and, 
though the arms could not expand, enough pollen entered by the 
stigmatio fissure to ensure self-fertilization. 

The following was ordered to be printed : — 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES Of PHILADEIiPHIA. 211 




BBSCBIPTIOir OF HEW SPECIES OF TERBESTBIAL XOLLUSCA OF CUBA. 

BT RAFAEL ARANGO. 

Choanopoma onoinatum Arango (fig. 1). 

Testa subperforata, oblongo pupsefonnis, teniuscula, truncata, 
filoso costata, furcescenti-albida, seriebus macularum 
rufarum longitudinaliter omata ; sutura profunda, costis 
exeurrentibuB incrassatis albido - dentata ; anfr. superst. 
4—5 eonyexiusculi, ultimus antioe solutus, dorso cari- 
natus ; apertura yerticalis, ovalis ; peritrema duplex, 
internum breve, externum dilatatum, later! dextro latiore, ^ 
undulate, in angulo supero uncinato reflexum. Operculum 
normale. 

Long. 16 mill.; diam. 7 mill.; apert. 4 mill. . 

Habitat. — San Juan de las Lleras, prope Yillaolara. 

Simillimum Tudorx Moreletianse^ differt operculo Choanopo- 
matum et forma altera peritrematis. 

CylindreUa asslmllis Arango (fig. 2). 

Testa simillima CyL arcustriatse, Differt statura magis cylin- 
drica, costis minus confeitis, fortioribus ; fasciis spadicea 
suturam anfractus sequentis tangente et prope peri 
trema expansum. terminante (magis conspicua quam in 
arctf striata), Anfractus 12 testae integrse. 

Long. 23-26 mill.; diam. 6 mill.; apert. 4 mill. 

Habitat. — La lagua, prope La Palma in provincia 
Pinar del Rio. 2. 

CylindreUa eontentiosa Arango. 

Testa vix rimata, fusiformi-turrita, fusco-cornea, pallidse pauce 
variegata; spira sursum sensim attenuata; truncata; sutura 
subcrenulata ; anfr. superst. 14-15 planulati, ultimus adnatus, 
basi filoso-carinatus ; apertura subcircularis ; peritrema undique 
sequaliter expansum, album. 

Long, testae truncatae 14-16 mill. ; diam. 3 mill. 

Columna interna lamina unica acuta oblique circumvoluta. 

Habitat. — San Juan de las Lleras, prope Yillaclara. 




212 PROOEEDINGB OF THE AOADSBCT OT [18S4. 

Cylindrella Lajonoherel Arango. 

Testa fasiformi-elongata, gracilis, subtruncata, tenuis, sub- 
oblique costata, diaphana, albida ; anfr. superst. 15-17, ultimas 
solutus, deorsum protractus; sutura simplex; apertura oblique 
cireularis, peritrema undique breviter expansum. 

Long. 15-17 mill. ; diam. 2^ mill. 

Columna interna filoso-torta. 

Habitat. — San Juan de las Lleras, prope Yillaclara. 

Similis Cyl. I^ilippianae, differt forma longiori, costis remo- 
tioribus et colore albido (nee fusculo-variegato). 

Cylladrella Thomson! Arango (fig. 3). 

Testa similis Gyl. coloratsB (vide descriptionem) sed 
differt statura magis cylindrica, colore corneo, testa pellu- 
cida, fascia spadicea solummodo in anfractu ultimo visible. 
Anfractus 14 testae integrse. 

Habitat. — " La lagua,^^ prope La Palma in provincia 
Pinar del Rio. 8- 

Cjlindrella Infortanata Arango (fig 4). 

Proc. Acad. Nat. So. of Phila., 1882, p. 106. 
Testa non rimata, subfusiformi-turrita, tenuis, diaphana, 
chordato-costata, albido-comea ; spira breviter truncata ; 
sutura profunda, non crenulata ; anfr. superstites 12, plani- 
usculi, ultimus breviter solutus ; basi obsolete carinatus ; 
apertura subovalis ; peritrema expansiusculum, album. 

Longitud. testse truncatae 13 mill. ; diam. 3 mill. 
Columna interna 3-plicata, plica superiori ampliori. 
Habitat. — Prsedium "Xa Choreraj^^ municipium Vinales, 
in provincia Pinar del Rio. 

CyAindrella colorata Arango (fig. 5), 

Proc. Acad. Nat Sciences, 1882, p. 106. 

A figure of this species is now given from a type 
specimen. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 213 



AuausT 5. 

Mr. Edw. Pottb in the chair. 
Eleven persons present. 

On Paludicella erecta. — Mr. Edward Potts desired to have a 
preliminary record made of his recent discovery or identification 
of a new species of Paludicella^ for which he proposes the name 
Paludicella erecta. 

This genus of fresh-water polyps has heretofore contained only 
the single clearly defined species P. Ehrenbergi^ Yan Beneden 
{Alcyonella articulata, Ebrenberg), the other two names, P, pro- 
cumbens and P. elongata^ suggested by Mr. Albany Hancock and 
Prof. Leidy, being considered by Prof. Allman as identical with 
the original type. The present form is strikingly different from 
the old one, both in the number of its ciliated tentacles and in 
the character of the coenoecial cells. The doubt which has lin- 
gered in the mind of the speaker has not been as to the species, 
but whether, in view of the difQcuIt determination of the char- 
acteristic septse between the cells, amounting in fact to an 
apparent absence of them, a new genus might not be required to 
accommodate it. 

It was first noticed in Tacony Creek, a small stream in Mont- 
gomery County, Pennsylvania, at that place perhaps fifty feet 
above tide-wate*r. A few days after it was also gathered within 
tidal limits in both the Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, near 
Philadelphia. In the first-named locality it was found most 
abundantly in the pools amongst the rapids of the stream, fre- 
quently covering the upper surface of stones, at the depth of a 
foot or more, to the extent of many square inches. The erect 
portions of the coenoecial cells in the denser parts of the colonies 
are about a line in height and, standing ver}' closely, suggest a 
comparison with the surface of a chestnut-burr. In the rivers 
they were found penetrating the mass of encrusting sponges, 
particularly Meyenia Leidyi. 

These upright tubules are chitinous prolongations of very 
irregularly inflated cells, resting in compact disorder upon the 
supporting surface, crossed and connected in some manner not 
yet intelligible, by meandering cylindrical rhizomes, sometimes of 
great relative length. These are mostly terminal and simple, but 
are sometimes branched and frequently originate in an indif- 
ferent lateral portion of a cell. The tubular prolongations 
are, of course, always single; the invaginated polyp retiring 
within the inflated portion of the cell. Septse were, in a few 
instances, discovered in the rhizomes near their insertion or 
connection with the inflated portion of the cells. The upright 



214 PBOOSKDINGS 01 THS ACABKUT OF [1884. 

portions of those cells which seemed to be least matured were 
longer than those of their older neighbors, subclavate or spindle- 
shaped and rounded at the extremities. The others are cylin- 
drical or slightly widening downwards and shorter than the 
former by the invagination of the terminal portion of the 
ectocyst. This has the effect of producing the angular appear- 
ance of the orifice, so familiar in the older species ; but while 
that is generally quadrangular, this has frequently five or more 
sides. The younger ceUs are nearly transparent, but they darken 
with age and become somewhat encrusted with adherent particles 
and overgrown by commensal parasites, Limnias, Fyxicola, and 
the like. 

The polypides are shy, but fond of the light, and when other- 
wise undisturbed will remain for a long time protruded in the 
full glare of microscopic illumination. It can then be seen 
that the lophophore is circular, without epistome, supporting 
ordinarily twenty tentacles, taking the shape of a claret glass and 
opening upwards. (Nineteen and twenty-one tentacles have 
been doubtfully counted, while the above-mentioned number is 
frequent; F. Ehrenbergi is universally stated to have but sixteen). 
A peculiarity of the tentacles is the presence upon the outer 
median line of each, of a rather sparsely filled series of quiescent 
setffiy in strong contrast with the rapidly moving cilia around 
them. 

The development of this polyp from the ovum, of which 
interesting hints have been obtained, and its internal struct aral 
peculiarities, are reserved for further study, and if satisfactory 
results shall have been attained, they will be treated of in a later 
paper. The nearly simultaneous observation of this species in 
three distinct localities, and its abundance in each, indicates that 
it is probably not uncommon, and excites surprise that it does 
not appear to have been previously noticed. 



August 12. 
Mr. Thomas Meehan, Vice-President, in the chair. 
Eifteen persons present. 

A Large Zircon. — Dr. A. E. Foote recorded the discovery of 
the largest crystal of zircon ever known. It is 9^ inches high, 
4 inches on one &ce and 3f inches on the other. It undoubtedly 
originally weighed twelve pounds, but owing to a small portion 
being lost by fracturing it now weighs but eleven and three-quarter 
pounds. The largest crystal ever known before weighed less 
than three pounds. The crystal is doubly terminated, and, 
though somewhat broken in taking out nearly all the pieces were 
saved. At one end there are two terminations and one of these 



1884.] NATUBAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 215 

was broken off in some great convulsion of the earth's surface. 
This had been separated from the main crystal by a piece of 
orthoclase that had unmistakably^ been formed since the rupture 
of the crystal. Such a fact is of great importance in studying 
the geological history of the formation. The locality is Brudi- 
nelle, Renfrew Co., Ontario, Canada, and the rock is a vein of 
pink feldspar in a Laurentian gneiss. It is associated with sphene 
and crystals of peristerite (?). Some of the faces of the latter 
show the moonstone reflections very plainly. Cavities once filled 
with calcite (now mostly dissolved away) occur in the vein. 
There are also some small crystals that need further examination. 



August 19. 

Mr. J. H. Redfield in the chair. 

Fifteen persons present. 

The death of W. L. Schaeffer, a member, was announced. 



August 26. 

Mr. J. H. Redfield in the chair. 

Fourteen persons present. 

The death of James L. Claghom, a member, was announced. 
Edward P. Bliss and Ralph W. Seiss, M.D., were elected 
members. 



September 2. 
Rev. H. C. McCooK, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Twenty-one persons present. 

On the toide Distribution of some American Sponges, — Allusion 
having been made to the wide distribution of certain species of 
spiders over the North American continent, Mr. E. Potts, refer- 
ring to the fresh-water sponge fauna of this country, said, that 
Spongilla fragilis^ the first species named in America, described 
by Dr. Leidy in 1851 from specimens collected near Philadelphia, 
had since been found abundantly along the Atlantic coast from 
Florida to Nova Scotia. It had been gathered at several points 
along the St. Lawrence and in the great lakes, through the middle 
continent, and in the far west had been described by Dr. Bower- 
bank, in 1863, under the name of 8. Lor dii, as found in the lakes 
and streams flowing from the Cascade Range in British Columbia, 



216 PBOOEEDiNas or the academy of [1884. 

affluents of the majestic Columbia River. The species may, there- 
fore, be regarded as strictly continental in its range, and until 
very recently it has been distinctively American. It is a little 
singular that the only other place in which it has been noticed is 
in the neighborhood of Charkow, in Russia, where it was dis- 
covered, a few months since, by Dr. L. Dybowski. 

The specimens of this species from Nova Scotia had been 
collected by Mr. A. H. Mackay, B. A.,B. S., of Pictou Academy, 
Pictou, N. S., from whom the speaker had recently received a 
collection of sponges, phenomenal in its character, both as regards 
the number of genera and species, represented, and the excellent 
judgment that had attached to most of them their proper names, 
from apparently very insufficient data. The collection was the - 
result of few days' search within a limited district, " from lakes 
in and near the water shed of Nova Scotia, near the borders 
of the three counties of Pictou, Guysboro and Antigonish," at 
elevations of from 100 to 700 feet above sea level. Of the genus 
Spongilla, it contains three species, S. lacustHs^ 8./ragili8^s.nd 
8. iglooiformis ; of the genus Meyenia, two species, M.fluviatilis 
and M, Everetti; of the genus Heteromeyenia^ two, H, argy- 
rosperma and ff, Ryderiy and of the genus Tubella^ one species, T. 
PennHyivanica — eight species, representing four genera. Besides 
these there were small specimens of another species, evidently 
new, but whose genus relations could not be determined on account 
of the absence of statoblasts. 

In some respects the most important find in the collection is 
Meyenia Everetti Mills ; this being only the second instance in 
which the species has been discovered. The original locality was 
Gilder Pond upon Mt. Everett, in Berkshire Co., Mass., at an 
elevation of 1800 or 2000 feet above the sea. It was there col- 
lected by Dr. P. Wolle and Mr. H. S. Kitchel of Bethlehem, Pa., 
well known for their invaluable work among the desmids and 
diatoms ; and examined simultaneously by Mr. H. Mills of Buf- 
falo, N. Y., and the speaker. Its most striking peculiarity is the 
presence, all through the dermal tissues, of very minute birot- 
ulate spicules, the only instance in which these have been observed 
as characteristic features of the dermal surface in any fresh-water 
sponges ; unless the complicated forms found in Mtyenia plumosa 
Carter, may be considered an exception. 

These birotulates in the present collection average one-third 
longer than those before examined, and are in every way more 
robust. The speaker was gratified in finding this confirmation of a 
rule which he has long since observed to hold amongst the infinite 
variations of size and form noticeable in collections of the same 
species from various localities ; viz , that the spicules of all species 
increase regularly in size and solidity as we descend from high 
altitudes towards the sea-level, where is found the extreme limit 
of the scries. He does not attribute this gradation to a change 
of climatic conditions, but more probably to a gradual and con- 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHIIiADELPHIA. 21*7 

Slant improvement in the food-supply or in the siliceous constit- 
uent of the water. He has traced the workings of the rule more 
particularly through the very variable species, Spongilla lacustris 
and S.fragilis; in Meyenia fluviatiliH, in Heteromeyenia argyro- 
sperma and H. Byderi, and lastly and most conspicuously in 
Tuhella Fennsylvanica, The extremes in this last series differ so 
widely that they would hardly be taken to belong to the same 
species, but the intermediate grades have all been collected, largely 
from the same stream ; and as a result several species named in this 
and other cases, have relapsed into synonyms. 



September 9. 

Dr. W. S. W. RusoHENBEROER, in the chair. 

Eleven persons present. 

The death of R. E. Rogers, M. D., a member, was announced. 



September 16. 
Rev. H. C. McCooK, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Seventeen persons present. 

On the Minute Fauna of Fairmount Beservoir. — Mr. E. Potts 
alluded to the difficulties that ordinarily prevent a thorough study 
of the fixed aquatic fauna, which he described as thereby generally 
limited to collections from the shallow water near the margins of 
lakes and streams, or of such forms as may adhere to the few 
timbers or stones that can be dragged from a greater depth. He 
therefore urged the importance of making use of such opportuni- 
ties as are furnished by the temporary drainage of reservoirs, 
canals, etc., to examine thoroughly the incrustations upon exposed 
walls and timbers, or on the bed of the stream. 

Such an occasion was afforded a few days since, when the acci- 
dental breaking of a valve necessitated the drawing off of the 
water from the Fairmount reservoirs. These are divided by per- 
pendicular walls, eight or ten feet in height, and, unfortunately, 
facilities were not at hand in the shape of ladders, planks, etc., to 
enable him to make a minute examination of them. From the 
margin, however, could be seen at many places patches of the 
sponges y Spongilla fragilis &nd Meyeniajluviatilis, while the cages 
over the outlet pipes, and, more strikingly, the walls surrounding 
the main outlet at the southeast comer, were thickly encrusted with 
Meyenia Leidyi, The last-named sponge is very compact and 
little liable to crumble during the winter season, so that it is prob- 
able that the large masses, some of them nearly an inch in thick- 

15 



218 PBOCEEDINaS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

ness, and a foot or two in diameter, represent the aggregation of 
several years. In a few places, at the base of the walls, the pale 
green branches of Spongilla lacustris could be seen, and ooca- 
sionallj^, to the speaker's surprise, slender waving processes of the 
same species, totally colorless, could be seen reaching up through 
the mud in little groups upon the bottom. He was surprised, 
because he had always held that it was impossible for sponges to 
live upon a muddy bottom, and theoretic reasoning would still 
suggest that probably only this species, which can thus hold itself 
up out of the suffocating silt, can survive the constant deposition 
of siliceous particles. The total amount of sponge growth was 
relatively small, and the probability of an aqueous taint from it, 
very remote. 

The commensal habit of many of the lower animals who feed by 
the creation of ciliary whirlpool currents, has been frequently 
referred to ; the weaker current-makers, such as vorticell8e,stentor8, 
and the errant and tubicolous rotifers, planting themselves about 
the heads of the stronger polyzoa to supply their own nets with 
what may have escaped from the others. The same instinctive 
principle which leads all these to locate themselves most plenti- 
fully amongst the stones in the rapids of streams, was particularly 
noticeable in promoting their aggregation upon and in the neigh- 
borhood of the inlet and outlet gates of the reservoirs. The feeble 
currents produced by each can only bring within its reach the 
floating provision from a very limited area ; the volume of water 
poured through these gates brings to them a rich supply, and the 
numbers and variety of these organisms increase in proportion. 
Of the fixed forms were seen amongst the brj'ozoa, beside one or 
more undetermined species of Flumatella — Pectinatella magnifica 
and Urnatella gracilis of Leidy, and the newly described Palu- 
dicella erecta. Attached to these were Vorticellfle, Epistilis and 
Stentors innumerable; Pyxicola and Acineta; rotifers of various 
names, including prominently Limnias and other, probably unde- 
scribed forms among the MelicertidaB. Very abundant among these 
was the interesting chsetobranch annelid, Manayunhia speciosa 
Leidy, which has of late been frequently noticed in this vicinity, 
and the wonderfully marine-looking hydroid Cordylophora lacus- 
trig. This last was particularly abundant around the southeast 
outlet ; its stems forming a complete matting over many yards 
of surface, commingled with bryozoa and sponges in intricate 
confusion. 

A large valve had been removed from a discharging main on the 
southern side of the reservoir hill, a hundred yards or more from 
the opening in the bottom of one of the basins, and where all light 
was consequently absent. An incrustation, averaging perhaps 
three-eighths of an inch in thickness, upon the inner surface of this 
valve, was found to be largely composed of the gemmulse and 
spicules of Meyenia J^eidyi ; mii]igje4 vith which were stems of 



1884.] NATURAL SGIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 219 

Plumatella^ Umntella, and Cordylophora lacustris. The fact that 
all these can thus thrive in absolute darkness throws some doubt 
upon the supposed sensitiveness of these forms to the presence or 
absence of light, as does also the fact that while Faludicella 
Ehrenhergi is said to seek the darkest comers, the speaker 
found his new species, P. erecta, apparently rejoicing in the 
glare of the full sunlight. 

Of course many other creatures than those above named were 
casually seen in this connection, including chiefly amoebae, free- 
swimming protozoans and entomostracans, planarian worms, 
hydras and aquatic insect-larvae ; but the former are particularly 
mentioned as among the most interesting and beautiful of those 
that freely and innocently drink of the same cup with ourselves. 



September 23. 
Mr. Edw. Potts, in the chair. 

Nine x)ersons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

"A Review of the American Species of the Genus Hemi- 
ramphus," by Seth E. Meek and David K. Goss. 

"A Review of the American Species of the Genus Teuthis,*' by 
Seth E. Meek and Martin L. HoflTman. 

"A Review of the American Species of Scomberomorus," by 
Seth E. Meek and Robert G. Newland. 

Tunisian Flints. — Dr. D. G. Brinton remarked that the flints 
presented through him this evening had been received from the 
eminent archaeologist, the Marquis de Nadaillac, whose son, an 
ofHcer in the French army, obtained them at the station of Ras- 
el-Oued, near Biban, on the southeastern coast of Tunis. The speci- 
mens consist of flint chips, arrow-points, and a semi-lunar shaped 
implement of small size, which resembles the '* stemmed scrapers " 
found in America. This form was obtained from the lower levels, 
and is charactciistic, in France, of the later productions of the 
stone age, especially of that epoch called by French archae- 
ologists " the epoch of Robenhausen," from the locality of that 
name in Switzerland. Chronologically, this is the first epoch of 
the appearance of man on the globe, the previous implement- 
using animals being more properly anthropoids. Those made 
use of stone only, not having learned the dressing of bone or 
horn. This view adds to the interest of the query as to the 
purpose of these scrapers, as they are called in default of a better 
name. That they were an important tool to the primitive man is 
^yid^nt froxa their wide distribut^ion. They have been found in 



220 PBOOEKDINaS OF THE AOADEBfT 01 [1884. 

France, in the Crimea,' in India, in America, in strata of great 
antiquity (both North and South America), and here we have 
them in Africa. 

The archaeology of the North African Coast has special claims 
to attention, as from there apparently a very ancient migration 
advanced northward, passing in one direction through Spain, and 
in another by way of Malta, Sicily and Italy. This was cotem- 
porary with the appearance of the Elephas Africanus in Europe, 
whose bones have been found in intimate association with those 
of man in various localities. It was long anterior to the immi- 
gration of the Iberians or Basques, who by some are traced 
to North Africa. Another point of interest may be added. Tiie 
only locality in the Old World where animal or eflSgy mounds 
have been reported is in North Africa, in Algiers, near the forest 
of Tenrit-el-Sad, south of Miliana. As these peculiar structures 
are so frequent in the Mississippi Yalley, the coincidence is worth 
noting. 

Prof. Heilprin contended, that while on the hypothesis of 
evolution no objection could be raised to an assumption which 
made an animal intermediate between man and the anthropoid 
apes sufficiently intelligent to understand the full value and 
manufacture of stone implements such as were exhibited, yet, as 
a matter of fact, paleontological evidence had thus far failed to 
prove that any such use or manufacture had been made of them, 
as was here claimed. Indeed, no evidence was forthcoming to 
show that the implements were not the work of man himself, 
despite the fact that no traces of human remains were found 
associated with the fragments. The assumption that the advent 
of man dates only to a given period of the so-called " stone age,'* 
was considered to be purely gratuitous, and to rest solely on 
negative evidence. Many archaeologists concur in the belief that 
his remains may yet be found in deposits of strictly Tertiary 
age, and some, even in the early part of this period. The speaker 
discussed the theory of the migration of races, and the succes- 
sive introduction, into different regions, at different periods of 
time, of the various epochs marking the development of the 
human race. 



September 30. 

Mr. Edw. Potts in the chair. 

Twenty-four persons present. 

Henry F. Osborn, John Wanamaker, and Miss Adele M. Fielde 
were elected members. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOKS OF PHILADILPHIA. 221 



A BEVISW OF THE AlCEBICAH SPECIES OF THE OEHUS HEKIBEAMFEUS. 

BT SETH E. MEEK AND DAVID K. GOSS. 

The American species of the genus Hemirhamphus are in a 
condition of great confusion. In this paper we have endeavored 
to give the synonyms of those species which seem to be valid, 
with an analysis of their specific characters. The paper is based 
on specimens belonging to the Indiana University, and to the 
United States National Museum, all of them collected by Professor 
David S. Jordan on the coast of Florida and at Havana. 

This collection comprises three of the four Atlantic species 
admitted by us, the published descriptions indicating the exist- 
ence of another (H, balao)^ as yet unknown to us. 

Euleptorhamphus longirostris is not here mentioned, as we 
regard it as the type of a genus distinct from Hemirhamphus, 

We are very much indebted to Professor Jordan for use of his 
library and for valuable aid. 

Analysis of American species of the genus Hemirhamphus. 

a. Anal fin about as long as dorsal and opposite it, its rays 14 to 
16 ; sides with a distinct silvery band ; last ray of dorsal not 
produced in a filament. 

6. Yentrals inserted about midway between base of caudal and 
posterior margin of eye ; dorsal and anal fins scaly ; lat. 
1. 53 to 56. 

c. Length of mandible (from tip of upper jaw) not longer 
than rest of head; body and head comparatively 
robust; D. 15; A. 16. unifasciatus, 1. 

cc. Length of mandible (from tip of upper jaw) not shorter 
than rest of head ; body comparatively slender. D. 14 ; 
A. 15. roherti, 2. 

hb. Yentrals inserted midway between base of caudal and gill 
openings ; dorsal and anal fins not scaly ; lat. 1. 63 ; D. 
14 ; A. 14. rosx. 3. 



222 PBOOEEDiNaB or the aoademt or [1884. 

aa. Anal fin about f length of dorsal, its insertion behind that of 
dorsal, its rays 11 or 12; sides without distinct silvery 
band ; last ray of dorsal produced in a short filament. 

d. Scales comparatively large, about 53 in lateral line; 
upper lobe of caudal bright orange in life. D. U ; 
A. 12. pleii, 4. 

dd. Scales comparatively small, about 63 in lateral line 
{Valenciennes)] upper lobe of caudal dirty violet 
{Poey) ; D. 11-14 ; A. 11-12 {Poey), balao, 5- 

1. Hemirhamphni nnifaioiatni. 

Hemirhamphui unifasciatua Ranzan), Nov. Comm. Acad. Sci. Inst., 
Bonon, v, 1842, 826, Taf. 25 (BrazU) ; Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. 
Mus., vi, 1866, 262 (in part ; West Indies ; Rio Janeiro) ; Cope, Tians. 
Amer. Phil. Soc., 1871, 481 (St. Martin's) ; Joidan & GUbert, Proc. 
U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 924 (Panama ; no description). (Not R 
untfaaetatuB of most American writers.) 

f HimirJuimphua picarti Cuv. & Val., Hist. Nat. Poiss., xix, 1846, 25 
(Africa). 

EemirhampJius riehardi Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., xix, 
1846, 26 (Antilles ; Cayenne ; Bahia ; Rio Janeiro). 

Syparhamphus trictupidatiui Gill, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1859, 
131 (Barbadoes). 

Bsmirhamphua fasdatua Poey, Memorias, 11, 1860, 299 (Cuba ; not of 
Bleeker). 

Hemirhamphtu poeyiQmither, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., vi, 1866, 262 (on 
K faaeiatui Poey) ; Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 383 (Cuba) ; Poey, 
Enumeration Pise. Cub., 1875, 121 (Cuba) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Proo. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 273, 381 (Panama). 

Habitat — Both coasts of tropical America and West Indies ; 
Panama ; Cuba ; West Indies ; Antilles ; St. Martin's ; Bio Janeiro ; 
Cayenne ; Bahia. 

This species is known to us from many specimens collected by 
Professor Jordan at Havana and Key West. Toung examples 
are more slender than the old ones, and have the lower jaw pro- 
portionately shorter. Both young and old are, however, more 
robust, shorter and thicker in every part than specimens of H. 
roberti of the same size. Except this diflPerence of form, we are 
unable to detect any distinction whatever. We have no doubt, 
however, that the two are really different. 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 223 

The figure and description of Ranzani represents this species 
much better than H. roherti. We therefore retain for it his 
original name. H. richardi Cuvier & Yalenciennes is evidently 
the same, and H, picarti is at least very similar. Gill's Hypo- 
rhamphua tricuspidatus is not very satisfactorily described, but 
as its author afterwards refers to it as probably identical with H. 
richardi^ and as the description and locality best fit that species, 
we have so considered it. 

Our Havana specimens leave no doubt that H, fasciatus and its 
synonym, H. poeyi, are based on this species. Its lower jaw is, 
however, longer than Poey describes, and but for this Dr. Qiinther 
would evidently have referred Poey's description to H. unifas- 
cicUus. Specimens collected by Captain Dow, at Havana, show 
that this is one of the species found on both sides of the isthmus. 

2. Hemirhamphni roberti. 

Hemir?uim/phus roberti Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., xix, 
1846, 24 (Cayenne) ; Giihther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., vi, 1866, 263 
(New Orleans). 

Hemirhamphiis unifaseiatus Cope, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1870, 
119 (Newport, R. I. ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat, 
Mus., 1878, 883 (Beaufort, N. C), no description; Goode, Pioc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., 1879, 116 (Name only) ; Jordan, Proc. U. 8. Nat. 
Mus., 1880, 20 (San Sebastian River, Fla.) ; Jordan, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1880, 22 (St. John's River, Fla.), no description; Jordan and 
Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 274 (Guaymas) ; Jordan and 
GUbert, BuU. U. 8. Fish Comm., 1882, 106 (Mazatlan) ; Jordan 
and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 588 (Charleston, 8. C.) ; 
Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 856 (Cape San 
Lucas) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 262 
(Pensacola, Fla.) ; Goode and Bean, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
289 (Gulf of Mexico), no description; Jordan and Gilbert, Syn. 
Fish. N. A., 1882, 376. 

HahitaL — Both coasts of America, chiefly north of the tropics : 
Beaufort ; Charleston ; Pensacola, San Sebastian Kiver ; Cedar 
Keys ; New Orleans ; Cayenne ; Mazatlan ; Guaymas ; Cape San 
Lucas. 

All the specimens of Hemirhamphus thus far taken on the 
Atlantic Coast of the United States, north of the Florida Keys 
(except one of H. pleii)^ belong to a species differing from the 
West Indian unifasciatus^ in the slenderness of body and in the 
greater length of the lower jaw. This is evidently the H. roherti 



224 PBOOEEDINaS Of THE AOADEBIY Of [1884. 

of Giinther and the H, unifasciatus of all the American local 
lists. The H. roherti of Cuvier and Valenciennes is very scantily 
described. It is, however, related to H. unifasciatus, and is said 
to have the lower jaw longer than in H, richardi or H. picarti. 
We therefore identify it with this species, with this element of 
doubt, that there is no other record of the slender form 
south of Central Florida- This species occurs also in the Gulf 
of California. Specimens from Charleston and from Mazatlan 
are described by Jordan and Gilbert, as having the anterior rays 
of dorsal and anal, and the upper and lower rays of caudal jet- 
black, but no other difference from the usual form was noted. 

3. Hemirhamphni roias. 

Eenurhamphtu, sp. incert., Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1880, 29 (San Diego). 

Eemirhamphus rosce Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Kat. Mus., 1880, 
835 (San Diego, Cal.) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1880, 457 (San Pedro, San Diego) ; Jordan and Jouy, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., 1881, 13 (San Diego); Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., 1881, 43 (San Diego) ; Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 316 
(name only) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 876. 

Habitat. — Pacific Coast of United States; San Diego; San 
Pedro. 

We have nothing to add to the account of this species. 

4. Hemirhamphni pleii. 

HemifrJKvnvphuB marginatus Le Sueur, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ii, 
1823, 185 (Lesser Antilles ; not of Forsk&l). 

Eemirhamphtu pleii Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., zix, 
1846, 29 (Antilles ; Martinique ; San Domingo) ; Gimther, Cat. Fish. 
Brit. Mus., vi, 1866, 269 (Jamaica ; Dominica; Bahia ; West Indies); 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 103 (Bermudas). 

Hemirhamphtis JUamentosus Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 382 (Cuba) ; 
Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 1875, 121 (Cuba). 

Eemirhamphus braBtUerms Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 
902 (Hunger's Wharf, Virginia ; not of Gunther). 

Habitat, — Atlantic Coasts of America and West Indies, Vir- 
ginia to Brazil. Virginia ; Martinique ; San Domingo ; Jamaica ; 
Dominica; Bermudas; Bahia. 

This species is very abundant at Key West, where it is known 
as Balao, and at Havana, where it is called JEscribano. It occa- 



1884.] NATURAL 80IENCES Of PHILADELPHIA. 225 

sionally ranges northward, a specimen from Virginia being in 
the National Museum. This is evidently Hemirhamphus JUa- 
mento8U8 of Poey. The scanty description of H. pleii of Cuvier 
and Valenciennes seems to refer to it, at least in large part, as 
this is the only species so far as known that has the upper lobe 
of the caudal red or yellow in life. This is also the H, marginatus 
of Le Sueur, but not the original H, marginatus of Forskal. 

5. Hemirliamphni bftUo. 

t Ebox maxilla inferiore producta Brown, Jamaica, 1756, 443, t. 45, f. 2 
(Jamaica). 

Bbox hrasUienais LinnaBus, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1758, 314 (in part ; refer- 
ence to Brown ; not Timucu Marcgrave, ^hich should be regarded 
as the Linnffian type, as having given rise to the name hraiUiensU), 

Hemirhamphus brasiliensis Giinlher, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., vi, 1866, 
270 (based on Hemirhamphus broicni Cuv. and Val.) ; ? Jordan and 
Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 109 (Panama ; name only) ; 
? Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., 1882, 624 (Panama). 

Hemirhamphus balao Le Sueur, Jour. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., ii, 1828. 
135 (Lesser Antilles). 

Hemirhamphus broumi Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., six, 
1846, 13 (Guadaloupe ; Martinique). 

HemirTuxmphuB macrochirus Poey, Memorias, ii, 1858, 299 (Cuba) ; 
Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 1875, 121 (Cuba). 

Habitat. — Coasts of tropical America and West Indies ; 
Jamaica ; Lesser Antilles ; Guadaloupe ; Martinique ; Cuba ; 
Panama. 

We have not seen this species and are not entirely certain of 
its distinction from H. pleii. In Hemirhamphus pleii the upper 
lobe of the caudal is always bright orange- red and the number of 
scales in a longitudinal series is about 56. The description of 
H, balao, H, browni and H. macrochirus all refer to a fish with 
smaller scales, with both lobes of the caudal bluish, and H, 
browni and H. macrochirus have smaller scales than H. pleii. 
The specimens obtained by Professor Gilbert at Mazatlan, 
Panama, we refer provisionally to this species, but they may 
prove different on actual comparison. The oldest tenable name 
for this species seems to be H. balao Le Sueur. 

Esox brasiliensis Linnseus is based on Brown's description of 
a Hemirhamphus from Jamaica, and Marcgrave 's account of a 



226 



PBOGEEDINQS OT THE ACADEMY OF 



[1884. 



TyloauruB from Brazil. The name brasilienais is evidently sug- 
gested by the latter, which should therefore retain it as specific 
name. It does not appear also certain as to which species of 
Hemirhamphus is described by Brown. 



TABLE OF MEASUREMENTS. 
(In hundredths of length to base of caudal.) 





H. unifasciatus. 


H, roberti. 


H.ros€e. 


H. pleii. 


liOGALXTIBS. 


i 


i 


i 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 

S3 


• 

■a 

1 


1 


i 


1 


1 


i 


3 




^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 


^ 




§ 


§ 


>» 

^ 


§ 


§ 


C9 


•g 


flB 


•g 




^ 


^ 


S 


& 


^ 




M 


M 


M 


M 


M 








O 


BQ 


M 


M 


M 


M 


M 


I/ength of speol- 






men. In inches. 


7-45 8 057 60 5 45 


5 25 75 


6 15 85 


5-2 


4 


8-8; 8*4:iO-3U-2 8 56 


Head, from tip of 
































upper jaw to gill 




























* 




opening. (Hun- 
































dredths ) . .21^21^22 


23 


22K22K23 


23 


23J< 


20 


18J4 18K 19K 183^ 1» 


Head, fVoai tip of 
































lower jaw to gill 
































openings. . 


4J^;40)^;42 


43 


43X4T 


47H *7X «>^ 


50 


43 


44K 


41K42 


41K 


Distance of ren- 
































trals fVom tip of 






























snout. . . .57 


59 


57 


59 


57 


57 


60 


58 


59 


63 


53K64 


54K 


52 


62K 


Distance ofdorsal 1 




















1 








from tip of snout 78 
Lengtn of pec- 


78 


77>4 78 


78 


77 


79 


78 


79 


76 


61K82 


60K69 


60 
























1 




torals. . . 13 


13^^14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


WA 


UK 


14 


14 


13KU 


14 


Depth of fish atl 


1 




















1 




ventrals. . .!14 


14^14 


13J414 


13 


13 


12 


13 


UK 


12 


UK 12k:i8K u% 


Thickness of fish 
































at ventrals. 


10 


11 


lOK 

m 


9 


»K 


»H 


914 8>^: 8K 


8 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


Least depth of 






























caudal peduncle 6^ 


6 


6 


6 


6 


5 


5 


6 


5 


4>^ 












I/ength of base of 






























dcrsnl. . 


14K14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


14 


13M 14^ 


16 


11 


12 


12 


11 


12 


Diameter of eye. 


^ 5K 6)4 


6K 6K' 


5 


6>i 


5 


6)1 


6 


4^ 


*^ 


5 


*>4 


4K 


Width of inter- 
































orbital. 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6 


6K 


6>4 6K 


6 


6 


*>^ 


4K 


6 


^}4 


4M 


Breadth of head 
































at posterior end 
































of mazillurv. . 
Breadth of beak 


6>^ 6% 


6K 6K 


6)^ 


«K 


5 


5 


6M 












































at tip of upper 
































JcLW^* • • • 


3X 8H 


3K 


3K 3K 

1 


3 


3 


8 


1 















1884.] NATURAL SOIENCES Of PHILABELPHIA. 221 



A BEYIEW 07 THE AMIBICAV SPECIES OF THE OEHUS TEUTHIS. 
BT SETH E. MEEK AND MARTIN X.. HOFFMAN. 

In the present paper is given the synonymy of the American 
species of Teuthis L. (=:z Acanthurus Forskal) with an analysis 
of their most important specific characters. 

Specimens of each of three species, which seem to us valid, were 
ohtained by Professor David S. Jordan, at Havana and at Key West. 
On this material, belonging to the Indiana University and the 
United States National Museum, the present paper is based. It 
is possible that other species exist in American waters, but there 
is certainly nothing in any published description which suggests 
the probability that such is the case. 

We are indebted to Professor Jordan for use of his library and 
for valuable aid. 

Analysis of American Species of Teuthis. 

a. Outline rhomboid , the depth 1^ in length to base of caudal ; 
anterior profile subvertical, nearly straight, making an 
angle of about 60° with axis of body ; color brown, washed 
with bright blue ; body marked with undulating longitu- 
dinal light streaks ; no dark crossbars ; vertical fins with 
oblique bronze streaks; lips and caudal spine yellow; 
caudal deeply emarginate, its lobes about equal in length ; 
middle rays about | length of outer rays ; head 3;^ in length 
to base of caudal. D. lX-27 ; A. III-24. cosruleus, 1 

aa. Outline ovate ; the depth 2 in length to base of caudal ; ante- 
rior profile moderately convex, making angle of about 45° 
with axis of body. 

h. Caudal deeply emarginate, its upper lobe longer than lower, 
slender and produced into a filament, the inner rays \ 
length of the outer rays (in the adult) ; margin of caudal 
fin whitish ; color dark brown, no transverse bars ; brown 
wavy longitudinal streaks on sides of body ; eight dark 
lines running parallel with edge of dorsal fin for its whole 
length, and separated by interspaces of the same width ; 
anal fin bluish, with a violet base ; head 3^ in length of 
body. D. IX-24 ; A. III-22. tractus. 2 



228 PBOOJBEBINaS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

bb. Caudal simply lunate, its inner rajs about § length outer 
rays ; caudal lobes subequal, the upper never filamentous ; 
color olive-brown, more or less distinctly greenish; 
middle of sides paler ; sides with about twelve distinct 
blackish vertical bars, rather narrower than the inter- 
spaces, most distinct over front of anal; a brownish 
stripe along base of dorsal ; spinous dorsal with alternate 
stripes running upward and backward, of dark blue and 
bronze olive, the two colors of about equal width ; soft 
dorsal with a bluish streak on the anterior side of each 
ray, and a bronze stripe behind it ; head 3^ in length of 
body. D. IX-26 ; A. 111-24. hepatus. 3. 

1. Tonthii ooBmleni. 

Turdui rTiofnboidalis (The Tang), Catesby, Nat. Hist. Carolina, etc., ii, 
1743, pi. 10, fig. 1 (Bahamas). 

TeuthUfusca ccbtuUo nitens Brown, Jamaica, 1756, 454 (Jamaica). 

Bwrbero Parra, Descr. Dif. Piezas, Hist. Nat, 1787, 45, Taf. 21, fig. 2 
(Cuba) . 

Acanthurtu earuleus Bloch & Schneider, Systema Ichthyol., 1801, 214 
(after Catesby, Parra & Brown) ; Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. 
Poiss., X, 1835, 179 (Martinique ; Porto Rico ; San Domingo) ; Qunther, 
Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., 1861, 336 (Caribbean Sea ; West Indies ; Bahia) ; 
Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 366 (Cuba) ; Jordan & GUbert, Syn. 
Fish. N. A., 1882, 617. 

Acanthurus hrouBsonnetU Desmarest, Prem. Dec. Ichthyol., 1823, 26, 
pi. 4, fig. 2 (Cuba). 

Aeanthuru9 brevis Poey, Memorias, ii, 1860, 207 (Cuba ; young) ; Poey, 
Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 355 (Cuba) ; Poey, Enum. Piso. Cub., 1875, 
66 (Cuba). 

Aerokurus comdeatus Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 1875, 69 (Cuba ; larval 
form). 

Aeanthurus nigrieans Goode, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1876, 41 (Bermu- 
das) (probably not of LinnsBus, a species of unknown origin, as yet 
unrecognized). 

Habitat. — Atlantic shores of tropical America; Cuba; Key 
West ; Martinique ; Porto Rico ; San Domingo ; Bahia. 

The synonymy and nomenclature of this beautiful species 
seem to be subject to no doubts of importance. It is rather 
less abundant at Key West or at Havana than either of the 
other species. One specimen corresponding to A, brevis Poey, 



I 

L 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILABELPHIA. 229 

was taken at Key West. This is precisely like the adult, but shows 
very little blue. 

The species called Acronurus are, as shown by Giinther and 
Liitken, the young of Teuthis. The three species mentioned by 
Poey (coeruleatuSj nigriculus, carneus) seem to be the young 
respectively of three species of Acanthurus. One of these, Aero- 
nurus cameus^ was obtained by Prof. Jordan ; we regard it as 
unquestionably the young of Teuthis hepalus. 

2. Tenthii traotni. 

AearUhurus traettis Poey, Memorias, ii, 1860, 208 (Cuba) ; Poey, Rept., 
1866, 358 (Cuba) ; Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 356 (Cuba) ; Poey, 
Anales 8oc. Hist. Nat. Madrid, 1880, 246 (Cuba) ; Poey, Enum. Pise. 
Cub., 1875, 67 (Cuba) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1882, 108 (Mazatlan ; no description) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. S. 
Fish Comm., 1882, 111 (Panama ; no description) ; Jordan & Gilbert, 
Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 377 (Panama ; no description) ; Jordan 
& GUbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 941. 

Aeranurua nigrimlui Poey, Enum. Pise. Cub., 1875, 69 (Cuba ; larval 
form). 

Acanthv/ms matoides Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
626 (Panama ; no description ; not of Cuyier & Valenciennes). 

Habitat, — Coasts of tropical America ; Cuba ; Panama. Key 
West ; Mazatlan ; Panama. 

This species may at all ages be known by the form of its caudal. 
Although in all species the caudal lobes grow longer with age, 
still very young specimens, as well as old of this species have the 
caudal more deeply furcate than any of T. hepatus. 

There are also some color differences between the two. 

The single species of Teuthis found on the Pacific coast of 
tropical America seems to be identical with T. tractus. It is 
close to A, matoides Cuvier & Valenciennes, but Prof. Jordan, 
who has examined the type of the latter in Paris, thinks it 
different. 

3. TentMi hepatni. 

Hepatus muerane refiexo utrin/^ue prope caudam Gronow, Zoophyl, No. 
353. 

Teuthis h&pattis Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1766, 507 (not as 
restricted by Cuvier & Valenciennes ; is based principally on ffepaius 
of Gronow). 

Acanthurus hepatus Bloch & Schneider, Systema Ichthyol., 1801, 211 
(in part ; not of Cuv. & Val. and later authors). . 



230 PBOOEEDINGS OF THB AOADEMY Of [1884. 

Chaodon ehirurgui Bloch, Ausl. Fish., 1784, 09, sp. n. 24, ta£. 206 
(on a drawing by Plumier) ; Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1789, 1269 (copied). 

AcanthuruB ehirurgva Bloch & Schneider, Systema Ichth., 1801, 214 
(copied); Cuvitr & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., x, 1835,168, 
(Martinique; Brazil; Cuba); Gunther, Cat. Fish. Biit. Mus,, iii, 
1861, 829 (Bahia ; Puerto CabeUo ; Caribbean Sea ; West Indies) ; 
Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 855 (Cuba) ; Goode, BuU. U. S. Nat 
Mus., 1876, 42 (Bermudas) ; Poey, Anal. Soc. Nat. Hist., Madrid, 
18^0, 245, pi. 6 (Cuba) ; Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
287 (name only) ; Jordan & Gilbert, Syn, Fish. N. A., 1882, 617. 

AcanthuruB phlebotamus Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., z, 
1835, 176 (Martinique ; Brazil ; Havana ; New York) ; Dekay, New 
York Fauna Fish, 1842, 189, pi. 73, fig. 234 (copied) ; Poey, Repor- 
torio, 1867, i, 256 (Cuba) ; Poey, Syn. Pise. Cub., 1868, 245, fig. 7 
(Cuba) ; Poey, Soc. Hist. Madrid, 1880, 245 (Cuba). 

Acronurttsfuscus Gronow, Cat. Fish., ed. Gray, 1858, 191. 

AcanthuruB mgricatiB Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 941 
(copied). 

Habitat, — Atlantic Coast of America. Key West; Cuba; 
West Indies; Puerto CabeUo; Martinique; Caribbean Sea; 
Brazil ; Bahia. 

This is the most abundant species of the genus, being appar- 
ently common throughout the West Indies, and certainly so at 
Cuba and Key West, and ranging northward occasionally on our 
South Atlantic Coast, perhaps as far as Charleston, but certainly 
not to New York, where it is reported on the authority of the 
confused collection of Milbert. 

Two questions arise in the synonymy of this species ; first, as 
to the identity of phlebotomus with chirurgus; second, as to the 
availability of the Liunsean name hepatus and nigricans for it. 
As to the first point, the description and figure of Cuvier and 
Valenciennes agree too well with our specimens for us to doubt 
their identity. Poey recognizes a species, A. phlebotomus^ as 
distinct from A, chirurgus Poey, but on characters of slight 
importance and variable with age. The Linnaean name nigricans 
has been used both for this species and for T. cseruleus. The 
name is based on a description of Artedi, which has been con- 
sidered by Cuvier and Valenciennes as probably belonging to an 
Asiatic species. The locality of the original specimen is uncer- 
tain, and the species cannot be positively made out. No 
American species should therefore be called nigricans. 

The name hepatus has been used by Cuvier and Valenciennes 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 231 

for an Asiatic species. The original Tenthia hepatus of Linnseus 
is based on various references, including caeruleus, chirurgvs and 
the Asiatic species in question. The original type is, however, 
evidently the Hepatus mucrone reflexo utrivqve prope caudam 
of Gronow, and part of the confusion has^ come from Gronow's 
attempt to identify with his specimen the Asiatic references of 
Valentyn and others. Gronow's specimen, however, is the type 
of his HepatuSj and consequently the proper type of Teuihia 
hepatus Linnaeus. This same specimen, Hepatus^ became the 
Acronurua fuscus of Gronow's Systema (Gray), and it is still in 
the British Museum. Giinther identifies it with Acanthurua 
chirurgus; we do not, therefore, see how the substitution of 
hepatus for chirurgus is to be avoided, if the rules of nomencla- 
ture are strictly carried out. The same line of argument is used 
by Cuvier and Yalenciennes, but they erroneously supposed 
Gronow 's specimen to be an Asiatic fish. 

Poey has referred the Chaetodon chirurgus of Cuvier and Valen- 
ciennes to Acanthurus tractus, because of this expression in 
their description : " La caudale ^chancrde en croissant jusqu'au 
tiers pen prfes de sa longueur ; ses lobes sont arguis^s en pointe 
et le sup^rieur est plus long que Pinfdrieur." This does not 
indicate the tract us, which has the caudal still more deeply 
divided, and it is true of the average example of T. hepatus, 
AcronuruB carneus seems to be the young of this species. 



232 PAOOEEDINaS Of THB AOADEBIY Of [1884. 



A BEVIEW OF THE AKERICAH SPECIES OF SCOMBEBOMOBITS. 
BT BETH E. MEEK AND BOBEBT Q. NEWLAND. 

In the present paper we have given the synonymy of the four 
American species of the genus Scomberomorus Lac^p^de {= Gy- 
bium Cuvier), and an analytical key, by which the species may be 
distinguished. 

The specimens upon which the paper is based, belong to the 
Museum of the Indiana University. They have been collected 
by Professor Jordan at Key West, Havana, and Monterey. 

We acknowledge our indebtedness to Professor Jordan for the 
use of his library and for valuable aid. 

Analysis of the American Species of Scomberomorus. 

a. Dorsid spines 17 or 18; lateral line descending obliquely; gill 
rakers comparatively long, more than half diameter of eye. 
6. Teeth slender, subcorneal, their length more than twice their 
width at base; gill rakers long and slender, about J 
diameter of eye, about 18 below the angle ; maxillary 
reaching to opposite posterior margin of eye. Color of 
male dark steel-blue, without streaks or spots; female 
with two rows of alternating round bronze spots of about 
the size of pupil ; fins nearly plain, dark ; head 5^ in 
length ; depth 6|. D. XVII-16-VIII ; A. I-16-VI1L 

concolor. 1. 

&&. Teeth large, triangular, compressed, their length not twice 
their breadth at base ; gill rakers rather slender, their 
length about f diameter of eye ; about 12 below the 
angle. 

c. Color bluish silvery above, with bright reflections; sides 
in both sexes, with numerous bronze spots about as 
large as pupil, no longitudinal stripes; maxillary 
reaching to opposite posterior part of orbit ; angle of 
preopercle not produced backwards ; pectoral scaly at 
base only; caudal peduncle rather robust, its least 
depth 4| in head, caudal widely forked ; head 4| in 
length ; depth b^. D. XTIII-18-IX ; A. Il-n-VIII. 

ytaculatuB, 2. 



L 



1884.] NATXTRAIi SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 233 

cc. Color silvery ; sides with a brownish, otoken, longitudinal 
band, above and below which are numerous brownish 
spots ; angle of preopercle produced backwards ; pec- 
torals scaly; anterior part of spinous dorsal black; 
caudal peduncle rather slender, its least depth 5^ in 
head; caudal less widely forked; head 4 J in length; 
depth 5^. D. XYIII-15-VIII ; A. II-15-VIIL 

regalis. 3 

aa. Dorsal spines 14 or 16, lateral line descending abruptly under 
second dorsal ; teeth comparatively large ; gill rakers very 
short, less than ^ diameter of eye, about 8 below the angle ; 
pectorals scaly at base only ; young, with bronze spots ; 
adult immaculate. cavalla, 4. 

1. Seomberomorus oonoolor. Mooterey Mackerel. 

CJmomitra concolar Lockington, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1879, 
134 (Monterey) ; Lockington, Rep. Cal. Fish Comm. (1878-9), 1881, 
34 (Monterey). 

Scamberomorus concolar Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U, S. Nat. Mus., 
1880, 456 (Monterey, no description) ; Jordan and Jouy, Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Mus., 4, 1881, 13 (Soquel, Cal., no description) ; Jordan and 
Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 45 (Monterey Bay) ; Jordan 
and Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 426. 

Habitat. — Pacific Coast of United States; Monterey Bay, 
all the known specimens having been taken about Soquel and 
Santa Cruz, whither it resorts every summer for a short time, for 
the purpose of spawning. Some 16 to 40 specimens only are 
taken each year. 

2. Soomberomoms maonlatiis. Spanish Mackerel. 

Scomber maculatus MitchiU, Trans. Lit. and Phil. Soc., i, 1815, 426, pi. 
6, f. 8 (New York). 

Cyhium mactUatum Cuvler, Keg. Anim., ed. 2, 1820 (after Mitchill) ; 
Agassiz, Spix. Pise. Brazil, 1829, p. 103, tab. 60 (Atlantic) ; Cuvier 
and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., viii, 1831, 181 (New York) ; 
Stoier, Bost. Jpur., iv, 1842, 179 (Lynn,. Mass.) ; Ayres, Bost. Jour. 
Nat. Hist., iv, 1842, 261 (Brookhaven) ; De Kay, N. Y. Fauna, 
Fish, 1842, IQS, pi. 73, f. 282 (Long Island) ; Storer, Synopsis, 1846, 
92 ; Baird, Pish N. J. Cqast, 1855, 21 (Beaseley's Point) ; Gunther, 
Cat. Fish. Biit. Mus., ii, 1860, 372 ; Storer, Hist. Fish. Mass., 1867, 
68, pi. 13., f. 1 (Lynn, Mass. ; Provincetown) ; Gill, Kept. U. S. Fish 
Comm., 1871-72, 802 (name only) ; Baird, Kept. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1871-72, 825 (Wpqd's HoU), no description; Gill, Cat, Pish. E. 



9S4 nocEEDiirofl or the aoadsmt or [1884. 

Coitt K. A., 1878, 24 (name only) ; Poey, Ppoc. U. 8. Nat. Mua., 
1878, 4 (after Cayier and Valenciennes) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. 
U. S. Nat Miw., 1878, 875 (Alb.rmarle Sound) ; Goode, Proc. U. 8. 
Nat. Kits., 1879, 8 (East, Florida), no descript on ; Goode and Bean, 
Proo. U. S. Nat Mas., 1879, 128 (Pensacola) ; Goode and Bean, 
Fish. Essex Co., Mass., 1879, 15 ^no descripticm) ; Bean, Pioc. U. 8. 
Nat Mas., 1880, 89 (Washington Market), no description. 

Seomberofnorui macidatui Jordan & Gilbert, Bull. U. S. Fish Comm., 
1882, 106 (Mazatlan, no description) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Bull. U. S. 
Fish Comm., 1882, 110 (Panama, no description); Jordan and 
Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 426 ; Goode and Bean, Proc. U. 8. 
Nat Mus., 1882, 287 (Gulf of Mexico, no description) ; Jordan and 
Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat Mus., 1882, 268 (Pensacola, no descrip- 
tion) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat Mus., 1882, 594 
(Oharleston, no description) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat 
Mas., 1882, 625 (Panama, no description) ; Bean, Cat Fish. Ezhibi. 
tioui London, 1888, 51 (Chariotte Harbor, Fla., no description). 

HahitaL — Both coasts of America ; from Lynn, Mass., to Key 
West ; MaJBatlan ; Panama. Not recorded from Cuba or any of 
the leaser Antilles. 

3« loombtromeras rtgalis. Pinfado. 

Sc^mhfT rtgaliM Bloch, Ausl. Fische, 1795, Taf. 885 (after a drawhig 
by Plumier) ; Bloch and Schneider, Systema. Nat, 1801, 22 (after 
Bloch K 

C>A Vm rrgaU Cuvier, Regne Animal, ed. ii, 1829 (name only ; after 
HUv h) ; Cuvier ai d Valenciemies, Hist Nat Poiss., vii', 1831, 184 
(^1 Dtwtingo) ; Poey, Syn. Pise, CuK, ii, 1868, 326 ((hiba) ; Gill, 
Ropt r, S. Pish Conun., 1871-72, 802 (name only) ; Baird, Rept 
l\ a Fish CVimm., 1$7I>72. 885 (Wood^s HoU; no description); 
OilU Can Fish East Coftst N. A., 1873, 24 (name only) ; Poey, Proc. 
l\ ^ Xat Mtts^, l;^7ek 4 (Caba) : Goo^ Pioc U. S. Nat Mus., 
l$;ik 9 lEast Fkinda. M deeeiqUaonV 

j^v>w»M%»mv»r^ »^4h^ 0<M»d» aad Bcul Ptw. U. & Nat Mna., 1882, 
^7 ; JI^^TCUn awl OUbeit $5m. FUh. X. A^ 1^8* «6. 

C^*» V V ^ %s ^/mii SL La<^p^de^ fia. 1»U 2tJ (after Aabrief s copy 
\>f Vam\ <r"* drfc* ir^:^ 

\>'Vi t* wt v^>^ «i v\t^ v-r Jt Vs^VaicanaiKw ffist Nat. Fobss., Tiii, 1881, 
>:^ ,i>ft Y^JkTt : T>'pe\ P^T, K^f^z^rkt i. 1^*1. SS: ii, IS (Cuba); 



K/,Va;. . . j^t^A*?:?^ Cvtfcs^ of AiMnea: Woods HoU, Mass.; 
K^> >V<t^; C;:>«a: Sdua IV«ais^v!L Move aAvaAaM southward; 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES Of PHILADEIiPHIA. 235 

4. Soomberomorui eavalla. 

Ouarapticu Marcgraye, Hist. Brasil. 1648, 178 (Brazil). 

Oybium cmdlla Cuvier, Regne Animal, 1829, ed. 2d (after Marcgraye). 

Cybium cabaUa Cuyier & Yalencieimes, Hist. Nat. Foiss., yiii, 1881, 
187 (Brazil »; Gunther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., 1860, 873 (San 
Domingo); Poey, Report, i, 1867, 322; ii, 13 (Cuba); Guichenot, 
Sagra, Hist. Cuba Poiss., 1850, 103 (Cuba); Poey, Proc. U. B. Nat. 
Mas., 1879, 3 (East Florida; no description); Poey, BuU. U. B. 
Fish Comm.. 1882, 118 (no description). 

Scomberomorus eabaUa Goode & Bean, Proo. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 
237 (no description); Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. B. Nat. Mus., 
1882, 268 (Pensacola); Joidan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
1882, 649 (Charleston; no description); Jordan and Gilbert, Syn. 
Pish., 1882, 427 (copied). 

Habitat. — Atlantic Coast of America ; Charleston ; Brazil. A 
food fish of great importance in the West Indies and Southern 
Florida. It reaches a much larger size than any other. 

The name cavalla, first used by Guvier, has priority over 
cahalla. 



ttt nocBonmoB or the acadsmt or [1884. 



OCTOBKR T. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Yice-President, in the chair. 
Twenty-three persons present. 

A paper entitled '^The Geology of Delaware — Laurentian, 
Paleozoic and Cretaceous Areas," by Frederick D. Chester, was 
presented for publication. 

The death of Geo. Bentham, a correspondent, was announced. 



OCTOBEB 14. 

The President, Db. Leedt, in the chair. 

Twenty-five persons present. 

The death of Charles W. Poultney, a member, was announced. 
The following were ordered to be printed : — 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHUiADELPHIA. 23f 



FBELIKIHABY ITOTES 09 THE GEOLOGY OE DELAWAXS— LAintSHTLUr, 

PALJEOZOIO Aim CBSTACSOirS ABEA8. 

by frederick d. chester. 

Introduction. 

During the years 1837 and 1838, Professor James C. Booth, in 
accordance with an act of the State Legislature, made a geolog- 
ical survey of Delaware, the results of which were published in 
a report that appeared in 1841. This old memoir is of great 
value, both from the accuracy of the author's observations and his 
minute attention to detail ; I cannot, therefore, expect to supplant 
it, my aim being an entirely different one, t. e., to so completely 
reconstruct our geology as to bring it into sympathy with the 
results of adjacent States. Professor Booth's great and only 
fault as a geologist lay in his entire indifference to stratigraphical 
order ; and his classification of deposits according to mineralog- 
ieal and physical characters, leaves one in utter confusion. 

My main object, therefore, is to endeavor to undo the tangles 
which Professor Booth has unconsciously made, by stating the 
facts in the briefest and clearest manner possible. 

The results, as embodied in the following paper, are preliminary 
to what is hoped will be a full report upon the State. 

Geological Outline. 

The formations represented within the bounds of the State 
are Laurentian (?), Cambro-Silurian, Silurian-Devonian (f), Creta- 
ceous, Tertiary and Quartemary. The relations and positions 
of the several divisions of the chronological scale can be best 
represented by the accompanying table (I), also the thickness of 
each formation. Column 2, with which the Delaware series is 
compared, is constructed accordiAg to what seem the best results, 
combining home and foreign equivalents. The accompanying 
map (PI. V) is drawn upon a scale of four miles to the inch, 
and is sufficiently large to show all necessary details. A word 
is here necessary in regard to the boundaries as shown by 
the map. The lenticular areas which indicate the magnesian 
marble, can only serve to represent the position of outcrops. 
Owing to the fact that these calcareous deposits are entirely 
covered by- the micaceous rocks, surface indications offer no 
means of determining the entire area covered by the former. 



238 



PBOOEEDINOB OF THE AOADElfT OF 



[1884. 



I. 



Periods. 


Genbbal Sebies. 


Delawabe Sebies. 


QUABTBBKABT. 


Modem. .... 
Post-Glacial. ) 
Glacial, ) 


Bog Clay or Alluvium. 

Delaware Gravels and Estoaiy 
Sand»-10-40'. 


Tbbttart. 


Pliocene. . . < 

Miocene. . • . 
Eocene. 


Blue Clay— a-10'. 
Glass Sand.— 40'. 

White, Potters' Gay— 10-20'. 




Upper. 

« 

Middle. 

Lower. 
(Wealden.) 


Middle Marl— 139'. 




Indurated Marl— 149'. 


Cbbtagbous. 


Lower Marl Bed— 60'. 




Sand Marl— 90'. 




Plastic Clays— 250'. 


» 




Mica Schists and Gneisses. 


Cambro-Silubiak. 


Calciferous. 
Potsdam. 


Magnesian Marhles. 
Quartzite. 


Lattbrittian (?) 


Laorentian (?) 

1 


Syenitio Bocks. 



Owing also to the fewness of the outdrops of the several 
divisions of the Cretaceous, the boundaries had to be drawn from 
such data as were accessible, which were in some cases abundant, 
and in others entirely absent. Sufficient is known, however, to 
make the writer confident of their general accuracy ; while the 
missing links of knowledge could only be supplied by expensive 
borings. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 239 

The Laurentian, — To this belongs the belt of hornblendic 
rocks above the line of the Pennsylvania R. R., which to the 
west is narrow but which rapidly broadens to the east, as it 
extends into Delaware county, Pa,, and contracting again to a 
narrow neck at Chester Creek, there connects with another 
irregular area occupying all the northwestern portion of Delaware 
county. This area connects with still another to the north, and 
to' the east of West Chester. This rock is a dark hornblendic 
gneiss or amphibolite schist^ dipping usually to the northwest, 
rarely in the oppqaite direction. With it is associated a grayish 
to bluish gray rock, usually finely crystalline, which has been 
designated as diorite and syenitic granite by the Pennsylvania 
geologists. Owing to the absence of petrographical facts con- 
cerning this rock, however, nothing definite can be said concern- 
ing it. It shades by indistinct degrees into the amphibolite 
schists, the two varieties probably forming the same eruptive 
series. 

The Gambro-Silurian. — This formation, so largely developed 
through the counties of southeastern Pennsylvania, has one area 
in the northwestern part of Delaware, and two smaller expo- 
sures. In the northwestern area, a coarse quartzitic rock is 
found to underlie a highly crystalline magnesian marble. These, 
as we shall more clearly perceive further on, must be referred 
respectively to the Potsdam and Calciferous, the latter of which 
is equivalent to the Lower Magnesian limestone of the West. 

The Mica Schists and Oneisaes, — To the north of the belt of 
Laurentian gneisses, and resting upon the latter, is a series of 
mica schists and granitic gneisses, with which are associated 
bedded granites, serpentine, and hornblende rocks. They have 
commonly been referred to the Mont-Alban^ which, together 
with the older hornblendic rocks, were called AzoiCy the two 
forming a part of the southern gneiss area as known by the 
Pennsylvania geologists. It will be my aim, shortly, to show that 
the hornblendic rocks and mica schists do not make two succes- 
sive formations, within the Azoic, but that, while the former is 
either Laurentian or Huronian, the latter must be placed above 
the Trenton, and possibly above the Hudson River, slates. Their 
exact position in the Palaeozoic scale, however, will probably 
never be determined, owing to the complete absence of fossil- 
iferous remains, due to the extreme metamorphism. The rocks 
have been subjected to great contortion, the strata having been 



240 PBOGEEDINQS OF THE AOADEICT 07 [1884. 

pressed either into close folds, or into broad or contracted 
anticlinal or synclinal flexures. 

The Cretaceous, — Resting upon the eroded edge of the Azoic 
rocks are successive series of plastic clays, sand marls and green- 
sand, which form quite uniform strata, dipping at a low angle to 
the southeast. This belt, having a width of 18 miles, extends 
from the hills to the latitude of Noxontown mill pond, just south 
of Middletown. 

The Tertiary, — The Cretaceous is succeeded by a stratum of 
white or lead-colored clay, having a thickness of 10 to 20 feet. 
This continues as far south as Murderkill Greek, and from fossil- 
iferous evidence, must be referred to the Miocene. 

South of Murderkill Creek, the Miocene is succeeded by 3 to 
10 feet of light or dark blue clay, beneath which is a uniform 
stratum of fine glass sand, of at least 40 feet in thickness. That 
all the State south of Murderkill is later Pliocene, I shall 
endeavor to prove in a future paper upon the younger formation. 

All the beds of the Tertiary lie in a nearly horizontal posi- 
tion, dipping at a still lower angle than the Cretaceous, and 
probably unconformable to the same. 

The Quarternary. — Covering most of the foregoing formations, 
and reaching up the flanks of the Azoic hills to the height of 200 
feet or more above tide, is a layer of sand and gravel, which to 
the north is of a coarse, red nature, and to the south is fine and 
white. They are called the Delaware Gravels and Estuary Sands, 
respectively. Along the river and bay shores is also the belt of 
bog-clay, which is modern, and of more recent origin than the 
gravels. Also upon the summits of the highest hills in the State 
are solitary patches of gravel which are evidently older than the 
continuous stratum to the south. This high-level gravel, in the 
absence of proper data, has been problematically referred to the 
Tertiary, and is known as Bryn Mawr gravel. 

The Crystalline Rocks. 

Geographical Position. — Generally speaking, the southern line 
of the Azoic rocks is the limit of the highlands, but in certain 
places they extend well into more level regions. Beginning with 
a point upon the Mar3'^land boundary, a little north of where the 
latter is cut by the Mason and Dixon line, the limit of the rocks 
runs in a northeast direction, cutting through the western end of 
Newark,^ and following the northern boundary of the town. 



1884.] NATURAL SGIENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 241 

Thence it runs close to the south shore of White Clay Creek to 
a distance of two miles beyond Roseville, where it makes an 
abrupt bend to the north, until at Stanton the rocks cease 
to be found. A mile back of the railroad station, they again 
appear, continuing to a point about a mile back of Newport, 
where their course turns slightly to the southeast, crossing 
the Wilmington turnpike just before it is intersected by the 
Wilmington Northern R. R., thence it follows the turnpike 
through the southern half of the city, keeping just north of the 
Pennsylvania R. R., to a point south of Bellevue, where the 
line cuts the river. From there the Delaware River marks the 
southern boundary. The area as above indicated may be divided 
into two pretty distinct belts: (1) the southern belt of hom- 
blendic rocks, and (2) the northern belt of micaceous rocks, 
with which are associated interstratified beds of coarse grained 
orthoclase granite, feldspar, quartz and quartzite. 

The boundary line between these two belts can be traced very 
accurately, and is found to correspond pretty closely with the 
lines of strike. Beginning with the western boundary of the 
State, the line follows approximately the course previously 
traced out, but one-half a mile to the north of the same. It 
continues thus to a point south of Milltown, when an abrupt 
turn to the northeast is taken, the line crossing the Brandy wine 
only a few miles from the head of the State. It is owing to the 
northerly course of this line, as compared with the southern 
limit of the Azoic area, that the northeastern portion of the 
State is covered more largely with the hornblende, and the 
northwestern with the micaceous rocks. 

The LiTHOLOGY op the Crystalline Rooks. 

The rocks which cover the crystalline area may be classed as 

follows : — 

( Granite, 

Micaceous < Granitic gneiss, 

I Mica schist. 

_ , , ,. f Amphibolite schist, 

Hornblendic ^ -di -i. i. 

( Blue to gray trap. 



Marble, 

Saccharoidal limestone. 



{ 

Serpentine. 
Quartzite. 
Vitreous quartz. 



242 PB00EEDINO8 OF THE AOADEBfT OF [1884. 

Oranite. — This rock, as known in the State, is divided into two 
clasftes: (1) that which foims intrusive beds, being a coarsely 
crystalline orthoclase granite, and (2) that which is nothing more 
than a highly metamorphosed granitic gneiss, or mica schist, it 
being a very compact, fine-grained rock. The former variety may 
be described as an intimate mixture of flesh-colored orthoclase, 
quartz and museovite mica, with which are often associated albite 
and biotite. It occurs as veins, usually bedded, which vary in 
width from 6 inches to 25 feet, and which, though often continuing 
in length for several miles, are known to pinch out entirely. 
The great difference in lithological character between the enclosing 
rocks and these beds would imply that the latter are veins of 
plastic injection from aqueo-igneous fusion. That the intrusion 
of the semi-molten magma was subsequent to the uplifting and 
crystallizing of the enclosing rocks, is proven by the fact that the 
latter have, in the vicinity of such veins, suffered considerable 
disturbance and undue metamorphism at the planes of contact 
with the intruded mass. The granite is often so highly feld- 
spathic ad to be worked exclusively for this mineral, and when 
the upper portions of such veins are greatly decomposed, dig- 
gings have in a few cases been made for kaolin. 

One of the most noticeable of these veins of coarse granite is 
found to cut across the road leading up the Brandywine, about 
one and a half miles from the head of the State. A large quarry 
has been opened in this vicinity, where the rock has been worked 
for feldspar. The vein is not less than 20 feet wide, on the one 
side of which is a highly metamorphosed mica schist, and on the 
other hornblendic gneiss. The rock is a mixture of red ortho- 
clase, albite, blue quartz, and museovite, the crystals being some- 
times so large that perfect specimens of feldspar several inches 
square, can be obtained. Large hexagonal plates of mica, many 
of them 6 inches across, are also found in abundance. The same 
feldspar is worked three miles to th« northeast, probably from the 
same vein, as near as could be determined ; while in the other 
direction the intrusive mass seems to lose itself. 

Another equally wide vein cuts across the Newark and Avon- 
dale R. R., at Tweed's mill, two miles north of Newark. A 
faulting plane cuts through this intrusive bed, possibly due to its 
disturbing action. 

The same rock is found to continue two miles and a half to the 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 243 

northeast, outcropping upon the run to the south of Pleasant Hill 
P. 0. Many other instances of granite veins might be cited, but 
with nothing new regarding them. All of the large veins men- 
tioned above are exclusive of the smaller seams, which vary in 
width from a few inches to a foot, and which are liable to be found 
anywhere, and frequently, within the micaceous belt. 

The second class of granite — a highly changed gneiss or schist — 
is a fine-grained rock containing quartz, plagioclase and biotite, 
with the quartz subject to considerable variation. 

It occurs as massive beds, the planes of the stratification being 
so completely obliterated that the rock resembles a true trap. 
That it is not trappean, however, is shown by the fact that it is 
seen to run, by indistinct degrees, into mica schist. Such rocks are 
usually much broken up, thus testifying to an undue mechanical 
activity, itself the cause of the extreme metamorphism. 

Granitic Oneiss and Mica Schist, — These two species represent 
the extremes of variation in what is the characteristic rock of the 
micaceous belt, which has gone by the generally applicable name 
of gneiss. These two rocks so merge into each other that specific 
designation is often ' difi^cult. The typical mica schist may be 
described as a very schistose biotite rock, usually highly gamet- 
iferous, and containing a variable proportion of quartz. Some- 
times this highly micaceous rock contains a very small proportion 
of feldspar, which can often only be seen as a kaoline substance 
in the decomposed product ; and if the absence of feldspar be 
characteristic of mica schist, then with the presence of feldspar 
the true schists begin to run into gneiss. 

Hornblende Hocks. — The hornblende rocks, as a class, may be 
divided into the basic and acidic, or into those rocks of which the 
predominating constituent is either hornblende or feldspar. To 
the former belong the dark varieties of amphibolite schist and 
syenitic gneiss, and to the latter belongs the light, highly acidic 
bluish gray trap so characteristic of the northeastern part of the 
State. Between these two extremes there is every shade of 
gradation, showing some petrographical relation between them. 
The dark varieties of amphibolite schist vary in color from a blue 
to a dull black, from coarsely crystalline to compact. The pre- 
dominating element is hornblende, with which is associated a 
small proportion of plagioclase, and sometimes blue quartz. This 
rock, which shows a more or less eminent lamination, is found 



** PB00MDIHO8 Of THK ACADWnr OF [1884. 

to merge into a massive rock of the same composition. When 
the proportion of hornblende increases, it becomes so great as 
to make up, apparently, the entire composition, in which case the 
syenitic gneiss runs into the hornblende schist or into massive 
hornblende rock. The bluish gray trap may be described as 
lollows : in color it varies from a light to a dark bluish gray; in 
texture, from a coarsely crystalline to one fine-grained, homo- 
geneous and trappean in character. 

Lithologically, the rock is composed of plagioclase, feldspar 
and hornblende, with frequently a small proportion of blue 
quartz and biotite. 

Massive hypersthene has often been found in fine orthorhombic 

crystals, entirely replacing the hornblende, and is associated with 

a plagioclase showing the most eminent striation. Thus, from 

microscopical examination, the rock seems to range from a jwarte 

dionte to a true hyperite, although no true knowledge of the 

rock can be had until a thorough microscopical study is made. 

Professor G. H. Williams,^ of Johns Hopkins University, has 

proven a similar rock, in the vicinity of Baltimore, to be a 

hypersthene gabbro, which also runs by indistinct stages into a true 

amphtbolite schist. He has also shown that the amphibolite is the 

result of a paragenesis taking place in the gabbro, the hypersthene 

and pyroxene found in the latter being altered to hornblende, and 

thus producing the gradual passage of gabbro into amphibolite. 

Whether some such alteration as this can account for the passage 

ot the bluish gray trap into amphibolite schist is quite within the 

range of possibility. This question has already become a subject 

of investigation by the writer, and it is hoped that much light 

will be thrown upon it. 

CaZcareo«s iJoc*8._To this class belong those rocks generally 
called crystalline limestone, of which there are two varieties, 
namely, saccharoidal limestone and marble. They are found at 

and another near CentreviUe, both varieties occurring together. 
The marble may be described as very coarsely crystalline. It 

heliW "T^? ^^ *'^*"'"'' ^^ ^"P^"°^ ^'^"^'"'^ «"^ i« always 
hZ L '^^ ^^^'^- '^^^ ^«^"«*y <'«'"«<* saccharoidal 

^!^!!!!!i:!J!!>;«j';^^;^i*r^nd^^ iti3,,3„ 

Apnt^lSS^r* °^ ^"'' ''''^'^'' '^^' "."•* ^o^ Hopkins Univ. Circular. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES 07 PHILADELPHIA. 245 

less pure, being often colored by oxide of iron or organic matter, 
and is much more thinly bedded, the thinner seams being inter- 
stratified with the heavily bedded marble. 

Serpentine. — About six miles northeast of Wilmington a huge 
dike of serpentine runs witli the micaceous schists. Its length 
can be traced by outcropping boulders for a distance of a mile, 
with a width of a quarter of a mile. The rock varies from one 
tough and massive to one soft and highly decomposed, with 
which are associated talc and magnesite. 

Vitreous Quartz and Quartzite. — The former rock occurs as 
regular thin or massive seams interstratified with the micaceous 
rocks. It varies from a glassy colorless variety to one of milky 
and opaque whiteness. The quartzite, which is found in the 
northwest corner of the. State, underlying the limestone, is 
probably of Potsdam age. It is a very coarse quartzite rock, 
which contains, frequently, crystals of tourmaline^ fibrolite and 
a^tinolite. 

Structural Relations of the Crystalline Rocks. 

Strike and Dip. — The rocks of this formation, except in a very 
few cases, are all stratified with variations of bedding, from that 
as thin as slate in the mica schists to that so heavy as to resemble 
massive trap intrusions. Both strike and dip are subject to 
great variation. A dip to the southeast for a long distance, with 
an opposite dip along a section only two miles and a half to the 
northeast, can be accounted for only by supposing an unequal 
thrust from the direction of the contorting force. In fact, out of 
five different sections made across the Azoic belt at various 
points of its length, no two showed the same arrangement of 
strata — ^from which we conclude that the thrusting force must 
have acted very unequally along the entire length of the belt, 
sometimes merely tilting the strata; again, standing them on 
edge, and yet again, completely ovei-tuming them; in some 
places pressing them into close folds for a part or the entire 
length of the sectiop, in others leaving gentle or abrupt anti- 
clinal and synclinal folds. 

Both strike and dip are also found to be subject to variations 
from the disturbing action of granitic intrusions. At Dixon's 
spar quarry the changie is from N. 55° E. to N. 22° E. At Pleasant 
0111 a granitic vein ^nts through the limestone, which causes a 



246 PBOOESDINGS OF THE AOADSBCT OF [1884. 

disturbance from N. 55° E. to N. 10° E. Excluding cases of local 
distortion, however, the crystalline rocks range in strike between 
N. 45° E. to N. 60° E., and in dip from nearly vertical to nearly 
horizontal. 

Dikea. — We have already spoken of the granite and serpentine 
as intrusive, forming in certain cases true beds, and again, show- 
ing genuine vein structure with numerous branchings. Regard- 
ing the structural relations of the bluish gray trap, there are as 
yet some doubts. The geologists of the Second Pennsylvania 
Survey have spoken of it as forming massive trap intrusions 
between hornblende gneiss — of which the latter is metamorphic. 

This theory, I am inclined to think, will prove to be a mistaken 
one. In Delaware, as we have said, the gray acided rock runs by 
indistinct gradations into true ampbibolite schist, the many 
stages of variations being sometimes witnessed in a single quarry, 
without the slightest structural distinctions. Seams of the gray 
trap have been seen running through the black hornblende gneiss, 
but without the least signs of intrusion. That the bluish gray 
trap may occupy irregular patches more or less lenticular, is no 
doubt true, but the latter can in no sense be regarded as forming 
dikes between a metamorphic schist ; on the other hand, all the 
rocks of the hornblendic belt, from the most acidic gray trap to 
the true amphibolite schist, belong to a single series of eruptive 
rocks, having wide lithological variations. That these variations 
may be the result of a subsequent paramorphosis taking place in 
the bluish gray trap is quite possible ; it is therefore to be hoped 
that present petrographical studies of the hornblendic rocks of 
the State will throw more light on this important question. 

Contortion of Strata, — The crystalline rocks offer the most 
complicated and striking examples of contortion, presenting 
nothing, however, which is not characteristic of all metamorphic 
areas. Close folding is the form generally seen, the line of 
bedding being either straight, gently or violently contorted. 
Abrupt anticlinal and synclinal folding is also common, these 
complex folds being, however, very irregular and much twisted. 

Age and Stratigraphical Order. — The crystalline rocks may be 
divided into four groups, which have a fixed stratigraphical 
relation to each other, namely, the hornblendic, the micaceous, 
the calcareous and the quartzitic. 

The normal order of arrangement of these strata, and thereby 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 247 

their relative age, is a point upon which there has been much 
difference of opinion, owing to the confusing arrangement of the 
strata throughout some of the counties of southeastern Pennsyl- 
vania. Notwithstanding such difficulties, the geologists who have 
discarded broad generalizations, and devoted themselves to the 
study of local details, find the way gradually opening to a better 
understanding of the truth ; and the early presumption that the 
mica schists and gneisses are of Palaeozoic age, is rapidly becoming 
a matter of general acceptation. The latest results of geological 
study in Pennsylvania, together with the observations of the 
writer throughout Northern Delaware, tend to show quite con- 
clusively that the crystalline rocks represent the following ages : 
(1) The Laurentian (?) including the rocks of the hornblendic 
belt; (2) the Potsdam, to which the quartzitic and sand rocks 
belong; (3) the Galciferous, including the magnesian marbles, 
and (4) the age of the mica schists, which must be placed some- 
where above the Trenton, and, according to Mr. Charles E. Hall, 
above the Hudson Kiver, slates. With these points in view, we 
shall proceed with the demonstration. 

The Laurentian (?) — The so-called Laurentian area of Delaware 
is but a continuation of identical areas in southeastern Pennsyl- 
vania, within the Philadelphia belt, which, according to Mr. Hall, 
are three in number, each connected with the other by a narrow 
neck, and each situated successively to the northeast. The 
southernmost of these areas is of lenticular shape, reaching fVom 
Chester Greek, and spreading out over the southern part of Dela- 
ware County, whence it extends into the State of Delaware, as 
shown upon the map. Northeast of this patch, and to the north- 
west of Media, is another area of irregular form, while a third — a 
long east and west belt — runs from West Chester, south of Con- 
shohocken, eastward to the Delaware River, near Trenton. Thus 
the Delaware Laurentian forms the southernmost tongue of the 
one Laurentian area of the Philadelphia belt, the upper portion 
of which has been for a long time known as the Third Belt of 
Rogers. As regards the age of the Third Belt, Mr. Hall says, 
" The rocks of the Third Belt are identical with the granitoid and 
syenitic rocks of the Welsh Mountain, north of the Chester 
County limestone valley. These rocks of the Welsh Mountain 
are similar in all respects to the crystalline rocks extending into 



248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AOADEMY OF [1884. 

Pennsylvania from New Jersey. In New Jersey they are iden- 
tified as belonging to the Laurentian." 

With these points in view, I have followed Mr. Hall, and placed 
the syenitic rocks of Delaware in the Laurentian, although I feel 
that it is, at best, but a problematical designation. Any positive 
declaration upon this point would be premature, until a more 
thorough structural and petrographical study has been finished, 
together with a comparison of results from diverse localities. 
Throughout southeastern Pennsylvania the hornblendic rocks are 
always stratigraphically the lowest, and such is the case in 
northern Delaware. 

The general dip of the syenitic rocks, upon the flanks of which 
rest the strata of the micaceous* belt, is, in the latter locality, to 
the northwest. In the western part of the State, however, the 
hornblendic rocks have experienced an overthrow, whereby they 
dip to the southeast, in which case the hornblendic rocks are 
apparently the younger. This peculiarity need not, however, be 
misleading as to true stratigraphical order. Putting aside all 
questions of position of strata, one must note the decidedly 
primitive aspect of these rocks, which, in lithological characters, 
are identical with the rocks of more northern portions of the 
Laurentian area. 

The Potsdam, — In the northwestern part of Mill Creek Hundred, 
a triangular area of Potsdam sandstone is seen upon the map, 
which, rising from beneath a patch of Bryn Mawr gravel, extends 
into Pennsylvania, and is best exposed beyond the State line. At 
Nivin's limestone quarry, a mass of quartzite forms what is clearly 
an anticlinal fold, over which is a corresponding anticlinal of 
magnesian limestone. The anticlinal structure of the quartzite is 
further shown at a few other points, where dips both to the north- 
west and southeast are noted. 

The Calciferou8.—Mr. Hall divided the limestone of south- 
eastern Pennsylvania into two groups, namely, the Calciferous 
magnesia limestones and marbles, and the possible Trenton lime- 
stones and slates, the former comprising the rocks of the Chester 
County limestone valley, and several outlying troughs to the 
south, the latter those alternations of slate and limestone which 
form the outer border of the Calciferous belt. 

The limestone areas of Delaware belong to the lower of the 
above^groups, or to the Calciferous of Mr. Hall, tb^ equivalent of 



1884.] 



NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 249 



the Lower Magnesian limestone of the West. The magnesian 
marble which outcrops beyond the State line, at Nivin's, runs into 
^elaware, and appears at the surface in the Jackson quarry at 
Hockessin. Here the rock forms a clearly defined anticlinal fold. 
The bending, both to the northwest and southeast, being observed 
within the cutting. The limestone is overlaid by the mica schists 
which, to the north of the pit, dip to the northwest, and to the 
south, southeast, forming an anticlinal fold capping the limestone. 

To the southeast of Centreville, the limestone occupies the 
same stratigraphical position as in the case ju^t mentioned. At 
Pleasant Hill the bending of the schists over a saddle of limestone 
18 beautifully shown in the quarry cutting, furnishing clear proof 
as to the superior position of the mica schists. 

The Mica Schist and Gneiss,— The inference that these rocks 
were primal, was based largely upon their lithological similarity 
to many of the older crystalline schists. They were hence referred 
to the White Mountain, or the Rocky Mountain, series. But litho- 
logical similarities must invariably bend to higher statigraphicai 
evidence. In Delaware the micaceous rocks overlie the limestone, 
and no readjustment of position can make the arrangement other- 
wise. They are, therefore, younger than the limestone, which, in 
Its turn, is younger than the underlying Potsdam. 

The Calciferous limestone can hardly be referred to any other 
position, and, invariably underlying the schists, the latter must 
t>egin somewhere in the Silurian, and, possibly, mount as high up 
as the Devonian. ' » *- Jj 5 h 

The Cretaceous. 

Geographical Extent— The Cretaceous of Delaware, a continu- 
ion of the same formation as developed in New Jersey, extends 
brea^fh f ^^^^^ *® * northeast aud southwest belt, with a 
tofoi 1^' ''''^ * ^®°^*^ ^^ ^^o«^ IS to 20 miles, covering a 

belt iT. ''^''''^ ^^^ "^"^"^ "^^^^^^ The northern limit of the 
the «n!l 'I'''' *^^ "'^P' ^"^ ^^''^^^y ^e«^ t'-aced out as marking 
runs a ttr ^^^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Laurentian. The southern limit 
Creek nV!! i^^ ^"""^^^ ""^^ *^^ P^^^^^^^l ^it^» Appoquinimink 
thence pSst7^ ''\""'" "' Noxontown mill-pond, and 

W£2 Th.?"^^. southeasterly direction. 
subdiviaiZ r . ^^™^tion may be divided into a number ot 
BedimenS ? ."P'''' lithological grounds, the period ot 
"mentation extending through the whole Cretaceous; i. .., 



250 



FBOCESDINaB OF THE ACADElfr OF 



[1884. 



Lower, Middle and Upper, of the English geologists. The divi- 
sions can be best represented by the following table, which is also 



n. 



YeUow Sand. 



Shell Layer. 



Middle Marl Bed. 



Uppbb Cretaceous 
(Chalk). 



Indurated Marl 
Bed. . . . 



Pure Green Sand. 



Indurated Marl. 



Lower Marl Bed. 



Red Sand. 



Black Argillo-Micaoeous 
Marl. 



Middle Cretaceous 
(UpperGreenSand,Gault). 



Sand Marl. 



SheU 3iarl. 
Cretoidal Marl. 



Sand and Clay Marls. 



Lower Cretaceous 
(Wealden?). 



Plastic Clays. 



Red Chiy. 



Fire-Clays and Sands. 



1884.] NATURAL 80ISN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 251 

constructed with a view of showing the relative thickness of each 
of the groups. In the classification the plastic clays have been 
placed in the Lower Cretaceous, and are probably the exact 
equivalent of the Wealden, while the marl deposits, ranging from 
the Lower to the Middle Beds, can, upon palseontological 
grounds, be referred with considerable confidence to the Upper 
Cretaceous, or Chalk. The Sand Marl formation can at best be 
placed in but an intermediate position, but is probably nearly 
akin to the marls, all of the fossils ever found within the sand 
marls of New Jersey having been the characteristic species of the 
marl beds proper. 

Structure. — The difEerent subdivisions of the Cretaceous form 
uniform beds, dipping at a low angle to the southeast. Having 
been successively deposited upon a gently sloping bed, they 
have remained in the same position, with no subsequent disturb- 
ance. The general direction of strike can be seen from the 
trend of the various belts. A line joining the point of contact 
between the Cretaceous, at Newark, with a similar point back of 
Newport, upon nearly the same level, ran N. 72° E., which 
course, being approximately parallel with the lines of the lower 
belts, may fairly represent the strike of the formation. The dip 
was determined with great accuracy at Summit Bridge, about 
midway of the width of the Cretaceous. At this place the canal 
excavation has reached a depth of 70 feet, and continues several 
miles to the westward, with gradually lowering banks. Upon 
both sides of this wide cutting, the marl outcrops as a well- 
defined layer, and as any number of lines in the direction of the 
dip can be obtained, the amount of pitch can be accurately deter- 
mined. As the transit could always be placed upon either bank 
in front of the escarpment of marl, and the other side could be 
easily seen, the operation of determining the difference in level 
between the two outcrops, on a line running S. 30° E., was not 
difiicult. This difference in level, combined with the angle of 
depression, as determined by the vernier, would give the data for 
ascertaining the distance between the outcrops, the latter of 
which varied from 300 to 400 feet. The results of the observa- 
tions give a dip of 45 feet to the mile. 

Plastic Clays. 

This formation is the thickest niember of the Cretaceous. Its 
southern line begins a few miles south of New Castle, and extends 



352 FBOCEEDINQS Of THE AOADBHT 01 [lBBt> 

in a southeasterly direction to juat below Bed Lion, crossing the 
railroad between Porter's and Kirkwood, and cutting the State 
line two miles north of Gbesapeake City. Although of so much 
importance, it is, owing to the great thickness of the overlying 
gravels, rarely exposed, and even when more favorable opportu- 
nities are offered, but a few feet of the characteristic Ked Clay 
appear a1>ove the surface. The formation is divided into the 
uppermost Red Clays, and the lowermost White Clays, of which 
the former is the deposit commonly exposed. 

£ed Clay. — This Is a highly plastic clay, of a vermilion-red 
color, remarkably free from grit, and cutting with great smooth- 
ness. It is identical with the red terra-cotta clays of Perth 
Amboy, N, J., and may prove to be their equal in quality. The 
B€d Clay forms uniform beds, with which are sometimes inter- 
atratified thin seams of fire-clay, making a total thickness of at 
least 50 feet. White Clayx. — The aeries of white clays and sands 
lying beneath the stratum of red, reach to a great depth below the 
surface, and have not yet been wholly penetrated by the deepest 
boring made. The outcrop is upon the lowest ground, of which 
the only locality discovered lay a little to the south of New Castle, 
on the river shore. Here the white clay outcrops for a depth of 
from 10 to 19 feet, giving the following section : 

1. Sandy fire-clay, .3 feet. 

2. Mottled chiy, .... 3 feet. 

3. A very pure fat fire-clay at water-level. 

The lowermost clay of this section is of an unnsually fine 
quality, and has in past years been worked below water-level, 
and shipped to Trenton potteries. From this exposure we are 
enabled to see that the White Clay series, outcropping as it does 
at water-level, covered by a red stratum, and again by some 30 
feet of gravel, is entirely out of the reach of study ; yet the pre- 
sumption that it does lie deeply buried is beyond controversy. 
Our only means of studying the White Clay series is by means of 
borings, which are very rare, and in no cases have accurate 
records of the deposits passed through been preserved. We only 
low that the borings yielded alternate layers of white clays and 
nds to a depth of 200 feet. We therefore judge that this aeries 
esentB strong analogies to the white clays of New Jersey. 



1884.] natural 80ien0es of philadelphia. 253 

Sand Marl. 

The belt of sand marl runs from the river course to the south 

of New Castle, gradually tapering in breadth as the Maryland 

boundar}'^ line is reached. The southern limit of the belt, starting 

at Delaware City, cuts the north corner of St. George's, and 

keeps about a mile above the canal for the remaining distance 

across the State. It may be described as a yellow sand, of a 

greenish tinge, comprising a yellow siliceous sand mixed with 

some green sand and a variable proportion of argillaceous matter. 

No data are at hand for determining its thickness, except the 

imperfect method of using width of outcrop and angle of dip, 

according to which we find the sand marl stratum to have a 

depth of 90 feet. 

Marl Beds. 

The marl beds cover a comparatively small area in the State, 
and are practically limited to that division of New Castle county 
called St. George's Hundred. 

The first important outcrops of green sand occur along the 
Delaware and Chesapeake Canal, the channel of which cuts 
deep into the formation. Its northern limit, as determined by 
old marl pits, runs approximately parallel with the canal, keeping 
a distance of from a quarter of a mile to a mile. From this line 
the marl extends southward to another boundary parallel with, 
and about one mile south of, Appoquinimink Creek, where it 
gives place to the Tertiary clays. 

Subdivisions. — The divisions of the green sand formation are 
found, with two exceptions, to correspond with those made by 
the New Jersey Survey. In the first place, what is called by 
Professor Cook the Upper Marl bed, is in Delaware, entirely 
absent, and in the second place, the so-called Red ^and is either 
entirely absent, or represented, as in the eastern part of the 
State, by a much thinner stratum th^n is found in New Jersey. 
This scanty development of the Bed sand is, however, compen- 
sated for by a greater tl^ickness of the Indurated green marl, 
which, in Delaware, becomes the prominent parting layer between 
the middle and lower marl beds. The chronological chart of 
the Cretaceous (II), wiU show the divisions of the marl beds as 

found in the State. 

Lower Marl Bed. 

This stratum, which extends as a narrow belt on each side of 
the panal, is fqund to outcrop along the entire length of the 



254 PBOO£EDINaS OF THE AOADEMT 07 [1884. 

same, rising about a foot above the surface of the water, and, 
farther west, to a height of 20 feet. The several subdivisions of 
the lower marl will be treated in the order of their age. 

Cretoidal Marl, — This lowest layer is a tough, bluish black 
marl, which, upon drying, turns to a lighter ashen or earthen 
color, when it is found to be made of a large amount of green 
sand, siliceous sand and argillaceous matter. The solid particles 
are coated with chalky carbonate of lime, which, under the 
microscope, appears as a fine white powder of a granular char- 
acter, but often light and flocculent. 

. Shell Layer, — The cretoidal marl is always found beneath a 
layer of shells or shell marl, having a thickness of about 3 feet. 
In fact, the shells are usually mixed with a greater or less 
quantity of the black earthy marl having the characters of the 
cretoidal variety. The shells are usually the characteristic 
species of the New Jersey eq^uivalents, the most abundant being 
the clumsy Exogyra oostata with Pychnodonta vesicularis and 
Ostrea larva. 

Black Argillaceous and Micaceous Marl, — This layer, over- 
lying the shells, in its lower part possesses somewhat the charac- 
ters of the cretoidal marl. To the west of the Delaware railroad, 
however, it rises well oat of the water of the canal, and assumes 
a distinctly argillaceous nature, becoming a black micaceous clay. 
It also shows an entire absence of calcareous matter, and pos- 
sesses a decidedly styptic taste, due to the large quantity of 
sulphate of iron in the percolating waters. This argillaceous 
marl, when examined in the dry state by a glass, is found to be 
composed of minute sharp gl9.ssy particles of quartz, coated with 
a grayish dust, and associated with a few greeu sand particles of 
unusual fineness, together with a considerable quantity of minute 
scales of muscovite,- 

Thickness, — Fortunately w^ have sufficient evidence for meas- 
uring accurately the thickness of the lower marl bed. The belt 
has an average breadth of IJ miles, which, with a dip of 40 feet 
to the mile, would give a thickness of 60 feet for the stratum. 
At Summit Bridge, the black marl outcrops to a height of 42 to 
47 feet. Calling it 40, and adding this to 15 feet of marl in 
Higgin's pit, on much lower ground between St. George's and 
Delaware City, we get a total of 65 feet. Since the 15 feet 
excavation at the latter place failed to entirely penetrate the 



1884.1 NATURAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 255 

marl, we may call 60 feet a safe estimate for the thickness of the 
lower marl bed. Of this total, more than one-half is represented 
by the argillo-micaceous layer, and the remainder by the thin 
shell layer, and the lowest cretoidal marl. There is one reason 
why the thickness of the lower marl stratum, as developed at 
Sammit Bridge, should be employed in a calculation of the 
thickness, rather than the smaller figures obtained farther to the 
east or west. Summit Bridge is on the dividing ridge. Prom 
this meridional line, the land slopes to the east and west. The 
marl, therefore, offers a diminishing thickness of outcrop as the 
river is approached, owing to the erosion of the upper argillo- 
micaceous stratum, which, in the neighborhood of St. George's, 
and thence to Delaware City, has been thinned down to a thick- 
ness of only a few feet. It is for this reason that the upper 
portion of the lower marl bed is so extensively developed at the 
western end of the belt, while the lower portion of the same for- 
mation is confined to the eastern portion of the belt. Since the 
upper argillo-micaceous stratum is a poor, and even objectionable, 
material for fertilizing purposes, while the contrary may be said 
of the lower cretoidal variety, the locality for marl diggings 
must lie east of the railroad bridge. 

Indurated Marl Bed. 

The northern limit of this belt, which is also the southern 
limit of the lower marl bed, starts near the mouth of Scott's run, 
and thence keeps parallel with the canal to the railroad, when it 
begins slightly to diverge, cutting the headwaters of the northern 
branch of the Bohemia River. The southern limit of the belt 
can only be approximately outlined, but as can best be determined 
runs from Port Penn through the headwaters of Drawyer's 
Creek, and crosses the Maryland line four miles below the head 
of Bohemia River. The indurated marl stratum is divided into 
two layers, the lower red sand, and the upper indurated marl. 

Red Sand. — The formation which has been called the indurated 
marl bed is the equivalent of the red sands of the New Jersey 
geologists, it being, in both cases, the prominent parting layer 
between the lower and middle marl. Along the south side of the 
canal, between the railroad bridge and St. George's, a soft reddish 
yellow sand of uniform character rests upon a stratum of black 
marl. It is developed to a considerable thickness in the neigh- 



256 PBOOEBDINOS OF THE AOADEMY OF [1884. 

borhood of the latter town, and is characterized by the numerous 
particles of green sand contained in it. The thickness could not, 
however, be accurately determined, running as it does, indistinctly 
into the overlying gravels. West of the railroad, the deposit 
thins out entirely, and does not again appear. Along the ravine 
made by Scott's Run the red sand has been found lying Upon the 
shell marl, running to the south into a black decomposed green 
sand. Notwithstanding the deposit of red sand, which outcrops 
along the south shore of the canal, the shell marl is dug by several 
parties on a strip along the same side, and for this reason, I have 
extended the southern limit of the lower marl belt slightly to the 
south of the southern shore of the canal. 

Considering the foregoing facts, the writer with some trouble 
that cannot well be removed, has referred the reddish yellow sand 
stratum to the red sand of Prof. Cook. This red sand occupies 
a narrow strip along the south side of the canal, to the east of 
the railroad, and runs to the south beneath the overlying stratum 
of decomposed marl, by which nearly the whole area of the bed 
as previously marked out, is covered. From this we see that the 
true red sand, which is so extepsively developed in New Jersey 
has a less thickness in Delaware, but is replaced by the indurated 
marl, whijh in New Jersey is found more thickly exposed, but 
occupying the same stratigraphical positiop above the red sand. 

Indurated Ore^n Sand, — TJiis marl attracts from the observer 
more attention than any other, coming to the surface as it does 
in numerous loisalities, and having been extensively' worked for 
its pre-eminent qualities as a fertilizer. 

Already in a state of partial decomposition, the decay rapidly 
progresses by the removal of the potash, and the oxidation of the 
ferous salt of iron, ojr its direct solution by carbonated water. 
Generally spe^-^ing, the marl in the bed is of a black, loamy 
nature which, when dry, assumes a brownish or grayish tinge. It 
is made of a variable quantity of green sand, with a large pro- 
portion of siliceous sand. In some places the marl is found to 
contain a large amount of argillaceous matter, while again it is 
extremely clean and dry. It differs entirely from the lower marl, 
by containing no carbonate of lime in the pulverent state ; but 
in certain places the deposit abounds in shells, which renders it 
comparable with the shell marl of the former formation. 

Examipe4 with ja glass^ t^ie grains of indurated marl p^ove of 



L 



^^1 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 25 1 

a brownish color, and very rough and irregular, apparently the 
effect of weathering. The grains can easily be crushed by the 
finger-nail, thus exposing the internal green color. The granules 
are coated with a layer of brown oxide of iron, within which shell 
exists the unchanged nucleus of glauconite. 

The Indurated Marl, unless finely pulverized, has a lumpy ten- 
dency, caused by numerous grains of green sand cemented by 
the brown oxide of iron. In fact, the marl has, at certain points, 
been almost entirely changed to brown oxide of iron, while in 
other cases, seams of the latter penetrate the mass of the green 
sand. Prof. Cook is of the opinion that the red sand of New 
Jersey is due to the decomposition of green sand, whereby the 
soluble salts have been carried away, leaving the insoluble siliceous 
sand and red oxide of iron. We may, therefore, regard the belt, 
which in New Jersey is called the red sand, and in Delaware the 
indurated marl, as a true marl belt in a greater or less degree of 
decomposition ; and while a slightly indurated green sand may 
entirely differ mineralogically from a red siliceous sand, the dif- 
ference is after all only one of degree of decomposition. 

Middle Marl Bed. 

This belt crosses the State with a uniform breadth of three and 
a half miles, the northern line running from Port Penn, a little 
north of Drawyer's creek, and crossing the State line four miles 
south of the Bohemia River. The southern line crosses the centre 
of Noxontown mill-pond, keeping parallel with and a little south 
of Appoquinimink creek. The middle marl bed (see II) is 
divided into three very distinct layers : (1) A lowermost pure 
green sand ; (2) an intermediate layer of friable shells, and (3) 
an upper yellow or reddish yellow sand. The characters of these 
several strata will be considered as follows : — 

Green Sand Layer, — This lowermost subdivision of the middle 
marl bed occupies the main width of the belt to the north of 
Appoquinimink Creek, and exhibits its principal exposures along 
Drawyer's Creek and Silver Run, where its characters may be well 
studied. It differs entirely from any of the foregoing varieties, 
in that it is entirely free from calcareous matter, and shows none 
of the general induration so characteristic of the previous forma- 
tion. On the contrary, it is a very dry, pure green sand, which 
varies in color from a deep bluish to a yellowish green, the latter 
shade being due to a considerable admixture of siliceous sand. 



258 PBOCKBDINOB OF THE ACABBMT OF [ISH4. 

The extreme dryness of this marl, compared with the preceding 
varieties, is owing to the complete absence of argillaceous matter. 
The grains, when examined, are smooth and well rounded, and 
although frequently so soft as to be easily crushed by the nail, 
show no evidence of chemical decomposition. 

Shell Layer,— This intermediate, well-defined layer, is best 
exposed at the head of Noxontown mill-pond, and along the south 
side of Appoquinimink Creek. In thickness it varies from 3 to 10 
feet, being entirely made up of white friable shells, tightly packed 
together, the most common of which are Terehratula fragalis and 
T. Harlanij with Pychnodonta vesicularis. 

Very often the upper part of the shell layer has lost its carbo- 
nate of lime, which is replaced by brown oxide of iron. At the 
head of Noxontown mill-pond, the white shell layer, 6f which the 
upper part is ferruginous, rises 6 to 6 feet out of the water, 
capped by a yellow sand marl. 

Yellow Sand.— This is the uppermost layer of the Middle 
Marl Bed, and is always found associated with and overlying the 
shells. It may be described as a yellowish or reddish sand, con- 
taining a small and variable proportion of glauconite, the latter 
often becoming so predominant as to give the deposit a decidedly 

greenish tinge. 

DioBTTic Trap. 

Three miles to the south of Newark, Delaware, Iron Hill rises 
from the Cretaceous plane, the one conspicuous object for 10 
miles or more. Running in a generally northwest and southeast 
direction, it has a length of over a miles, a width varying from 
1 mile to H, and a height of 225 feet. The flanks and summits 
of this hill are covered with boulders of diorite and cellular 
quartz. On the south side, about half way up, is seen the 
outcrop of a bedded mass of serpentine rock, with a strike 
following the trend of the hill. An examination of the loose frag- 
ments of green rock lying upon the surface showed them to be 
composed of a number of indefinite chloritic and serpentine 
materials in a state of partial decomposition. As the greenish 
fragments were also observed to run into unchanged trap, 
occurring as huge outcropping boulders, the proof appeared 
conclusive that the serpentine rock had been due to the alteration 
of the hornblende in the dioritic trap. Following the hill in its 
northwest course, we find the same rock crossing the railroad, 
along the cutting of which the mature of the dike is revealed. 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES 07 PHILADELPHIA. 259 

Here we first pass some 200 feet of a soft greenish clay, which 
rises as walls 20 feet high. Fragments of the serpentine rock, on 
the surface above the railroad cutting, showed it running into 
unchanged diorite. Lying next to the serpentine rock was 50 
feet or more of both compact and cellular quartz, standing upon 
edge, and striking to the northwest. It was completely impreg- 
nated with minute specks and octahedrons of magnetite, which 
exhibited their decomposition by numerous minute cells filled 
with iron oxide. The cellular quartz, associated indiscriminately 
with the compact, was literally honeycombed, the great cells 
being partially filled with ochrey powder. West of the quartz 
occurred a thinner development of the serpentine, offering the 
same features as before. With these facts, we are led to regard 
the exposure before us as a highly changed dioritic dike, in the 
centre of which is a huge mass of ferruginous jaspery quartz, from 
which we interpret the structure of the whole hill. Attaining the 
summit, we find several large pits worked for iron ore. One of 
them, wrought by George Whi taker, has walls of soft greenish 
serpentine earth rising some 40 feet, in which are imbedded 
boulders and fragments of cellular ferruginous quartz and iron- 
stone, together with a considerable admixture of ochrey powder 
and granular limonite. The economic value of the workings con- 
sists in washing the serpentine earth, and extracting the limonitic 
materials. Near the wash-house the yellowish green rock is seen 
to outcrop with a strike to the northwest. Several of the pits on 
the hill offer much the same features, while some of them contain 
a greater abundance of the boulders of cellular quartz. The 
method of formation of the crusts of iron-stone may be deter- 
mined by an examination of the numerous quartzose boulders. It 
consists in the segregation of iron oxide as tortuous veins 
within the substance of the rock, set free by the complete disin- 
tegration of the latter ; wliile the powdery and granular limonite 
has resulted from an oxidation of the magnetite which so com- 
pletely impregnates the jaspery quartz. Associated with the 
boulders of trap, are certain foreign materials belonging to the 
drift. Imbedded within the serpentine earth of Whitaker's pit, 
are several large decomposed boulders of granite. Upon the 
summit of the hill, a large boulder of dark limestone was also 
found, besides various other materials belonging to the boulder 
drift so universally scattered over the State. 



260 pbogeedinos of the aoademt of [1884. 

October 21. 

Mr. Thomas Meehan, Yice-President, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 
"On the Cuspidiform Petroglyphs, or so-called Bird-track 

Rock-Sculptures, of Ohio," by D. G. Brinton, M. D. 
" Preliminary Observations on the Brain of Menopoma," by 

Henry P. Osborn. 



OOTOBER 28. 

The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty-nine persons present. 

Organisms in Ice. — Prof. Leidy stated that a member had 
-placed in his hands, for examination, a vial of water obtained from 
melting ice which is used for cooling drinking-water. From 
time to time, among some sediment taken from a water-cooler, 
the gentleman had observed what he supposed to be living worms, 
which he suspected were introduced with the water into the 
cooler, and not with the ice. Upon melting some of the ice alone, 
the worms were still observed, and the water submitted for 
examination was some that was thus obtained. Prof. Leidy was 
surprised to find a number of worms among some flocculent 
sediment, mainly consisting of vegetal hairs and other debris. 
Besides the worms, there were also immature Anguillulas, and a 
number of Rotifer vulgaris^ all living. It would appear that 
these animals had all been contained in the ice, and had been 
liberated on melting. It was an unexpected source of contami- 
nation of our drinking-water, that Prof. Leidy had previously 
supposed to be very improbable. The little worms he was not 
familiar with. 

They belong to the family of Lumbricidae, and probably may 
be an undescribed species of Lumhriculus, They are white, or 
colorless, from 4 to 6 millimeters long, by a third of a millimeter 
in thickness. The body is divided into thirty segments, bearing 
podal spines, which form four rows, with three in each fas- 
ciculus, and divergent. The spines are curved at the root, 
pointed at the free end, and measure 0'05 to 006 mm. long. 
The upper lip is blunt conical; the terminal segment truncate. 
There appears to be no distinct girdle, but the third, fourth, 
and fifth segments contain capsuligenous glands and other organs 
pertaining to the sexual apparatus. 

Several dead worms swarmed in the interior with large, ovate, 
beaked, ciliated infusorians measuring from 0*06 to 0*06 mm. long 
by 004 to 0-048 mm, broad. 



1884.] NATURAL 80IENGES 07 PHILADELPHIA. 261 

Chapter I, Article 6, of the By-Laws was amended by the addi- 
tion of the following ; — " Neither the building occupied by the 
society, nor any part of the site or ground pertaining thereto, shall 
be sold, leased, encumbered or charged in any manner whatever, 
nor shall any apartment or space in the Academy or adjacent 
ground be assigned or appropriated permanently to the exclusive 
use of any person or to the accommodation of any special collection 
or collections, unless the proposition in this connection be in 
writing, signed by at least five members, presented at a stated 
meeting of the Academy, referred to the Council for examination 
and report — which report shall be considered as special business, 
to be acted upofi at a subsequent stated meeting, to be held at 
least twenty-six days after that at which the report of the Council 
has been read, the date to be fixed by resolution ; but no action shall 
be taken thereon until after full notice thereof and of said date shall 
be given to the members by advertisement once a week, for three 
weeks in two daily newspapers of general circulation in Phila- 
delphia, and by written or printed notice by mail or otherwise to 
all the members whose residences or places of business shall 
be known to the Recording Secretary. At such meeting the 
measure proposed may be considered and adopted by two-thirds 
of the members present at that meeting, or at any subsequent 
adjourned meeting for that purpose, provided that at least eighty 
members be present and vote ; and provided' also that nothing in 
this article shall be so construed as to change, alter or repeal 
Art. 5, Chapter XI, or release the curators from the charge and 
care of collections, as provided for in these by-laws." 

Chapter XYI, Article 4, of the By-Laws was amended as 
follows : — In the third line, after the word " inclusive," insert the 
words " except Article 6, Chap. I " and add the foliowings words 
or paragraph : — " Article 6, Chap. I, may be amended, altered or 
repealed by two-thirds, upon a yea and nay vote of not less than 
eighty members, at a meeting called to consider that special 
business, after advertisement and individual notification of the 
members, in manner and form specified in said article, but not 
otherwise." 

The following were elected members: — George Fales Baker, 
W. B. Scott, Edmund J. James, and H. LaBarre Jayne. 

The following were elected correspondents: — G. Vom Rath, 
of Bonn, and Geo. E. Dobson, of London. 

The following were ordered to be printed : — 



262 PROCEEDINGS 07 THE AOADSMT OW [1884. 



FRXLIKIHABT 0B8EBVATI0V8 17P0V THE BBAIV 07 HEKOFOMA. 

BT HENBT 7. 08B0RN, 80. D. 

This is the second of a series of papers ^ upon the brains of 
the American Urodela. In the study of Menopoma^ I have 
detected numerous errors in the first paper upon Amphiuma^ 
and my attention has kindly been called to others by Prof. 
Wilder and Dr. E. C. Spitzka. 

The brains of Amphiuma and Menopoma are even more alike 
in their internal than in their external structure ; while the reverse 
is the case in the comparison of Menopoma and Menohranchus^ 
which resemble each other very closely externally, but in longi- 
tudinal section present important differences. 

The greater accuracy of the Menopoma work is due to changes 
in technical methods. Before hardening, the brains were inflated 
with Miiller's fluid, so as to preserve the natural proportion of 
the cavities. After treatment with alcohol, they were placed for 
a week in dilute carmine. Calberla's egg-mass was employed as 
before, except that the ventricles were injected with the mass 
before hardening. The delicate parts of the brain-roof were thus 
retained. It appears now that celloidin may be used for this purpose 
to equal, if not to greater, advantage in results, and with consid- 
erable economy of time. The sections were cut in absolute 
alcohol, were then floated upon a slide in consecutive order, from 
twenty to fifty at a time, and were covered with a delicate slip of 
blotting-paper during treatment with oil of cloves. These 
changes greatly improved the three series, which were obtained 
in as many planes — horizontal, transverse and vertical to the long 
axis of the brain. 

External Structure (PI. VI, figs. 1, 2, 3). 

With a single exception, and that an important one, the brain 
of Menopoma approaches closely the typical brain. The seg- 

* Many of these results were presented in the Biological Section of the 
American Association, September, 1884. 

* Preliminary Observations upon the Brain of Amphiuma. Proc. Phila. 
Acad. Nat. Sc, July, 1883. 



1884. J NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 263 

mental^ parts are clearly differentiated from each other in 
regular succession, beginning with the olfactory lobes or Rhinen- 
cephalon, the Prosencephalon, the Diencephalon, the Mesen- 
cephalon, the Epencephalon and Metencephalon. This was 
not found to be the case in Amphiuma, where the Rhinen- and 
Prosencephala and Dien- and Mesencephala are barely distin- 
guishable. The exception above noted is that, the epiphysis 
does not appear upon the external surface, but, as we shall see, is 
altogether wanting, while a vascular plexus lying between the 
hemispheres offers a very deceptive imitation of this important 
structure. The hypophysis and infundibulum, however, have a 
striking development. 

A careful study of the surface of the diencephalon discloses 
a minute transparent area lying between two whitish streaks. 
The latter are transverse commissures in the roof of the third 
ventricle; the former is the cavity of the epiphysial tube, or 
recessus pinealis, the brain-cavity being separated from the pia 
mater only by a single layer of cells. This transparent area has 
already been pointed out by Goette* in the frog, where it is 
somewhat less conspicuous. In front of the foremost commissure 
is a triangular transparent space ; at the sides of this are two horn- 
like forward continuations of the diencephalon. These processes 
I consider homologous with the habenulae of the mammalian 
brain, and with the " Schnabelformiger Fortsatz " described by 
MUUer in the lamprey's brain. In the lamprey they coalesce in 

* The nomenclature proposed by Prof. Burt G. Wilder has been adopted, 
with few exceptions. It proceeds upon the consistent plan of naming the 
segments, and their various parts, as far as possible, after the segmental 
names which now meet with general acceptance among anatomists ; also of 
using abbreviated forms of the longer terms now in use. For the sake of 
clearness the new terms, and their synonyms, which are employed in this 
paper are given below. The Prosencephalon, including: the procaliatj lateral 
ventricles ; the proplexi, lateral plexuses ; the prosoc<Blia, ventriculus com- 
munis laborum ; the suprapleomSy plexus in the roof of the prosocoelia ; the 
porta, foramen of Munro ; the terma, lamina terminalis ; the prcBcommis- 
sura, anterior commissure. The Diencephaloriy including : the supra- 
commissura, commissura habenarum ; the processus and reeessus pinealis, 
the postcommissura, posterior commissure ; the diacalia, third ventricle. 
The MesencepTuilon, including : the mesoccdia, iter, etc. A system of this 
kind must undergo modification, from time to time, but in the end it will 
be far superior to the present cumbersome multinomial system. 

' Entwickelungsgeschichte der Unke, 1875. 



264 FBOGEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

the median line, but- here they are separate, as may be seen 
by a close external examination, and verified by transverse 
sections. This homology is confirmed by the study of the fore- 
most of the transverse commissures. In front of this space 
rises the reddish body, which has been generally mistaken for 
the epiphysis. In the natural state this body is not very promi- 
nent, but as soon as the ventricles collapse, it is thrust conspicn- 
ously upwards. The ventricular collapse is also the occasion of 
an artificial dorsal furrow in the optic lobe, which is here abso- 
lutely unpaired. Upon the ventral aspect of the brain we again 
observe two transparent areas. One resembles a long slit in 
front of the optic chiasma, and is found to be a portion of the 
lamina terminalis. The other is due to a thinning of the floor of 
the infundibulum, and is seen immediately in front of the 
hypophj'sis. The hemispheres are closely applied to each other, 
but have no structural union. The cerebellum is slightly over- 
hung by the optic lobe. 

The proportions of the various segmental parts are very 
similar to those of Menobranchus, and this seems to accord with 
the similarity of the proportions in the head, body and limbs of 
these animals. 

Internal Structure. 

A natural introduction to the internal structure would be 
a description of the walls and cavities of the various segments, 
but it happens that the boundaries of these segments can only 
be determined after we settle upon the relations of the parts 
which compose them, so, until some of the details have been 
investigated, this description must be postponed. In general, 
the brain is a tube forking in front into the paired lobes and 
cavities of the hemispheres. 

The Ependyma and Pia Mater, — The pia mater closely invests 
all the brain surfaces and sends numerous nutrient vessels into 
its walls. It envelops all parts of the brain, with the exception 
of the hypophysis, which lies external to it (fig. 4), so that the 
pia actually separates the hypoph3'sis from the floor of the 
infundibulum and sends in numerous smaller vessels between 
the epithelial tubes which constitute this body. This relation is 
not true of the posterior lobe of the hypophysis which is a 
development of the brain-wall and is surrounded by the pia, the 
anterior lobe as is well known, arising from the oral epithelium. 



\ 
\ 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES 07 PHILADELPHIA. 265 

At several points the pia and ependyma unite to form the sole 
elements of the brain-wall, giving the transparent effect, in 
external view, which has been mentioned. A striking instance of 
^this is seen in the dorsal wall of the infandibalar cavity, which 
is extremely delicate, the ependyma consisting of a single row 
of cells. The vascular plexuses above the medulla and between 
the hemispheres are instances of such union, elaborated by the 
introduction of vascular plexuses from the pia. Three varieties 
of the cells of the ependyma can be distinguished. The cells of 
the first variety form a general investment of the inner brain- 
wall; they are from one to three deep, cylindrical or much 
elongated, crowded between them are yellowish oily granules, 
and many of the cells remotely resemble ordinary fat cells in the 
possession of a proto-plasmic nucleated centre, lying between 
yellowish, unstained terminations. It is the innermost of these 
cells which g:ive rise to thread-like processes which radiate out- 
wards in the brain-wall, but the latter never make such beautiful 
displays as are seen in the frog's brain, and figured by Stieda.^ 
The cells of the second variety lack the fatty granules ; they are 
found coating the prxcommiasura, but are principally observed 
wherever the brain-wall is reduced to a single row of cells as in 
the roof of the infundibulum, and in that part of the floor to 
which the hypophysis is attached ; they are small, rounded cells, 
at one point becoming very much elongated, namely, in the sides 
of the processus pinealis. The transition from this to the third 
variety is beautifully shown in the forward portion of the roof of 
the third ventricle. Here the rounded passes into the beaded 
character of the single cell layer which follows the elaborate 
foldings of the diaplexus. 

The consecutive series of sections in three planes afford fine 
material for the study of the nerve-fibre courses, and much has 
already been ascertained that throws light upon the relations of 
the brain segments. I will here describe only the fibre courses 
which have a transverse direction, considering under this head 
the relations of the cerebellum,* the origin of the optic nerves, 
and the various commissures. 



^ Zeitschrift far wiss. Zool., Band 

* Compare E. C. Spitzka. The relations of the Cerebellum, Alienist 
and Neurologist. New York, January, 1884. 

18 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

The Cerebellum (figs. 6, 7). — ^Numerous as are the errors 
which at present prevail in the literature of the amphibian brain, 
none are more striking than those relating to the cerebellam.^ 
It is said to retain its embryonic condition of a small band-like " 
structure stretching over the fourth ventricle. Now it happens 
that the amphibian cerebellum is a flat structure, and if viewed 
on edge, as is the case in looking down upon the frog's brain, it 
does appear very small ; if, on the other hand, it is seen in ver- 
tical longitudinal section, its large bulk, relatively to other parts, 
is at once apparent. If, further, as will be done in another 
paper, a corresponding section of an amphiuma brain be super- 
posed upon the frog section, we find that the former barely covers 
one-twenty-fourth of the diameter of the latter, although the 
Amphiuma is a very much larger animal. The description 
referred to above, then, is as exaggerated when applied to the 
frog as it is true of such forms as Amphiuma, Menopoma and 
Menobranchus. 

In Amphiuma, the cerebellum is reduced to its simplest pos- 
sible expression. It seems doubtful whether it contains any 
nerve cells whatever. In Menopoma, however, a few cells similar 
to those in the optic lobes, can be observed on either side of the 
transverse fibres which make up the larger part of this body ; it 
is difficult to distinguish these cells from those of the ependyma. 
Notwithstanding the character of this body, its main relations to 
the adjoining parts are precisely similar to those of the higher 
vertebrates. These relations have already been indefinitely 
indicated by Stieda. (1.) From the lateral tips of the medulla 
arises a column of fibres on either side, which arches forward ; 
here the columns are reinforced by fibres apparently arising from 
lateral cell-masses, these columns turn back and enter the cere- 
bellum. (2.) Passing beneath these columns is another pair, 
which diverge and then converge as they enter the pars peduncu- 
laris of the mesencephalon ; they can be followed some distance 
forwards upon either side of the mesocoelia. (3.) Passing 
directly forward from the ventral surface of the cerebellum, a 
few scattering fibres enter the valvula and with some doubt can 
be followed into the cells of the roof of the optic lobe. In one 
and two we recognize the post- and prse-pedunculi or inferior 

^ Mihalkovics, loc, cit., p. 56 ; also, Wiedersheim, Lehrbuch der Ver- 
glelchenden Anatomie, 1888, p. 207. 



1884.] NATURAL 80IBNCBS OF PHILADELPHIA. 26*7 

and auperior (processus ad cerebrum) peduncles of the higher 
vertebrate br»in. 

The scarcity, if not absence, of nerve cells in the Amphiuma 
or Menopoma cerebellum, renders it difficult to understand the 
meaning of these peduncles, unless we regard the cerebellum here 
as in large part a decussational system, composed of fibres 
crossing from one side of the brain to the other. It may be 
added that the frog's cerebellum is richly cellular. 

The Optic Nerves (fig. 8). — No fibres have as yet been followed 
from the optic lobe (Mesencephalon) to enter the optic tracts, 
although there can be little doubt that they are present ; but the 
fibres in the thalami arise in a manner which points, almost with 
certainty, to the important fact that in the Amphibia the decus- 
sation of the optic tracts is incomplete. In other words, part of 
the fibres of each optic nerve enter from the chiasma, i\ e., from 
the opposite side of the brain, part enter from the same side of the 
brain. (1.) The fibres supplying the chiasma, arise from cell 
masses in the upper lateral portions of the thalami, and sweep 
around the sides of the thalami, partly encircling the main longi- 
tudinal fibre system (crura cerebri) ; they pass downwards and 
obliquely forwards, enter the chiasma, and apparently pass to the 
nerve of the opposite side. (2.) In the fioor and lower lateral cell 
masses of the thalami arise smaller bundles of fibres, which pass 
beneath the longitudinal system, above and then in front of the 
chiasma to enter the optic nerve of the same side. They can be 
traced by following successive sections forwards, but do not 
interdigitate with the fibres of the chiasma, as in the figure which 
combines the results of a series of sections. If this fact is con- 
firmed by other observers, it will show that the partial decussation 
of the optic tracts is an early, if not a primitive condition, instead 
of being peculiar to the higher mammals, as has been generally 

maintained. 

The Commissures. 

3[%e Prsecommissura (fig. 9). — In the frog's brain ^ it has been 
found that there are two divisions of this commissure : a posterior, 
connecting the lower portions of the hemispheres, and an anterior, 
connecting the upper median walls. Both have been found in 
Menopoma J the latter arching upwards at the sides, and, as is 
clear in fig. 4, it forms on either side the posterior boundary of 



' Stieda, loe, etY., p, 808. 



r 



268 PBOOKEDINOS OV THX AOADESfT 01 [1884. 

the porta, or passage from the single to the lateral cavities of the 
Prosencephalon. In Menopoma^ however, the posterior division 
is immediately below the anterior, and it is found in the horizontal 
sections to be not a true commissural, but a decussational system; 
At this point, a large number of the fibres composing each of the 
longitudinal tracts, just mentioned in connection with the optic 
chiasma, cross each other and pass to or from the base of the 
opposite hemisphere. In Menobranchus these two tracts are 
completely separated, the upper division passing independently 
across the ventricle. 

The Postcommissura. — Although this commissure is part of a 
conspicuous fold of the brain-roof separating the Dien- from the 
Mesencephalon, it really contains in the Amphibia but few fibres. 
Another interesting fact is that these fibres do not enter into the 
thalami, but pass obliquely backwards into the region of the 
longitudinal tracts composing the pars peduncularis of the Mesen- 
cephalon. This accords with Mihalkovics' ^ observations upon the 
chick, and tends to confirm Pawlowsky's ' view that this is not a 
commissure in the strict application of the word, but is rather a 
side connection of the longitudinal fibre system. This view 
accords also with Ahlbom's recent observations upon the 
lamprey. 

The Supracammissura (fig. 8). — In the forward portion of the 
roof of the diacoBlia, and immediately above the optic chiasma is 
a commissure, which, as far as I can ascertain, has been hereto- 
fore entirely overlooked in the Amphibia. In Menopoma and 
Amphiuma it is very large ; in the frog it is much reduced, and 
lies further forward ; in Menobranchus it is represented by a 
slender band of fibres immediately ih front of the recessus 
pinealxB. In all these forms it lies in front of the epiphysial 
process, and completely separates this tube from the dia-and 
supraplexus. It occupies the same relative position as the 
variously named Commissura habenarum^^ or the commissure of 
the pineal stalk (Mihalkovics)^ of the mammalian brain, as well 

* Loe» cit,f p. 78. 

' Pawlowsky, Ueber den Faserverlauf in der hinteren Gtehimoommiflsor. 
ZeitB. fiir wiss. Zool., Band xziv, 1874. 

* Wilder, Anatomioal Technology, 1882, p. 452. 

^ Loe. cU., p. 100. This con^parisoii is somewhat doubtlUl. 



1884.] NATUBAXi SGDENOES OV PHILADELPHIA. 269 

as the commissure figured by Professor Balfour ^ in the Elasmo- 
branch brain. It passes across the posterior ends of the hook-like 
processes of the thalami, which I have compared with the habenulae, 
and the most satisfactory interpretation of this commissure is 
afforded by a comparison with Ahlbom's figures of the lamprey 
brain.^ At the sides and to the front of the recessus pinealiSj I 
find in Menopoma two compact masses of nerve cells, which I 
think we may compare with the ganglia hahenarum. These 
masses form the posterior, and to some extent the inferior, 
boundary of the supracommisaura. Following the fibres of this 
commissure downwards and forwards, we find that they partly 
enter the thalami, while the greater part pass directly into the 
hemispheres. Their distribution, then, is similar to that of the 
fibres of the tasnia thalami optici^ while the commissural portion 
may be compared with a slender commissure, the commiasura ten- 
uissima, traversing the habenulae in the lamprey's brain. The 
relations to the hemispheres are especially interesting, as they 
indicate, between the posterior parts of these bodies, a commis- 
sural union of considerable extent and importance. 

Infundibular Commiaaures. — The lobes of the infundibulum 
are united dorsally and ventrally by two commissures, the 
uppermost being quite distinct and extensive (fig. 4) and forming 
the thin fold which divides the iter from the infundibular cavity. 

The Hypophysis and Epiphysis. 

The backward extension of the hypophysis^ together with its 
great development, and the unusual size of the infundibular cavity 
and lateral lobes, lend this portion of the brain especial interest. 
I will, however, only remark here upon the clear separation of 
the anterior and posterior lobes of the hypophysis, by the turning 
in of the pia mater over the forward face of the anterior lobe (fig. 
4). The vessels of the pia ramify between the columnar epithe- 
lial cells, which compose the tubes forming this lobe. In vertical 
section the lumen of one of these tubes is occasionally seen. The 
ependyma is much convoluted in the posterior lobe, and these 
foldings may readily be mistaken for tubes. 

Our knowledge of the epiphysis in the Amphibia is in a far from 
satisfactory state. There can be little doubt as to the correctness 

^ Elasmobranch Fishes, plate xv. ' Loc, cit.f p. 285. 



2*70 PBOOEEDIKGS 01* THE AOADESfT 01* [1884. 

of Goette's important observation^ that in the batrachia the 
epiphysis proper loses its primitive connection with the brain, 
and lies external to the skull, while its primitive union with the 
brain is indicated by. the more or less degenerate walls of the 
epiphysial tube. Yet Goette's figures do not give such a clear 
history of these changes, as the importance of the subject demands, 
and so far as we know, there have been no embryological investi- 
gations on this subject among the urodela. 

In the meantime, since the publication of Goette's discovery, 
many general works' by different writers upon comparative 
anatomy have appeared, all of which figure the epiphysis as a 
conspicuous object lying between the cerebral hemispheres. There 
can be little doubt that these, as well as all the earlier writers 
upon the Amphibian brain, such as Wyman, Ecker, Leidig, Kathke 
and Stieda have mistaken the remarkable upgrowth of the vascular 
plexus above the prosoccelia for the epiphysis, and that this body 
in the urodela, as well as in the batrachia, is represented upon the 
brain surface merely- by a portion of its primitive stalk. The 
grounds for this statement, so far as it concerns the urodela, are 
that in Amphiuma^ Menobranchua and Menopoma portions of this 
primitive stalk can be seen in vertical section, in different stages 
of arrest, and retaining to a greater or less extent the primitive 
condition of a glovefinger-like upfolding of the brain roof. 

In the discovery of the supracommissura and the invariable 
position of the recessus pinealis, between this and the post- 
commissura,we find unmistakable anatomical evidence for Goette's 
conclusions, although we are not thereby warranted in assuming 
that the development of the epiphysis is the same in the urodela as 
in the batrachia. All doubt is also removed as to the connection 
between the stalk of the epiphysis and the supraplexus, as the 
latter is clearly distinct from the former, and does not establish 
such close relations with the stalk as in the birds. 

In Menopoma (fig. 4) the ependyma cells upon either side of 
the recessus become much enlarged and elongated ; upon the 
upper surface of the brain they lose this character, becoming 

^ Entwickelungsgeschichte der IJnke, 1875, p. 288. 

' Huxley and Martm's Practical Biology, "Wiedersheim's Lehrbuch der 
vergleichenden Anatomic and Wilder's Anatomical Technology may be 
cited as examples. 



1884.] NATURAL SdENOES OV PHILADSLPHIA. 2*71 

small and spherical, and folding over, form a single-layered much 
flattened sac, the lumen of which retains its connection with the 
diaccelia by a narrow slit. This is the only adult trace of the 
processus pinealis in Menopoma, In Sana (fig. 5) I find the 
same elongation of the ependyma cells, and similar cells forming 
the processus, but in a double row. Here the supracommissura 
is much smaller, and more widely separated from the postcom- 
missura, this interval is bridged by a delicate single row of cells 
which appear to turn up and form the anterior border of the re- 
cessus, although this point is not very clear. There is also some 
doubt whether the lumen of the processus retains its communi- 
cation with the diaccelia. The processus itself is a long, fiattened, 
two-layered sac, circular in section, extending anteriorly so as to 
overlap the supracommissura. The pia mater overlaps the pro- 
cessus upon all sides, indicating that it primitively was directed 
upwards. Extending from above the postcommissura^ forwards 
to the base of the epiphysial stalk, are numerous fibres, which 
appear to enter into relations with the cells of the stalk. In 
Menobranchus and Amphiuma we find a nearer approach to the 
frog than to the Menopoma condition, the processus forming an 
elongated flattened sac, completely constricted off from the brain 
cavity. 

The Flexi choroidei. — There is a singularly simple and beau- 
tiftd display of the relations of the intra-ventricular blood-vessels 
in the brain of Menopoma (fig. 4). The thrusting in of the 
ependyma extends from the supracommissura to the upper por- 
tion of the terma. The arterial supply is apparently derived 
from the median arteria carotis cerebralis, and the venous return 
is at the sides of the supraplexus. The division into supra-, dia- 
and proplexus is a somewhat artificial one here, but is not so 
when applied to the Amphiuma brain, where the supraplexus 
is very prominent, and the diaplexus extends well back into 
the Mesencephalon. The lateral wings of the diaplexus are shown 
passing through the porta in fig. 9. The nature of the ependyma 
cell-lining of these vessels is very constant ; small and large, the 
cells have the same elongated, bead-like appearance. 

2%e Encephalic Segments. — Stieda,^ following general usage, 
considers that portion of the median brain-fioor lying behind the 

Loc. eit. 



1 



272 PROOBEDINOS 01 THE AOADSBCT 01 [1884. 

chiasma as the lamina cinerea ; that lying in front, as the lamina 
terminalis. This construction cannot be applied here with 
accuracy, owing to the unusual position of the praecommissuraj 
in the brain-floor, instead of in the anterior median walL Yet 
for comparative purposes it is best to retain this interpretation. 
It gives us an unusually eictended prosocoelia, or ventriculus 
communis loborum, which we find is a distinctive feature also of 
the Amphiuma and Menobranchus brain. The supracommissura 
may be considered as the upper posterior boundary of the proso- 
coelia, separating it arbitrarily from the diaccBlia, as the post* 
(xmimiasura does the dia- from the mesoccelia. At all events, the 
supraplexus clearly belongs to this cavity rather than to the 
diaccelia. 

The general subject must be discontinued here, to be resumed 
in connection with the brain of the Menobranchus, in a subse- 
quent paper. 

MOBFHOLOGICAIi LaBOBATOBT, PbINCETON, Oct. iO, I884, 

EXPLANATION OP PLATE VL 

Illustbatino thb Brains of Menofoma and Rana. 

IhicepJiaUe segfMnU Eh, — ^Rhinencephalon ; /¥. — Prosenoephalon ; 2ML— 
Dienoephalon ; Me, — ^Mesenoephalon ; JBp. — ^Epenoephaloa ; iftt— 
MeteBcephalon. 

Chnerdl JJbbrmaHom. 

a, — ^ProsoccBlia, cavity of the primitive prosencephalon, 

a. hph. — ^Anterior lobe of hyiwphysis. 

a e c— Branch ofArteria carotu eerebralis. 

ebl. — Cerebellum. 

eh, — Optic chiasma. 

en, ee, — Canalis centralis. 

de, — ^Diacoelia, third ventricle. 

dpx, — ^Diaplexos, choroid plexus of the third ventricle. 

end, — ^Ependyma. 

h, — HabenulsB. 

hem. and hem*, — Section and external surface of right hemisphere. 

^A.— Hypophysis. 

i, em. — ^Inferior commissure of infundibulum. 

{.-7-Longitadinal fibre courses, cut transversely. 

fiM(2.— Medulla oblongata. 

mee. — ^Mesocoelia, iter. . 

mtc, — ^Metacoelia, fourth ventricle, 

mtp», — ^Metaplexus, tela vaeeulaea of the fourth ventricle. 

my. — ^Myelon, spinal cord. 



1884.] NATURAL SOCXNOBS 01 PHILADELPHIA. 273 

op*.— Optic lobe. 

j».— Porta, Foramen of Monro. 

pe9* — Postcommissura, posterior commissure. 

p, hph, — Posterior lobe of hypophysis. 

!»'.— Pia, pia mater. 

ppd, — ^Post-pedunculus, posterior peduncle of cerebellum. 

pp» — Pars peduncularis of Mesencephalon. 

pre. — ^Procodlia, lateral yentride. 

pr, M. andpr. m'. — PrBBGommissara, anterior commissure, lower and upper 

divisions. 
pr, €ph, — ^Processus pinealis, the epiphysial stalk. 
pr, pxi — ^Proplexus, the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricle. 
pT. pd. — Pi'SBpedunculus, anterior peduncle of cerebellum, 
r. eph. — Recessus infra-pinealis, the opening of the epiphysial cavity into 

the diacoBlia. 
rhdn, — Section of olfactory lobe. 
r»<.— Restiform tract. 

fM. — Supracommissura, commissure of the habenuks. 
8€fn. — Superior commissure of the infondibulum. 
ipx, — Supraplezus (formerly considered the epiphysis), the upper portion 

of the vascular plexus of the prosocoelia. 
ipd. — Supra-pedunculus, fibres passing from the cerebellum into the optio 

lobe. 
U — ^Terma, lamina terminalis. 

FiouBES 1, 2, 8. Dorsal, ventral and lateral aspects of the brain of Mmo^ 
poma Alleghensef enlarged five diameters. The whitish band stretching 
across the infundibulum, in front of the hypophysis, probably consists of 
the inferior infundibular commissure. In the dorsal aspect of the fresh 
brain, the position of the epiphysial process, is marked by an oval 
transparent area, in front and behind which, the supra- and post- 
commissursB shine through. This area is imdoubtedly contracted by 
reagents. The natural backward direction of the cerebellum is also 
altered, so that it hangs beneath the optic lobe. 

FiGUBB 4. Longitudinal vertical section of the brain of Menopoma, in 
a median plane as far forwards as the terma, and in front of this through 
the centre of the right hemisphere ; enlarged sixteen diameters. The 
dotted ellii>se indicates the position of the porta, or foramen of Munro. 

FiGimE 5. The diatela, or roof of the third ventricle of the brain of Eana 
Afugiena, This figure represents the long tubular epiphysial process, 
composed of two or three rows of cells, mostly enveloped by the pia 
and extending forwards above the supracommissura. The inner layer 
cells send short processes into the persistent cavity of the epiphysis, 
and the cavity is filled by a highly transparent meshwork, which may 
simply consist of coagulated fluid. The opening into the diacoBlia, 
r. eph., is doubtful. The lines (ft.), indicate a number of nerve 
fibres, which apparently extend to the base of the epiphysial process. 



2*74 PBOOEEDINOS 01* THE AOADSMT 01* [1884. 

FiGUBES 6-0 are of Menopoma. 

FiGUBE 6. A composite of three transverse sections through the cerebellum 
and medulla. 

FiGUBE 7. Diagrammatic representation of the nerve fibre courses spnng- 
ing tram the cerebellum. 

FiGUBE 8. A composite of six sections through the diencephalon, showing 
the course of the fibres of the supracommissura, and probable origin 
of the optic tracts, a-a', supposed course of fibres passing from 
upper parts of thalamus to optic nerve of opposite side, b-b', course 
of fibres from lower parts of thalamus to optic nerve of same side. 

Figure 0. An oblique section through the region of the prsBcommissnra, 
showing the distributions of the fibres of this commissure, also the 
supraplezus, the proplezus, and porta. The right side is cut anterior 
to the left. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OV PHILADELPHIA. 215 



OH THE CUSPIDIFOBM PETBOOLYPHS, OB SO-CALLED BIBD-TBACX 

BOCX-SCULPTUBES, OF OHIO. 

BY DR. D. G. BRINTON. 

In the study of American rock-sculptures, the attention 
of archaeologists has several times been di^wn to a peculiar 
character which appears frequently on the inscribed rocks of 
central and northern Ohio, and rarely, or not at all, outside of 
this region. 

It has been called a bird-track or specifically, a turkey-track, 
and has been supposed to be a conventional representation of the 
impression of the foot of this or some other bird. A recent study 
of one of the best examples of it, near Newark, Ohio, has led me 
to a different opinion as to its significance, and I take the occa- 
sion to explain this, and also to offer some suggestions as to the 
distribution and purport of this design. 

In Ohio, rocks bearing this figure are found near Bames- 
ville, Belmont Co. ; near Amherst, Lorain Co. ; at Independence, 
Cuyahoga Co. ; in Licking Co., and elsewhere. It does not occur 
in the rather numerous inscriptions upon the Ohio River, nor in 
those south of that stream. Nor has it been reported in the 
various petroglyphs existing in the Susquehanna Valley and in 
New England. In fact, it seems confined pretty closely to that 
area which was occupied by that people whom we call, for want 
of a better name, the mound-builders. This adds interest to the 
investigation of the character and its meaning. 

That it possessed some definite signification would seem to 
be demonstrated by the frequency of its recurrence and the regu- 
larity shown in its tracings ; this indicating that it was a familiar 
figure, and that constant repetition had conferred on the designer 
a certain technical skill in forming it. This would not be the 
case were it merely the product of an idle hand, and of no 
import. 

As I have said, this peculiar figure does not occur in other 
American rock-inscriptions. It is, indeed, very rare in any other 
locality. Dr. Richard Andree, in his " Ethnographische ParaU 
lelen*^ (Stuttgart, 1818), gives drawings of fifty-nine rock inscrip- 
tions from various parts of the world, but on examining them I 
find only one which presents any analogy to that under considera- 



2*76 PBOOEEDINQS 01 THE AOADEMT Of [1884. 

tion ; that one is from Somal Land, in Africa, ten degrees north 
of the equator. 

There are, however, some very ancient Chinese inscriptions, 
dating from about the fourth century before our era, which show 
a similar device. For this reason, Dr. J. F. Salisbury, of Ohio, 
has maintained that some connection existed between the moand- 
builders and the ancient Chinese. 

My own opinion, based on a close inspection of the inscribed 
rock in Licking Co., Ohio, is that the so-called bird-tracks were 
never intended to represent the footprints of any species of birds, 
but are conventional signs for arrows or arrovo^ads. My reasons 
are the following : 

In no case are there representations of toQS or claws. The 
centre line is frequently prolonged, passing beyond the junction 
of the lateral lines, thus giving to the figure a cruciform appear 
ance. More often it is prolonged in the other direction — some- 
times to three or four times the length of the lateral lines- 
presenting an unmistakable picture of a barbed arrow-head on a 
shaft. 

The lateral lines are usually three or four inches in length, 
while the median line is always longer. The incisions are clean 
and clear, the edges sharp and singularly firm, betraying a 
practiced hand and a powerful instrument. 

On the supposition that these are intended for arrow-points, I 
propose for them the name of" cuspidiform petroglyphs." This 
is descriptive of their actual appearance, and also indicates what 
they were doubtless designed to represent. 

Granting this, we do not have to go far to ascertain the idea 
which this sign was intended to convey. There can be little doubt 
but that the arrow signifies a warrior, or some related military 
conception. 

This, in turn, throws light on other points in the archaeology of 
the Ohio region. The inscribed rock at Newark is within about 
eight miles of a very remarkable series of works between the 
north fork of Licking Biver and Raccoon Creek. One of these 
works is a mighty circular embankment, enclosing an area of 
thirty acres, now used as the fair grounds of Licking Co. In the 
midst of this area, headed toward the only entrance, is an effigy 
mound, of large size, commonly supposed to represent an eagle. 
At present, however, the alleged eagle has no head, and I could 



1884.] NATURAL BOUNCES 01* PHILADILPHIA. 277 

not see signs that it ever had had one. The figure is, indeed, 
nothing else than one of these cuspidiform symbols on a gigantic 
scale. It measures along the central elevation 210 feet, while the 
lateral lines, called the '^ wings," branch off about 100 feet from 
the fimits of the central ridge. The point of the arrow is directed 
precisely to the single gateway or opening of the enclosure. 

The inference which the presence of this gigantic delineation ot 
an arrow-head seems to justify, is that thils enclosure was once 
dedicated to militar}^ ceremonies of some kind. 

The inscribed rock on which my observations were made, is 
located about six miles f^om Newark, close to the bank of the 
Licking River. It is a moderately hard sandstone, much eroded 
where fully exposed to the weather. The bluff is about thirty 
feet high, and the summit overhangs the base to such an extent 
that it furnishes a natural shelter. Many of the inscriptions have 
thus been preserved with great freshness of outline. 

This rock shelter was also extensively used by generations 
of primitive hunters. Excavations which I made, turned up 
numerous examples of their work in pottery and stone, and the 
fragments of the bones of animals used in their repasts. 

The only previous examination of this inscription, for archae- 
ological purposes, which I have heard of, is one by Dr. Salisbury, 
in 1859, the notes of which are in MS., in the library of the 
American Antiquarian Society. A brief memorandum by him, 
on the subject, was also published in the Report of the Ohio 
centennial managers in 1876. 



278 PBOOEEDINGB OF TUB AOADEMY OF [1884. 



November 4. 
The President, Dr, Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-one persons present. 

A paper entitled " On the Behavior of Petrolatum in the Di- 
gestive Tract," by N. A. Randolph, M. D., was presented for 
publication. 

Impression of the Figures on a ^^ Meday Stick.^^ — Dr. D. G. 
Bbinton exhibited a full-sized impression of the figures on a 
'^ Meday Stick," obtained from the Pottawattomies, by the emi- 
nent antiquary, Dr. E. H. Davis. 

These sticks are used as mnemonic aids in repeating the chants 
in the " Great Medicine Lodge," the principal religious rite of 
the Algonkins. The present stick is 19 inches long, 2| inches 
wide, and of hard wood. The figures engraved upon it are over 
500 in number, chiefly representing plants. These figures are 
engraved with a knife, but the native name of such sticks points 
to a more primitive method. It is massinahican, literally ''a 
piece of wood marked with fire." The characters inscribed are 
called kekivrin, which means marks or signs, and from which root 
are derived the words " to know," " to learn," and " to teach," in 
many Algonkin dialects. 

The characters are of two kinds, notches, and drawings of objects. 
The notches are believed to indicate the musical time or rhythm 
of the chant, while the drawings suggest its words. The text of 
several such songs has been printed. They are usually to obtain 
success in the chase or restoration to health. The latter appears 
to be the nature of the present song, judging from the numerous 
plants depicted. 

This Meday stick illustrates an instructive fact constantly lost 
sight of by antiquaries. The so-called picture-writing of the 
Algonkin Indians never presented pictures. There is no group 
ing, shading or pictorial arrangement of the figures. There is 
no attempt at esthetic effect. The single figures are not con- 
nected so as to evoke any artistic sentiment. The intention was 
wholly apart from this, and where such appears, it is not true 
Algonkin art. 



November 11. 

Mr. John H. Redfield in the chair. 

Thirty-two persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 



1884] NATURAL BOHNOES of PHILADELPHIA. 279 

" Descriptions of New Species of North American Heterocera," 
hf Herman Strecker. 

'' Some Notes on the Movements of the Androecium in Sun- 
flowers," by Dr. Asa Gray. 

" Observations on Cinna, with Description of a New Species," 
by F. Lamson Scribner. 

Mred Stones and Prehistoric Implements, — Dr. D. Q. Bbinton 
exhibited. specimens of quartzite, sandstone and jasper, which had 
been subjected to the action of fire, and spoke of their bearing on 
certain archaeological questions. 

The most ancient evidence of a knowledge of fire is not the 
charcoal and ashes of primeval hearths, but stones showing the 
action of the element. In France they have been found in con- 
siderable numbers in the tertiary deposits of Thenay, near Pont- 
levoy, belonging to the late miocene or early pliocene. In South 
America, the brothers Jos^ and Fiorentino Ameghino have dis- 
covered them in a low stratum of the Pampas formation, believed 
to be referable to the interglacial epoch of the pleistocene. 

The effects of fire on stones are quite distinct from those of 
other agents. They are shown in discoloration, scaling, and 
peculiar forms of fracture. Quartz becomes cloudy and opaque ; 
jasper loses its fresh yellow hue to turn a dull red, while sand- 
stone forfeits the fresh lustre of its fracture, and shows brown 
and blackish. 

Stones broken by fire present one of two characteristic ap- 
pearances ; the one is called by French archaeologists Craquel- 
lage, the other JEtonnement, Quartzite illustrates the former, 
jasper the latter. Craquellage presents a plane usually at about 
right-angles to the plane of cleavage ; its surface rough, friable, 
and full of little pits and rounded eminences — like a face pitted 
with small-pox, to borrow the simile of Mortillet. JEtonnement 
is a splitting by flakes in the lines of percussion cleavage, but 
distinguishable from the latter by the absence of the bulb of per- 
cussion, and the splintering which often attends a blow. The 
flake and its matrix are perfectly clean at all points of their 
edges. 

Scaling is seen on the surface of sandstones subjected to fire. 
Small scales are loosened and are detached by exposure, revealing 
the discolored layers beneath. 

It is claimed by some of the French archaeologists that the 
very oldest implements used by man were stones thus fractured 
by fire. This plan of bringing them to an edge, they say, pre- 
ceded that of percussion. This does not appear to be the case in 
America. The implements of the Trenton gravels are of sand- 
stone chiefly ; those of the interglacial of the upper Mississippi 
are of quartzite, neither of which fractures by Monnemsnt. 
Whether the later residents of our soil ever used fire to aid their 



280 PBOOKKDINGS 01* THE AOADSBCT OV [1884. 

art-production in flint and jasper is uncertain. The speaker had 
seen no specimens that conclusively showed that they' did. 

Cutaneous Absorption of Nicotine, — ^Dr. N. A. Randolph de- 
scribed the results of a series of experiments performed bj Mr. 
Samuel G. Dixon and himself, relative to the absorption of nico- 
tine by the uninjured healthy skin of the living rabbit. In these 
experiments only rabbits of ascertained good health were used. 
The tar of the abdomen was carefully clipped (not shaved); suffi- 
cient time, usually seven days, being allowed to intervene between 
this operation and the application of the drug to the skin ; thus 
permitting any slight scratch made at this time to fully heaL 
The absence of cutaneous lesion was further confirmed by cloee 
examination under a strong hand-magnifier. The drug was then 
applied to the skin, no friction being used. In order to preclude 
the possibility of its vaporization and subsequent absorption by the 
lung surface, the nicotine was placed upon an adhesive plaster, 
the backing of which was made of sheet rubber. The plaster, 
with the drug in its centre, was then applied in the open air, on a 
windy day. Different doses were applied ; thus, in one case, one 
drop of nicotine applied to the skin, caused death in five hoars 
and eleven minutes. In each of three cases a similar application 
of ten drops was fatal in respectively one hundred and nine 
minutes, twenty-eight minutes, and thirty-six minutes. In the 
fifth case, a similar application of fifteen drops of nicotine caused 
death in twenty-eight minutes. 

Of the ante-mortem symptoms, contraction of the pupil was 
constant, and often appeared very quickly. Other prominent 
symptoms were great trembling, with subsequent loss of muscular 
power in the extremities. In one case, actual convulsions were 
noted, and in others, coldness of the skin and increased lachrymal 
and nasal secretion. Immediately upon the death of two of the 
animals (after the ten- and fifteen-drop doses respectively), blood 
was removed, defibrinated, and tested with mercuric chloride for 
the presence of nicotine in the manner detailed by Wormley 
(" Micro-Chemistry of Poisons"). In each of these two instances, 
characteristic groups of crystals were found upon microscopic 
examination of the extract from the blood. 

The following was ordered to be printed :•— 



1 884. J ||DC4TU%Ui g(Ml^|U:iS J^t PHILADELFinA. 281 






^ K.: 



• • » 



ON THE B£HAVK)B OF TETBO^TITM IN THE DIOEBTIVE TBACT. 

BY N. A. RANDOLPH, M. D. 

The mixture of hydrocarbons, recognized by the pharmacist 
under the name of petrolatum, and popularly used under the 
commercial names of cosmoline or vaseline, presents on super- 
ficial inspection few points of difference from some of the organic 
fats of the same consistency. Close examination reveals differ- 
ences, both in physical properties and in chemical constitution, 
between the bodies just compared. One point of difference, which 
I have as yet been unable to find recorded, lies in the respective 
behavior of these two groups, when in contact with the absorbent 
surfaces of the digestive tract. Thus, while the organic fats, as 
ordinarily taken in food, are readily and almost completely ab- 
sorbed, this soft paraffin is entirely rejected, and found unchanged 
in the feces. 

During eight days, I took daily one-half ounce of commercial 
vaseline, in addition to my regular diet. Digestion was in no 
wise altered, and no appreciable results ensued. Later, two 
•healthy adults each received, in the course of forty -eight hours, 
one ounce of vaseline. Their alvine dejections for three days from 
the beginning of this observation were collected and dried, and, 
at the suggestion of Dr. John Marshall, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, extracted with petroleum ether. Making a slight 
allowance for incompleteness in extraction, the vaseline ingested 
was, in each case, recovered in its totality, showing that it had 
passed through the economy unchanged and unabsorbed. 

There are some important medical applications of these facts, 
the discussion of which would be out of place here, and which I 
reserve for further experiment ; but the following deductions ap- 
pear permissible, and are of strictly biological interest. 

I. Pure petrolatum, while entirely unirritating to the digestive 
tract, is valueless as a food-stuff. 

II. The results of the experiments here described lend support 
to the theory that oleaginous matters are dependent, for their 
absorption, not upon mechanical, but upon vital activities, and 
that in such absorption the selective power of the protoplasm of 
the intestinal epithielium is manifested. 

19 



282 pkogeedings of the academy of [1884. 

November 18. 
The President, Dr. Leidy, in the chair. 

Thirty-seven persons present. 

The deaths of Eli K. Price, C. P. Bayard and J. Edwards 
Farnum, members, were announced. 

Urnatella gracilis. — Prof. Leidy remarked that Mr. E. Potts 
had given to him, in October, 1883, a fragment of a tree-branch on 
which were many groups of Urnatella, The fragment, three inches 
by one-third of an inch, was obtained in the fore-bay at Fairmount. 
Around its middle, for about an inch in length, there were thirty 
separate groups of Urnatella^ in nearly all consisting each of two 
stems, of unequal length, and devoid of terminal pol3'ps. The 
stems diverged and curved downward and were quiescent, but 
were evidently living, as they exhibited slight sensitiveness to dis- 
turbance. The specimen was placed in an aquarium, exposed to 
the north light of a window, and in this position, at the moderate 
temperature of usual living-rooms, was kept during the winter. 
In March the stems were observed all to have developed polyps 
at the distal end, in which condition they continue at the present 
time (April). Most stems are terminated by a single polyp, but 
a few exhibit a smaller polyp, supported on a cylindrical joint 
springing from the antepenultimate joint of the stem, including 
the terminal polyp. The stems are quite irritable and bend in 
graceful curves from each other on the slightest disturbance. 
The longer stems even hang their heads in a single spiral turn. 
The longest stems consist of a dozen joints and measure about the 
one-eighth of an inch. The shortest stems exhibit one-third the 
number of joints. The stems appear alternately white and black, 
the former color corresponding with the thicker portion of the 
joints, the latter with the constricted portions. Many of the 
mature joints exhibit traces of the cup-like remains of attach- 
ment of branches, in most cases on one side only. 

These specimens appear to indicate that, as in the other fresh- 
water polyzoa, the polyps die on the approach of winter, but the 
headless stems appear to remain, securely anchored, and ready 
to reproduce the polyps in the spring. If portions of the stems 
are destroyed, the remaining joints are capable of reproducing the 
polyps, commonly from the summit of the terminal joint. 
Branches usually spring from the last one or two joints, newly pro- 
duced from that which immediately supports the tenninal polyp. 
Specimens also show that heads may start laterally from old or 
mature joints. Thus the latter appear to serve as the statoblasts 
of other fresh-water polyzoa, but ordinarily they do not become 
isolated from one another. As no specimens have been seen 
with stems consisting of more than a dozen joints, perhaps after 
reaching this condition, the polyps become detached, to establish 
new groups. 

The following were ordered to be printed ; — 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 283 



DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES OF NORTH AMERICAN HETEROCSRA. 

BY HERMAN STRECKER. 
SmerinthaB astarte. 

S expands 3 inches ; head brown ; thorax above dark brown , 
patagise whitish gray ; abdomen grayish brown above, more ashen 
beneath. 

Primaries dentatcd exteriorly, but not as deeply notched as in 
Cerysii, but more so than Opthalmicus. Pointed apicallj' more 
as in the latter, not so squarely cut off as in Cerysii. Secon- 
daries larger in proportion and more evenly cut on outer edge. 

Upper surface. Ground-color whitish gray, variegated with 
brownish shades and bands as in Gerysii and Opthalmicus, not 
as much broken and zigzag as in the first, neither as clearly 
defined as in the last ; the white discal lune and accompanying 
line, extending half way along the median nervure, are boldly de- 
fined, as in Gerysii. 

Secondaries rosy with white at inner margin, grayish at costa 
and inclined to brownish at exterior margin. An anal ocellus 
black, with a bisected blue ring enclosing large black centre. 
Fringe white. 

Under surface resembles closely that of the two allied species 
alluded to. 

Taken, In several examples, by Mr. David Bruce, near Denver, 
Colorado. 

This remarkable insect, whether a good species or a variety of 
Opthalmicus or Gerysii, it seems impossible to determine ; geo- 
graphically considered one might be led to the conclusion that it 
was a link between the two, and to compare it placed aside of 
examples of either it is an impossibility to decide to which it 
belongs ; the strongest point (and not a very strong one either) 
is the bisected blue ring of the anal ocellus, which would denote 
a closer affinity to Gerysii, Were it a hj-brid, the product of the 
aforementioned two- species it could not be more difficult to draw 
the line of separation, or to say to which species (or form ?) it 
was most closely allied. Future captures in various localities 
may eventually lead to the knowledge that all three, Opthalmi- 
cus, Astarte and Gerysii are but forms of one species : to which 
belief I am most strongly inclined at the present writing. 

Eopantheria osBoa. 

S expands 1§ inches ; head white above, black in front and 



284 PBOC£EDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

beneath ; collar white, with two black lines or marks ; patagiae 
white, with a black band ; thorax above white with a black central 
band from collar to abdomen ; abdomen above whitish near the 
thorax, rest blackish, beneath white, a row of four or five (body 
a little abraded at sides) black spots laterally, and fiveventrally; 
legs black, furred inwardly with white. 

Primaries, upper surface, white with black spots, arranged much 
in the same order and number as in Scribonia, but instead of 
being circular or oval as in that species, they are parallelogrammic, 
square or wedge-shaped , and are not black rings encircling a white 
spot, but are all black blind eyes. 

Secondaries white with some scattered brown marks at outer 
margin, heaviest near apical angle, and a brown discal spot. 

Jfab. — Colorado. 

There is on this species none of the blue sheen so conspicuous 
on Scribonia, but the marks are all black or brownish black, and 
the whole insect calls up the idea very strongly of Arctia Speck- 
bills Tausch., from Russia. 

SpiloBoma niobe. 

Expands 1^ inches ; head white, palpi yellow, terminally black ; 
thorax white ; abdomen above white, with a row of five large 
dorsal spots, sides yellowish, with two rows of black spots; some 
allowance must be made for the description of the abdomen, as it 
was compressed and somewhat rubbed. Legs yellow, tarsi ringed 
with black and white. Antennae wanting on the single example 
whence this description is drawn. 

Upper surface. Primaries white, with all nervures and nervules 
heavily bordered on both sides with brown ; this brown is not 
dark and is much of the color of coffee with a somewhat undue 
amount of milk in it, in some lights it has a slight bronzy ap- 
pearance. 

Secondaries white, the nervules on costal half of wing towards 
apex shaded with same brown as superiors, but not as heavily. 

Under surface nearlv as above. 

One example taken in Florida, some years since, by Mr. A. 
Bolter, from whom I obtained it. 

Harpyia albiooma. 

S 9 size and form of Borealis, Bicuspis, Bifida, etc. Head 
and collar pure white ; thorax above dark gray and white ; abdo- 
men above gray heavily clothed with white hair. Body beneath 
white. 



b 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES 01* PHILADELPHIA. 285 

■ 

Primaries, upper surface white with a dark steel-gray band 
crossing the wing about one-third from base, this band is chevron- 
shaped, narrowest in the middle and widening to double its width 
towards the costal and interior margins ; in some examples di- 
vided entirely in the middle. Interior to this band is a transverse 
row of four dots of same color, and a single dot on costal nervure 
near the shoulder. Between the outer and median space of wing 
are three irregular broken gray lines, the outermost of which on 
the costal half joined by a broad wedge-shaped gray mark. A 
dark discal dot and dark point at termination of nervules. 

Secondaries white, dark discal mark and dark dot at end of 
each nervule. 

Under surface white, with markings of upper side more or less 
faintly reproduced, and the addition of a gray transverse line 
across the middle of secondaries. 

Described from examples taken, in summer of 1883, by Mr. 
David Bruce, in mountains of Colorado. 

This species comes nearest to the European Bicuspis Bkh., in 
the latter the dark band and marks are much heavier and more 
decided, but their arrangement is nearly the same. 

Mr. Bruce took, this last season, also in Colorado, examples of 
Cinerea Wlk., which do not differ from those taken in Pennsyl- 
vania, New Jersey and New York. 

Lophopterjrx eleganB. 

S, Form of Carmelita, which appears to be its nearest ally. 
Expands 2 inches. Head fawn-color ; thorax above slate-gray, 
abdomen fawn, shading into brown towards the thorax, beneath 
whitish. 

Primaries chocolate-brown, darkest towards base and along the 
costa, and shading into ashen along the exterior margin, a streak 
or line of pure silvery white along submedian nervule, starting at 
base and extending one-third the length of the inner margin ; the 
narrow space between this line and inner margin paler brown, 
inclining to ochre. Two short, dark, subapical longitudinal lines ; 
exterior margin with a fine dark line. 

Secondaries white, with dark anal patch cut with a fine white 
line, as in other species. 

Under surface. Primaries hoary gray, with brownish on costa 
and broad indistinct submarginal shade of same color parallel 



266 PB0GEEDING8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

with the exterior margin. Secondaries white, edged with brown 
on costa, and on exterior margin near and at anal angle. 

From one S received from Mr. Fish, taken in the vicinity of 
Oldtown, in the State of Maine. 

In the old collection of Trexler, which came into my possession 
about twenty 3'ears since, was an example, in poor condition, which 
I consider identical with the above ; recently I have received 
several examples, males, from Mr. David Bruce, who took them 
in Colorado. These I can consider nothing more than a variety 
of the above ; the only difference being in the color of head and 
primaries, which in Trexler's and these Colorado examples is of 
a slate-gray, and not brownish as in the Maine examples ; to pre- 
vent, however, the misfortune of this variety being described as 
a new species, I would designate it as L. Elegans var. Grisea. 

LaBiooampa gargamelle. 

3 9 in form and general resemblance allied to L, Pini. 

S expands about 2^ inches. Head and thorax brown, inter- 
mixed with gray ; abdomen brown. 

Primaries obscure grayish, caused by an admixture of white 
and brown hair and scales ; the basal third darker and more 
brownish; there is a tolerably broad outer margin wherein the 
brownish shade also prevails, this is separated from the paler, 
more ashen median space by an irregular zigzag brown line ; there 
are also faint indications of two lines crossing the wing, one 
subbasal and grayish, the other half-way between the discal spot 
and the brown zigzag line, and scarcely perceptible ; discal spot 
small, round and pure white. 

Secondaries brown, with a paler, somewhat ochraceous mesial 
band, fringe white. 

Under surface. All wings brown, with a common, rather broad 
pale, ochraceous median band. 

? expands 3^-3^ inches. Color has more of the brownish pre- 
vailing. Character of the markings as in male, but less strongly 
defined ; the median band of secondaries above, and all bands 
beneath, narrower than in the other sex. 

Hab. — Arizona. 

By American authors this insect would be placed in Packard's 
genus Gloveria, the type of which was Oloveria Arizonensis ; there 
is, however, nothing by which it can be separated from Lasio- 
campo Latr. (Gastropacha O.). 



1884»] NATURAL SCIENCES OP PHILADELPHIA. 281 



K0TE8 OH THE MOVEinSHTS OF THE AHDB(ECIXrM IN SUKFLOWESS. 

BY DR. ASA GRAY. 

My attention was called to this subject by some observations 
made by Professor Meehan, the substance of which is now printed 
in the " Proceedings of the Academ}'^ of Natural Sciences," pp. 200, 
201, under date of July 15 of this year. My own study of the 
subject was necessarily desultory and interrupted, and mainly too 
late in the season for the most satisfactory investigation. My 
object in sending this communication to the Academy, at this 
time, is, in the first place, to thank Mr. Meehan for calling atten- 
tion to a very obvious fact, which I had entirely overlooked, and 
which those botanists (such as the late Hermann Miiller), who 
have particularly attended to the adaptations for fertilization in 
CompositaB, were seeminglj' not aware of. The fact referred to, is 
the retraction of the anther-tube in Helianthus (and so, presum- 
ably, in its near allies), somewhat in the manner of Centaur ea and 
the Thistle tribe .generally. In the second place, I wish to main- 
tain that this retraction in the sunflower is the result of automatic 
or irritable shortening of the filaments, and not of the "elasticity 
of the filaments." In other words, that those organs act in Sun- 
flowers as they have for a long time been known to do in the 
Thistle tribe, but with some diflference. If I rightly understand 
Professor Meehan 's account, he supposes that the anther-tube is 
carried up to its full height by the elongation of the style within, 
its stigmaticapex pushing against the conniving anther-appendages 
which close the orifice of the tube, and so stretching the filaments ; 
and that the elastic shoilening of the filaments pulls down the 
anther-tube when the style has overcome this obstacle and pro- 
truded. If this were so, the stamen-tube should be drawn down 
at once upon overcoming the resistance. It is easy to test 
this, by snipping off" the anther-tips by sharp scissors. But when 
I did this, no retraction followed. Moreover, on splitting down 
anther-tubes at various stages of their growth, I found that only 
at the last, and after the anther-tube had attained its full height, 
was the tip of the style in contact with the anther-tips. Prof. 
Meehan 's idea that '' the extension of the staminal tube is evi- 
dently mechanical, and is due solely to the upward growth of the 
stigma, which, partly it seems by the incurved points of the 
stamens, and partly perhaps by the expansion of the arms of the 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

pistil, is able to carry up the tube with it," so that when the 
resistance is removed, " the elastic stamens [filaments] draw the 
tube down again," must therefore be given up. The expansion 
of the arms of the style is not concerned in the process, for this 
does not commence until after complete protrusion. 

As the filaments in the Thistle tribe are sensitive to the touch, 
in some Centaureas strikingly so ; as these are not stretched in 
Gentaurea, but are usually bowed outwardly, and as they contract 
upon the touch of a bristle or of a visiting insect, the first ques- 
tion is whether the same may be the case, in some degree, in Sun- 
flowers. My essays to determine this were made too late in the 
season to be decisive. But in some flowers, on touching two 
adjacent filaments with a bristle thrust into one side of the corolla, 
the column moved promptly toward that side, moving through 
fifteen or twenty minutes of arc, very much as it will in a Cen- 
taurea. I did not succeed in causing the five filaments to act 
together, so as to produce any observable retraction. That this 
retraction normally takes place without extraneous irritation, is 
certain, commencing and commonly being comi^leted on the 
second day after full anthesis ; and equally in flowers shielded 
from the visits of insects. 

In Sunflower-heads taken into a room and kept from bees, the 
pollen, pushed out of the tube through the chinks between the 
anther-tips, or later borne on the brush of the (as y^et) unopened 
style-branches, is borne aloft, exposed to the bumblebees which 
in the garden freely visit them. Prof. Meehan states that 
*' honey-gatherers seldom resort to them," but I find that in our 
grounds these were much the most frequent visitors. These were 
passing from head to head and from })lant to plant, inserting 
their proboscis into the corolla-tubes in succession, beginning at 
the circumference with the older flowers having expanded and 
receptive stigmas, and i)roceeding to the pollen-loaded ones 
within. It is easy to see that pollen is abundantly transported 
from one head and one plant to another, and that it is carried 
from flowers which could not possibly be self-fertilized until the 
next day, and unlikely to be so then, to those the expanded 
stigmas of which are only then receptive. Prof. Meehan " may 
say emphatically that these arrangements favor self-fertilization," 
but that is not the conclusion which I should draw from his own 
illustrations any more than from my own. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 289 



0B8EBYATI0H8 ON THE OSHXTS CIMHA, WITH DBSCBIPTIOH OF A 

irSW 8PECIE8. 

BY P. LAMSON SCRIBNER. 

Two species of Oinna,^ common to the northern regions of 
both the old and the new world, have long been recognized. They 
are G. arundinacea L. and (7. pendula Trin. The latter, the 
more common of the two, has been reduced to a variety of the 
first-named, by some authors; but, aside from a marked diversity 
in habit, there are important differences in the characters of the 
spikelets quite sufficient to warrant a specific distinction. In 
G. arundinacea the spikelets are larger, firmer in texture, more 
strongly scabrous, more prominently nerved and there is a 
decided inequality in the outer or empty glumes, while in (7. 
pendula these glumes are equal or nearly so. In both the floret 
is stipitate, or raised on a short stalk above the insertion of the 
empty glumes ; in other words, there is a slight elongation of the 
axis of the spikelet between the two empty glumes and the flower- 
ing glume. Mr. Bentham, in his " Notes on Gramineae," states 
that in (7. arundinacea there is frequently a continuation of the 
rhachilla in the form of a short naked pedicel behind the palea : 
a character, he adds, that, he has never seen in (7. pendula. In 
my own studies, I have found this prolongation of the rhachilla, 
a common, not constant, character in both species. I have 
observed it in the spikelets of C. pendula from Maine and from 
Oregon ; in fact, my own observations would lead me to say that 
it appears more frequently in that species than in C. arun- 
dinacea. 

In regard to the variations in these two species something ma^' 
be said. C. arundinacea exhibits considerable diversity in the 
size and diflTuseness of its panicle and the spikelets, which range 
from a little over two to nearly three lines in length, vary in 
color from pale green to dark purple, but those characters men- 
tioned above as distinguishing this species from C. pendula^ 
remain constant. There is greater variation of the panicle in 
C. pendula^ and also in the size of the spikelets ; these, however, 
never reach two lines in length, and, although the empty glomes 

^ Cinna maeraura Kth. and other grasses that have been placed in this 
genus, are now referred to Epicampes or Deyeuxia. 



290 PBOGEEDINaS OF THE ▲GABEMT OF [1884. 

differ considerably as to width, acuteness and in the presence or 
absence of the lateral nerves in the second one, they are always 
very nearly equal in length. In the here-proposed new variety — 
var. glomerular from Washington Terr., Frank Tweedy, collector 
— the equal, one-nerved empty glumes are very narrow, acuminate- 
pointed and scarcely more than a line in length. The spike- 
lets in this variety are arranged in dense clusters or glomerules 
along the extremities of the branches of the very diffuse panicle. 
A species of Cinna — No. 6090 Bolander, N. 22 of the small 
collection — came into my hands for examination several years 
ago, and my note at that time was that it was distinct from Cinna 
arundivacea^ var. pendula, of Gray's Manual, under which name 
it was distributed. The past season my attention was again 
called to this grass by seeing some notes upon it in Dr. Gray's 
Herbarium at Cambridge, made, if I remember rightly, by Mr. 
Bentham, suggesting the probability of its being a new species. 
After careful comparisons with Cinna arundinacea and C, pen- 
dula^ I am convinced that this suggestion is correct, and propose 
that the species be named Cinna Bolanderi, recognizing the fact 
that Mr. Bolander, so far as I know, has alone collected it. 

Cinna Bolanderi. 

Spikelets two and a half lines long, empty glumes broadly 
lanceolate, the upper one three-nerved, subequal, as long as the 
floret, which is scarcely, if at all, stipitate ; culm stout, seven feet 
high (in Bolander's specimen), smooth ; sheathes strongly striate, 
the lower smooth, the upper ones scabrous. Leaves firm in 
texture, prominently striate and scabrous on both sides, those of 
the middle portion of the culm one to two feet long, and three- 
quarters of an inch wide, all gradually tapering to a sharp point. 
Panicle eighteen inches long, loose and widely spreading. 

From the characters above cited, the following synopsis may 
be made of the species in the genus : 

Empty glumes unequal. 

Spikelets 2;^ to 3 lines long. C, arundinacea L. 1. 

Empty glumes equal or nearly so. 

Spikelet less than 2 lines long, floret stipitate. 

C. pendula Trin. 2. 

Spikelet more than 2 lines long, floret apparently sessile. 

C. Bolanderi Scribn. 3. 



1884.] NATURAL SGIENGE8 OF PHUiADSLPHIA. 291 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE VII. 

Fig. 1.— Spikelet of Cinna pendula Tiin, 

Fig. 2.— Same with empty glomes removed, and the elongated rhachilla 

behind the palea brought forward into view. 
Fig. 3. — Spikelet of C. pendula, var. glomenUa. 
Fig. 4.— Spikelet of C. Bolanderi Scrlbn. 
Fig. 5. —Same with empty glumes removed. 
Fig. 6. — Spikelet of G. arundinacea L. 
Fig. 7. — ^A larger spikelet of same. 
Fig. 8. —A spikelet of C, nrundinaeea with empty glumes spread out, and 

the continuation of the rhachilhi behind the palea brought into 

view. 
Fig. 9. — Spikelet of C. arundinacea, empty glumes removed ; a, the stipe. 



292 PROGEfiDINGS OF TUB ACADEMY OF [1884. 

November 25. 
Rev. H. C. McCooK, D. D., Vice-President, in the chair. 
Forty-one persons present. 

Embryology of Fulgur^ etc. — Mr. John Ford reported the 
finding of capsules of Fulgur carica, containing living embryos, 
near South Atlantic City, on November 16, 1884. 

As he had already secured live specimens in December, 1883, 
and in each of the six months following, this would prove the 
deposition of capsules by the species mentioned during the largest 
part of the year, instead of in the spring months only, as was 
formerly supposed. Living embryos of F, canaliculata were also 
obtained monthly, during the same period. 

About one-half of the original amount of albumen in those 
found on the 16th, had been utilized by the young mollusks; a 
somewhat reasonable indication that they were near the middle 
stage of embryotic growth. 

In further support of this probabilit}^ it was noticed that the 
delicate cilia which characterize the animal in its earlier stages, 
were much shortened, and the shells less transparent. 

On the other hand, the thin circular membranes upon the edges 
of the capsules, through which the matured embryos finally 
escape, were still unbroken, and in much the same condition as 
when first exposed ; thus proving that the young mollusks were 
as yet unprepared for a new stage of existence. 

Several other strings of capsules, including some of F. canalicu- 
lata^ were secured on the same occasion, but exposure to the sun 
for a day or two, had killed the embryos. 

At the same locality were discovered two species of living 
Pholades, P, crispata Linn, and P. truncata Say, also a fine 
colony of living Littorina irrorata Say ; all of these species 
being new, it is believed, to that part of the coast. 

It is probable that the billet of wood in which the Pholades 
were found, had drifted from some distant locality, as there do 
not appear to be any conditions favorable to their existence 
between Brigantine Inlet and Great Egg Harbor Bay. 

In regard to the habitat of the Littorina there could be no 
doubt whatever, as they were present in large numbers, and in a 
flourishing condition, although dwelling literally upon the sand, 
instead of on broken rock or pieces of timber, where the species 
is usually found. It is southern in distribution, rarely occurring 
north of the mouth of Chesapeake Bay. 

An Unfamiliar Bhizopod. — Mr. Edw. Potts remarked that he 
had observed; upon a scale of mica schist about one square inch 
in surface, clipped from a stone picked up near the eastern margin 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 293 

of the Schuylkill River above the Spring Garden Water Works, 
Philadelphia, a dozen or more rhizopods of varying sizes, appar- 
ently quite motionless, and, by direct illumination, resembling 
the familiar forms of Actinophrys or Actinoaphfjerium. 

When removed to a compressor! um and examined by trans- 
mitted light, however, entirely different characteristics were 
discovered. An outer surface or test was composed of infinite 
numbers of minute, smooth, curved spicules, gathered somewhat 
irregularly into radial, acuminate, conical groups, giving to the 
mass very nearly the appearance of the seed-balls of the sweet- 
gum tree, Liquidamber styi^acijiua. Within the cavity of this 
spicular envelope, was seen a spherical protoplasmic body, 
perhaps one-third of the diameter of the outer test, composed of 
a multitude of granuliferous cells and a single non-central nucleus. 
From this " body," many pseudopodal filaments were thrown out 
through the interstices amongst the spicules, in direct radial 
lines, to a distance exceeding the height of the spicular cones. 
They were not constant, however, and at intervals none could be 
discovered. To test the character of the spiculse, one individual 
was treated with strong nitric acid and afterwards mounted in 
balsam. The protoplasmic body was of course destroyed, but 
the spicules remained, showing them to be, in all probability, 
composed of siliceous material. 

The speaker was at first inclined to class this rhizopod with 
the genus Acanthocystis, but further examination convinced him 
that it was more probably allied to Baphidiophrys^ and a still 
further examination of F. E. Schultze's papers on the Rhizopodae 
warrants its complete identification with his Baphidiophrys 
pallida. In his recent monograph upon this subject. Professor 
Leidy has referred to this species his sketch of a single individual 
likewise collected, some years ago, in the Schu3'lkill River. These 
appear to be the only instances in which it has been identified on 
this continent. Its habit of lying close against a supporting 
surface, seldom or never freely swimming, easily distinguishes it 
from other familiar Heliozoans. 

Note on the Intelligence of a Cricket parasitised by a Gordius, 
— Dr. Henry C. McCook said that some remarks upon the habits 
of the cricket published by him, had called forth an interesting 
communication from Mrs. C. W. Conger, of Groton, New York, 
the substance of which is as follows : — 

" Some twenty-four years ago, my husband and myself took 
possession of a large old frame house on a farm which was a 
homestead for the largest, blackest, and most musical of the 
cricket kind. Early in the fall, I began to be annoyed by finding 
one or more hair snakes in the water-pail. Though I knew that 
there positively was nothing of the kind in the pail when it came 
in, yet a few minutes or an hour generally provided us with a 
more or less lively specimen. I had a horror of them-, because 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

of the dread lest the children should imbibe one with their 
frequent nips of the water, so I sat down, one warm afternoon, to 
watch the pail, to try to learn how the snakes came. In about 
ten minutes I saw a particularly plethoric cricket mount upon 
the edge of the pail, and, after some uneasy movements, bring 
the tip of the abdomen just beneath the water, and, with a few 
violent throes, expel a black mass, which fell slowly through the 
water, and before it reached the bottom resolved itself into one 
of the worms. The cricket seemed exhausted bv the horrid 
birth, and did not find strength to draw itself up on the edge of 
the pail for about eight minutes, and when it finally did so, it 
tumbled to the floor and crawled off in a very rheumatic manner. 
After this discovery, we used to amuse leisure hours by watching 
like operations until frost killed the crickets. I sometimes would 
crush large crickets, generally with the result that a tightly- 
coiled snake would be thrust out of a rupture just above the tip 
of the abdomen; but, whether the snake was not sufiSciently 
developed, or because of its needing water rather than air to 
vitalize it, none of the snakes so produced showed any signs of 
life." 

The water snake alluded to is, of course, a species of our 
common Gordius, the same probably as that described, a number 
of years ago, by our distinguished President, Prof. Jos. Leidy. 
The fact that this animal is parasitic within the grasshopper, the 
speaker had himself observed ; it has been said also to be para- 
sitic within spiders, and doubtless has for its host many of the 
orthopterous genera. The point of greatest interest in the letter, 
Dr. McCook thought, is the fact that the crickets had evidently 
learned that the parasite infesting them required the water in 
order to make its egress, and had deliberately sought the suitable 
place and assumed the proper position (by inserting the abdomen 
beneath the surface of the water), necessary to insure that egress. 
It is a curious physiological question : how did the cricket obtain 
this knowledge? And, the knowledge having been obtained, the 
cricket's subsequent behavior presents an interesting fact in the 
study of insect intelligence. 

A New Parasitic Insect upon Spider Eggs. — Dr. McCook 
further stated that he had received, through Mr. F. M. Webster 
(October, 1884), from Oxford, Indiana, a parasitised spider 
cocoon (evidently of some saltigrade species), apparently that of 
Attus audax. The cocoon contained within the outer flossy case 
about eighty cells and a number of mature black hymenopterous 
insects, about one-eighth of an inch long. The cells were ovoid, 
gray, blackish at the closed end, probably from excretions of the 
enclosed larvae. One end was cut open, showing where the insect 
had escaped. With the exception of a few hard, dried, yellowish 
brown examples, all the eggs of the spider had disappeared. 
The specimens were sent to Mr. L. O. Howard, of the Bureau of 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 295 

Entomology, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C, who 
judged them, after a cursory examination, to be Proctotrupids, 
belonging to the sub-family Sceliominse, and seeming to form an 
entirely new genus. Thus appears to be added one more to the 
parasitic enemies of our spider fauna. 

Rufus Sargent and W. Henry Grant were elected members. 

The following were elected correspondents : — John Ball, of 
London ; William Carruthers, of London ; Rud. Leuckart, of 
Leipzig ; Anton Dohrn, of Naples ; A. Grenacher, of Halle i. S. ; 
Alex. Gotte, of Rostock i. M. ; and Ludwig Will, of Rostock i. M. 



December 2. 
The President, Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 
Thirty persons present. 



December 9. 
Mr. J. H. Redfield in the chair. 
Thirty-one persons present. 

On Derivation in Pinus edulis and Finns monophylla. — At 
the meeting of the Botanical Section, on December 8, Mr. Thomas 
Meehan called attention to some dried specimens of Finns mono- 
phylla on the table, which were received in a fresh condition, a 
few months ago, from Mrs. Lewers, of Franktown, Nevada. At 
that time the phyllodes which took the place of the real leaves, were 
all monophyllous. In drying, several had opened in some speci- 
mens, and others readily separated by a little aid, showing that the 
species might have been two-leaved, but for some inability in the 
early stages of development to separate them. This monophyl- 
lous species was closely allied to Pinus edulis, which was confined 
to the Rocky Mountains ; the monophyllous species being the 
form that prevailed further west. But in a small tree of F, edulis, 
growing in a deep ravine in Queen Canon, in the Rocky Moun- 
tains, he had found on the same tree monophyllous, diphyllous, 
and triphyllous phyllodes, and there could not possibly be any 
doubt that the species were of one origin. The case was one 
worthy of note, because it had been charged that there was no 
actual evidence of the truth of the doctrine of derivation. Gener- 
ally when such evidences as these were offered, the objector was 
prepared to abandon his belief in the specific distinctness of the 
forms, rather than to grant that two distinct species had been 
developed from one parent, and even in the case of these species 



296 PBOOEEDINOS OF THE AGABEAIT OF [1884. 

there were some who regarded one as but a variety of the other. 
But there were other distinctions : The cones were not quite the 
same, and the seeds being very different in size and outline, so 
that one could readily separate the seeds if mixed together. 
There was in fact a whole series of distinctions, full}'^ as great as 
we could find in many well-recognized species, and which fully 
entitled the two forms to full specific rank ; though in the face 
of the evident facts that they are derivations of one original 
parentage. Indeed, it was well known that when a plant changed 
its character in one respect, it must do so in others ; plants in 
some climates annual, would become perennial or suffrutescent in 
others. The cotton-plant was a familiar example. In such cases 
the foliage and other characters varied from those connected with 
the annual form, and from this fact some botanists had regarded 
Oossypium herhaceum and Oossypium arboreum as distinct 
species. In the case of these two species of Finus, the one which 
could not develop its phyllodes with two separate individuals, 
would of necessity present some peculiarities in the scales of the 
cone, as these were, morphologically, but transformed phyllodes. 
Under morphological laws, that which affected the leaves ought 
to afiect the carpels or other parts of fructification which were 
modified from them. 

The true position of the species in development is that Finus 
edulis had the highest rank. In raising both species from seed 
there was no difference whatever between the seedlings during 
the first season. In these young and delicate plants, true leaves 
were perfectly developed ; these were flat, linear lanceolate, and 
of a deep glaucous hue. Finus edulis assumed stout vigorous 
branches the second year ; then the true leaves were suppressed, 
a portion only being adnate with the stem forming a sort of 
cushion, or as bud-scales, or bracts under the scales of the cone, 
from the axis of which the phyllodes — secondary leaves, or 
bundles of leaves of some authors — spring. In Finus monophylla 
only a few branches made phyllodes the second year, and he had 
plants which were ten years old from the seed, which continued 
to bear branches with true leaves almost equally with those 
bearing phyllodia. The monophyllous branches were never as 
strong as those from Finus edulis, and in ten years a plant of 
Finus edulis would, be double the size of Finus monophylla. 
Assuming, as we might, that the two had one parentage, we saw 
that the one had less vigor of growth ; it retained more of its 
juvenile characteristics, and retained them longer than the other; 
and it never reached the power of development that Finns edulis 
had attained. We may say, with confidence, that Finns mono- 
phylla sprang from the same parentage as Finus edulis, B,nd became 
permanently diflTerent throughout, being subjected to condi- 
tions unfavorable to a full development. It would appear that 
the soil and climate of Nevada were not favorable to the usual 
development of Finus edulis, and hence, through the long course 



1884.] NATURAL S0DBN0E8 01 PHILADELPHIA. 29T 

of ages, the suppressed features that characterized full maturity 
in the original, became, under the law of heredity, permanent 
ones. 

It was not often that we had such clear evidence of the unit} 
of origin in two certainly distinct species, and as supporting the 
modem ideas of evolution, the case was worthy of being placed 
on record. 



December 16. 

The President, Dr. Jos. Leidy, in the chair. 

Twenty-nine persons present. 

A paper, entitled " Homologies of the Vertebrate Crj'stalline 

Lens," by Benjamin Sharp, M. D., was presented for publication. 

The death of Robt. L. Weber, M. D., a member, was announced. 

Immediate Influence of Pollen on Fruit — Mr. Thomas 
Meehan directed attention to an ear of Indian corn on the table, 
sent by Mr. Burnett Landreth, which had nearly all one side 
with brownish- red grain, the other side creamy white, which was 
the normal color of the variety. Usually the intermixture of colors 
which occasionally occurred in an ear of corn, is attributed to 
cross-fei'tilization. It is apparent that this could not be the case 
in this instance. The whole solid block is colored, and, at the 
edge of the colored mass only half a grain would be colored in 
some instances. The coloring influence had evidently spread 
from some central point, quite independent of any single grain, 
and had spread from grain to grain through the receptacle, until 
the coloring material was exhausted. In cross-fertilization from 
the entangled position of the silk-like pistils, no such regularity 
of coloring in adjoining grains could occur. On reflection we may 
understand that at times color in corn must come from causes 
independent of cross-fertilization, as the departure in the first 
instance from one color must be from an innate power to vary in 
color, independently of any pollinating influence. 

The facts are interesting as bearing on many problems as yet not 
wholly solved. Much has been said about the changes in nature 
being by slow modifications through long ages, but we have fre- 
quent instances of sudden leaps. There are no gradations between 
the colors of these grains. Again, it is in dispute how far cross- 
fertilization infiuences the seed. Generally, no immediate influ- 
ence is conceded ; we have to wait till the seed grows, and we can 
examine the new plant to ascertain the potency of the several 
parents. So far, corn has been the chief, and almost the only, 
evidence that the seed or its surroundings are immediately 
affected ; but recently statements have been made that the recep- 
tacle in the strawberry-riiyhat ^e know in every-day life as the 

30 



298 PROOEEDINOB OF THE AOADElfT OF [1884. 

strawberry — is similarly inflaenoed. There are some varieties 
wholly pistillate, and it is claimed that when pollen is applied from 
other varieties, the resultant fruit is that of the male parent. It 
is of great practical importance that such a question should be 
decided by undoubted facts. Experience in other directions does 
not confirm these views. 

The Mitchella repens is really a dioecious plant. Many years 
ago he found one plant with white berries, and removed some 
portion to his own grounds, where, isolated from others, it pro- 
duces no fruit. In its native location it bears white berries freely, 
though the* pollen is from the original scarlet-berried forms. 
Mr. Jackson Dawson had given him a similar case on Professor 
Sargent's grounds, where a white-berried Frinos verticillatus is 
produced, though it must have pollen from the original red- 
berried form. Other illustrations were referred to. To those 
who looked for regularity of rule in these cases, and in the light 
of the specimen of corn before the meeting, there might be a 
doubt whether the variation in com, often attributed to cross- 
fertilization, may not, in some cases, result from an innate 
power to vary. It did not really follow that the rule should be 
uniform, for those who had experience in hybridizing knew how 
variable were the results, even from the seed of a single flower. 
Parkman had obtained, in lilies, seedlings so exactly like the female 
parent, that only for the remarkable form from the same seed- 
vessel, known as Lilium Parkmani^ it might have been doubted if 
some mistake as to the use of foreign pollen had not been made. 
If so little influence could occasionally be found at a remote end 
of the line, we may reasonably look for an immediate influence at 
the nearer end in some exceptional cases. But there appeared to 
be no carefully conducted experiments on com recorded any- 
where, though the belief in the immediate influence of strange 
pollen is a reasonable one so far as general observation goes. It 
seemed, however, to him, with the specimen of innate variation 
in com before us, more careful experiments with corn and other 
things are desirable. 



Deoembeb 23. 
The President, Dr. Joseph Leidt, in the chair. 

Thirty-two persons present. 

The following papers were presented for publication : — 

^' On a Remarkable Exposure of Columnar Trap near Orange, 

N. J.," by Prof. Angelo Heilprin. 
*'Note on Some New Foraminifera from the Nummulitic 

Formation," by Prof. Anga}.o Heilpria. 



1884.] NATURAL S0IEN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 299 

"A Review of the American Species of Stromateidse," by 
Morton W. Fordice. 

A Glacial Pebble. — Dr. Daniel G. Bbinton exhibited a sup- 
posed stone implement, obtained from the glacial drift in Butler 
County, Ohio, sent to him by its finder, for examination. He 
observed that, while there is no inherent improbability in such a 
discovery — as it is quite likely that man, or at least an implement- 
making animal, existed on this continent during the glacial 
epoch — this particular specimen does not offer convincing evidence 
that it is a work of art. It is a polished stone, resembling an 
axe. Both these facts are against it. The axe type appears 
late in the stone age, and nowhere, except in California, have 
geologists gone so far as to put the age of polished stone so far 
back in time as the tertiary period. In that enterprising State, 
the men of science claim that, not merely fine, but the very finest, 
examples of polished stone ever found in either continent are 
exhumed, in situ originali^ from gravels of the pliocene and post- 
pliocene epochs (Foster, *' Prehistoric Races of America," p. 66). 
This is in direct conflict with everything yet known of the older 
stone age elsewhere. 

The present specimen illustrated anew how natural forces 
occasionally simulate in their products the results of hand-work. 
The criteria of the latter are, however, well-ascertained, and by 
observing them one can scarcely be deceived in examining any 
series of examples. 



December 30. 
Mr. George W. Trton, Jr., in the chair. 
Forty-one persons present. 
The following were ordered to be printed : — 



300 PEOOSSDINQS OF THE AOADESfY 0? [1884. 



HOMOLO0IE8 OF THE VEBTEBRATE CBT8TALUVS LSV8.1 
BT BENJAMIN 8HAKP, M. D., PH. D. 

• 

I cannot better introduce my subject than by quoting the 
following passage from Ghas. Darwin : ^' To suppose that the 
eye, with all its inimitable contrivances for adjusting the focus 
to different distances, for admitting different amounts of light, 
and for the correction of spherical and chromatic aberration, 
could have been formed by natural selection seems, I freely 
confess, absurd in the highest possible degree. Yet reason tells 
me that, if numerous gradations from a perfect and complex eye 
to one very imperfect and simple, each grade being useful to its 
possessor, can be shown to exist ; if, further, the eye does vary 
ever so slightly, and the variations be inherited, which is certainly 
the case ; and, if any variation or modification in the organ be 
ever useful to an animal under changing conditions of life, then 
the difficulty of believing that a perfect and complex eye coald 
be formed by natural selection, though insuperable by our 
imagination, can be hardly considered real. How a nerve comes 
to be sensitive to light, hardly concerns us more than how life 
itself first originated ; but I may remark that several facts make 
me suspect that any sensitive nerve may be rendered sensitive to 
light, and likewise to those coarser vibrations of the air which 
produce sound. . . ."* 

^' If it could be demonstrated that any complex organ existed 
which could not possibly have been formed by numerous, succes- 
sive, slight modifications, my theory would absolutely break 
down. But I can find out no such case. No doubt many organs 
exist of which we do not know the transitional grades, more 
especially if we look to much-isolated species, round which, 
according to my theory, there has been much extinction. . . ."' 

^^ In the cases in which we know of no intermediate or transi- 
tional states, we should be very cautious in concluding that none 



' Being the principal part of an address delivered before the Biolog'cal 
Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, December 
15, 1884. 

* Darwin, Chas., **0n the Origin of Species, by Means of Natural 
Selection, etc." New lork (Appleton), 1861, p. 167. 

* Darwin, C^as., Ori||r, of Species', etc., p. 160. 



1884.] NATUfiAL 80IENGES OF PHILADKLPHIA. 301 

could have existed, for the homologies of many organs, and their 
intermediate states, show that wonderful metamorphoses in 
function are at least possible." ^ 

It will be my endeavor to show the staged of development of 
the eye from the simple deposit of pigment in an epithelial cell 
to the highest form known to us, that of the vertebrata. 

Invagination seems to be the most simple, as well as one of the 
commonest, methods by which organs are formed in the animal 
series. The formation of the gastrula, of the medullary canal, the 
development of glands, etc., etc., by invagination, are cases too 
well-known to require further comment. The formation of the 
eye, ear, and nose, form no exception to this rule. 

In a previous paper * I have endeavored to show that the simplest 
expression of an organ of sight is found in the Lamellibran- 
chiata. These simple organs, however, are not morphologically 
the primitive visual organs of the group, but adaptive organs^ 
the ancestral eyes being present, in a few forms, only for a short 
time during the free larval stage of the animal ; it is lost when 
the animal becomes fixed and the head excluded from the light. 

We will hastily review these simple eyes. 
One of the simplest cases is found in Ostrea "WMPnipZl^ 
virginica (fig. 1), in which we have, on the free '•f^---/L 

edge of the mantle, a number of epithelial cells no. i.-viboai oeiu 
containing a nucleus (n), a deposit of pigment oauoie; p, pigment; 
(p) in their exterior extremities, and on the **»''"°®"- 
outer surface a fine transparent, refractive cuticula (c). There 
seems to be no protection for the organ, save the power of with- 
drawal of the whole mantle within the valves of the shell. 
Experiment conclusively proves that sight exists in these 
animals, as shown by Ryder.' 

We next find these pigmented visual organs confined to a 
certain point of the mantle which has become specialized into 
the so-called siphon. In Venus mercenaria we have these cells, 
unprotected on the external surface of the siphon, but at the 
same time some cells are more or less protected at the base of 
the tentacles ; but as this animal is ablis to retract the entire 

^ Darwin, Chas., Orig. of Species, p. 182. 

' Sharp, B., On the Visual Organs in Lamellibranchiata. Mittheil. a. d. 
Zool. Stat, zu Neapel, Bd. v, 1884, p. 447. 

■ Ryder, J. A., Primitive Visual Orj^ans. Science, vol. ii, No. 44, 1888, » 
\\ 789. 



808 PBOCEXDINGS OF THI AO&DIHT Of [1S84. 

Btphon within the shell, protection is thue afforded to these 
delicate organs. 

When we find forms which are unable to wholly retract the 
siphon within the shell, the visual cells are confined to grooves 
at the bases of the tentacles. In the rapid withdrawal of the 
siphon through the sand, in cases of danger, we can easily see 
that the sharp particles would irritate any delicate organ, and 
protection must be afforded to them. Now, the poeseasion of 
sight at the only exposed portion of the animal, would be of the 
highest value, in the struggle of life, to its possessor, if, when a 
shadow, like that of a rapacious fish, is thrown upon the organ 
of sight, a rapid retraction will save it &om being nipped off. 

In Solen vagina and S. ensia, the former being 

the species on which I first satisfactorily proved 

the existence of a visual sense,' we find the cells 

have become much more developed, aa is seen in 

fig. 3 (this being drawn to the same scale as that 

nf fig. 1), but are essentially on the same plan as 

those in Ostrea. These cells line deep grooves at 

the bases of the tentacles and are found nowhere 

Ttni»i' Mil or else, thus being amply protected from, any injury. 

ontioisTpI^pis- The nerves supplying these visual cells are prob- 

iD*ntjn,nuagB. ^^j^ j.^^^ nervcs of general sensibility, perhaps 

somewhat specialized. 

The remarkable organs of Pecten and SpondyluB, I will not 
here consider, as they throw no light on our immediate sabject, 
and have been considered by me elsewhere.* 

In passing next to a higher group, the Gastropoda, from which 
the Lamellibranchiata have probably degenerated, marked steps 
in advancement are to be noted. 

In Patella we find that the pigment spots, or visual organs, take 
their morphological position, namely in the oral end of the body, 
and consist of a single pair in the base of the broad tentacle. 
Hore than a single pair of eyes are not found in the Qastropoda.* 

' Sharp, B., On Ylaual Oi^ana in 8oUn. Proc. Aoad. Nat. 6oi. Phila., 
Nov. 6, 188S, p. Z4S ; aleo, On the Visual O^ans in LamellibTanchUta. 

' Sharp, B., On tlie Visual Organs in LamellibTanchiata. 

* The adaptive dorsal eyes of (Mehidiam form an ezoeption, but tha 
normal pair of cephalic eyes are present. See Semper, Carl, Ueber Beh- 
organe von Typus der Wirbelthleresugen tun Rbcken von Suhneoken. 
WiesTjaden (Kiwidtl), 1877. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES O? PHILADELPHIA. 308 

In Patella^ as shown by Fraisse,^ there is a simple sphere, made 
up of pigmented cells, similarly formed as those described for the 
Lamellibranchiata. This sphere is open in front and allows the 
entrance of the external media. 

Haliotia ' gives us an advance ; here we have an open sphere as 
in Patella^ but instead of the refractive cuticula to each cell, 
they are physiologically combined into one mass, forming a 
lens. This lens is the product of the cells of the eye, and is 
purely a secretion — a simple cuticular lens, as is found in all the 
eyes of the invertebrata — while the lens of the vertebrata, where 
it exists, is always cellular. The cellular lens-like bodies found 
in the so-called eyes of Pecten and Spondylua, and the dorsal eyes 
of Onchidium^ are exceptional, and will be treated of elsewhere. 

Fissurella ^ gives us an eye that goes practically as far as any 
gastropod eye, the higher forms merely carry out, a little more 
in detail, this plan. This results in a closed eye containing a lens, 
the transparent epidermal covering acting as a cornea. The 
pigmented layer is as in Haliotis^ namely, the cells composing 
it are devoid of a transparent cuticula, the lens and cornea 
serving as the refractive bodies. 

The phylogenetic development of the moUuscan eye, therefore 
(cephalopoda excepted), is as follows : (1), a pigmental surface 
of epithelial cells ; (2), pigmented invaginated grooves for pro- 
tection, at centralized points of the body, each visual cell having 
a cuticular body ; (3), this groove contracting to an open sphere 
which closes ; (4), the refractive bodies of each cell being cen- 
tralized into a cuticular lens. A distinct nerve, specialized for 
sight, is developed {Haliotis and Fissurella)^ which connects the 
eye with the superior cephalic ganglia. 

Now, let us see how the ontogenetic development agrees with 
the phylogenetic. 

Bobretzky * and Haddon * have given us the development of 

* Fraisse, Paul, Ueber Mollusken Augen mit embryonalem Typus. Zeit- 
schr. f. wis. Zool., Bd. zzxv, 1881. 

' Fraisse, Paul, Ueber Mollusken Augen mit embryonalem Typus. 
Zeitschr. f. wiss. Zool., Bd. xxxv, 1881. 

* Bobretzky, N., Studies liber die embryonale Entwickelung der Gastro- 
poden. Arch. f. m'kr. Anat. Bd., xiii, 1877. 

* Haddon, A. C, Note on the Development of Mollusoa, Quart. Jour. 
Mic. Sci., n. s., vol. xxii, 1882. 



304 PB0CEBDIN08 OF THE AOADSMT- OF [1884. 

the gastropod eye, the former in Fusus, and the latter in Murex, 
I have carefully investigated the embryological growth of this 
same organ in Nasga^ and lastly, Garri^re^ gives an account of 
the regeneration of the eye after amputation in the Pulmonata. 

We find that ontogeny merely recapitulates phylogeny, as we 
would naturally anticipate. There is first an invagination, which 
closing forms a sphere ; in the cells of this invagination there 
is a deposit of pigment, and from them a cnticular lens is formed, 
which increases in size by the addition of concentric layers. A 
nerve is there developed and connects this eye with the superior 
cephalic ganglia. 

We will now pass to consideration of the eyes of the vertebrata, 
which, with a few exceptions, are remarkable for the similarity 
in general plan of organization throughout the whole group. 

I will not enter here into a detailed account of the work that 
has been done on this subject, nor into a description of the finer 
anatomy, except where necessary to illustrate points under con- 
sideration. I leave these to a future and more exhaustive work 
upon the ^'Anatomical and Physiological Evolution of the Organ 
of Vision," upon which my friend, Dr. Charles A. Oliver, and 
myself are now engaged, and which is to appear under our joint 
names. 

The general structure of the eye of the vertebrata is well known, 
and I will here simply draw attention to some of the cardinal 
points. 

The eye consists of a more or less spherical body, bounded in 
front by a transparent plate, the cornea^ which is a continuation 
of the white opaque enveloping sheath of the eye-ball, called the 
sclerotica. Internal to this sclerotica is a layer of pigment 
(chorcMea), passing forward to about the position of the junction 
of the cornea and sclerotica, and also extending over the posterior 
wall of the iris. Lying on this pigmented layer is the retina, the 
sensory portion of which is considered to be a continuation of 
the optic nerve, and which passes beyond the equator of the eye 
to a point called the ora serrata. The cavity of the eye-ball is 
divided anterio-posteriorly into two principal chambers, the 
anterior one is again subdivided into two, called the anterior 
and the posterior chamber, and includes all the space anterior to 

^ Carri^re, Jus., Studien tiber die Kegenerationserscheinungen bei den 
Wirbellosen. I. Die Regeneration bei den Pulmonaten. Wfirzburg, 1880. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIBNOES OF PHILADBLPHIA. 305 

the lens. The anterior chamber is divided from the posterior by 
the iris, the latter being a flattened projection of the vascular 
layer of the choraidea. The hole in its centre is called the pupil. 
These two chambers are filled with a fluid called the humor 
aqueuB. Back of the lens and iris is the largest chamber of the 
eye-ball, called the vitreous chamber, and contains a semi-fluid 
mass, known as the corpus vitreum. 

The lens is a cellular body, suspended from the process cUiaris 
by the suspensory ligament ; the process ciliaris of the trw, is an 
extension of the vascular layer. 

The retina is composed of many layers; one of the most 
external, that which is directed toward tjie choroidea^ is called the 
layer of the rods and cones. The innermost layer, that next to 
the corpus vitreum^ is the layer of fibres of 
the optic nerve ; between these two are several 
ganglionic layers. The whole retina is practi- 
cally transparent, and the light passes through 
it unchanged to the point of contact of the 
rods and cones with the pigmented layer. Here 
the light-motion is transferred into a ^' nerve- 
energy," which is transmitted to the perceptive 
centres of the brain,* no light-motion, of course, 
passes beyond the receiving sensory fibres 
internally. The optic nerve pierces the retina no s!— Diagnmrep- 
a little on the nasal side of the optic axis. 5?*fi{{h5 2* in*^™ 
It will thus be seen that the extraneous color- and ^'^nerye-e^M^^ 
waves have, in their impinging upon the sen- SfbSii.^'S ^^\^ 
sory tips of the rods and cones, passed through JiuSi'i^^bfinrJ^t'; 
the entire thickness of the retina, before it has &i Uthia ofTh?S?fi 
been put in a position to give a proper sensory •"•'^y* 
impression. In fig. 3, I have given a diagrammatical repre- 
sentation, i? is a ray of light passing through the retina, and 
impinging on the point of a rod or cone, n representing the 
return through the cells of the retina (r) to the nerve-fibres, and 
then passing by them to the brain, B. 

Now, to consider the development of the eye, we find that in 

' For a detailed account of this, see the forthcoming paper of Oliver, 
Charles A., **A Correlation Theory of Color Perception," Amer. Jour. 
Med. Sci., Jan., 1885. Dr. Oliver has kindly allowed me access to the 
manuscript of this article. 




806 PBOomnNCW.or thi aoadeht or [1881. 

an early stage of the embryology of a vertebrate, the anterior 
end of the medtillary groove, or canal, as the caae may 
be, is divided into three aegmentB, which later form the brain. 
The anterior of these ie known by the name of fore-brain, or 
proencephalon ; the middle one, or mid-brain, is called meaeti- 
cephalon ; and the posterior, the hind-brain, or melencephalon. 

From the fore-brain proceeds outwards and laterally a sweUing, 
which increases in size, and passes on to the epidermis. Here an 
invagination takes place, inward, to meet this outward brain- 
growth. This invagination finally closes, and soon becomes cut 
off, to form a hollow vesicle, the cavity of which is finally 
obliterated, and, becoming transparent, forms the lens of the 
adult eye. In the meantime, the growth trom the brain has 
arched over and above this vesicle, and then folds over laterally 
to enclose the lens. This process of the brain is hollow, and 
communicates with the ventricular cavities of the brain.' This 
diSiercntiation which has taken place, to 
form the so-called " secondary optio vesi- 
cle," is hardly an invagination in the true 
sense of the word, but is rather a double- 
walled plate, which folds downwards 
around the lens, this is indicated in the 
diagrammatic representation in fig. i. 
The lens fills up the anterior opening of 
^i^d~au uptheopaDmiL the Cavity of the secondary optic vesicle, 
and as the two edges, a and 6, close 
around the under surfiice of the lens, a certain amount of meso- 
dermic tissue is included, which later forms the transparent 
corpus vitreum. After the closure is completed, there it a 
double-walled vesicle, the interior wall is the thicker of the two, 
and later gives rise to the many-layered retina; the external wall 
forms the pigment layer of the ehoroidea. It not unfrequentiy 
happens that we find incomplete closure of the secondary optic 
vesicle, and when this is the case in the adult eye, the patho- 
logical condition known to physicians as coloboma exists. This 
may take place in the iris (coloboma iridium, or in the reUna 

' It must be borne in mind that the Interior of the leutt was once a part 
of the general aurface of the body, and also the interior of the secondu? 
optic venlole, proceeding fiiat by the formation of the roedullaiy grooro, 
and then tram that inward. 



1884.] NATURAL S0IEN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 307 

(coloboma retinse) ; in the latter case, on examining the eye 
with an ophthalmoscope, we can see a wedge-shaped white patch, 
the base downwards, at the inferior part of the background 
of the eye, the white is the sclerotica shining through. This is 
merely a reversion to a primitive state — a failure in the union, 
posteriorly, of the two lateral walls of the secondary optic vesicle. 

The optic nerve is formed by the bending over, and union 
below, of the connecting portion of the secondary optic vesicle 
with the fore-brain. The portion of mesoderm included by this 
process is later termed the arteria centralis retinas. The sclerotica 
and the vascular layer of the chorcndea are formed from the 
mesoderm, and are merely organs for the nourishment and the 
protection of the nerve-elements within. 

It seems to me that the steps taken in ontogenic development 
of the eye, point out to us that the course which has been 
pursued in its phylogenesis from a simple epithelial pigmentary 
deposit, is as follows : The first visual organ primarily consisted 
of a deposit of pigment, centralized at that portion of the animal 
where it will be of the most use, viz. : at the oral pole. Since 
animals as a rule proceed with this extremity forward, they are 
developed in this situation ; but in some cases, as in the Lamelli- 
branchiata, as pointed out above, they are developed at that 
portion of the body which needs their protection. The next step 
in advance is to protect these important organs, and as a conse- 
quence invaginated grooves result, which gradually shorten to 
form a sphere. The refracting media of separate cells soon 
coalesce, to produce a cuticular lens. The nerves of general 
sensibility, connecting this eye with the brain, soon become 
specialized, and form a distinct (primitive) optic nerve. As the 
eye increased in importance and usefulness to its possessor, a 
corresponding stimulation took place in the brain, where sight is 
without doubt seated. Increased activity in any organ causes a 
corresponding increase in blood-supply — or better, nutriment- 
supply — and an increase of development took place all along the 
tract, from the eye to the seat of vision in the brain. As this 
increased, that part of the brain nearest the eye enlarged, and 
proceeded by steps toward the eye, similar to the process nowtaking 
place in the development of the eyes of the Vertebrata^ the primi- 
tive optic nerve still connecting the two. We then have a stage 
in which a part of the brain closes over the superior part of the 



308 PROGEEDINQS OF THE AOADEBfT OF [1884. 

eye, being separated by a layer of fibres, which is the much- 
shortened and flattened primitive optic nerve. The pedicle 
connecting this advanced part of the brain, which may be looked 
upon as a ganglion, we will now call the *' secondary optic nerve," 
the optic nerve of the eyes of the adult Vertebrata, A similar 
state of affairs as this is found to-day in the eyes of the Cephalo- 
poda dibranchiata. This ganglion soon becomes the most impor- 
tant part of the eye, and receives the light-waves upon its 
exterior wall, the primitive eye becoming transparent, and later 
forming the lens. This " ganglion opHcum,^^ as it may be provi- 
sionally called, gradually proceeds downwards about the primi- 
tive eye, joining below. As development and importance 
advance, we find the hollowing out of the ganglion op/tcum, 
this structure later is filled with the corpus vitreum, which is 
included, as was shown in the development of the eyes of the 
Vertebrata, Thus, I hold, if this hypothesis be a true one, that 
(1) the lens of the eyes of the Vertebrata is homologous with a 
primitive invaginated eye, such as we find to-day in the gastro- 
poda ; that (2) the layer of optic fibres of the retina is homolo- 
gous with the primitive optic nerve. As the retina below has 
become the sensory part of the eye, the rays of light mast 
necessarily pass through it, to reach a point where nerve-energy 
is developed. The nervuss opticus of the eyes of the Vertebrata 
is, therefore, according to this view, really a secondary optic 
nerve. 

We find in the vertebrata, and much more frequently in the 
in vertebrata, blind animals, the near relatives of which have well- 
developed organs of sight. This blindness is due to the peculiar 
environments of the animal, such as cave life, where light is 
excluded ; parasitism, etc., etc. 

The Proteus of the Adelsberg grotto is an animal that is practi- 
cally devoid of pigment. The eye of this practically blind animal 
is remarkable, inasmuch, that no lens is developed in the adult 
state. Our literature is unfortunately deficient in the embryology 
of this interesting form, so it is at present a matter of impossi- 
bility to state whether there ever exist . a lens in the early 
development of the eye. The primitive optic vesicle has the * 
form of that of the embryos of those vertebrates which have 
well-developed eyes in the adult state; the retina is a thick, 
many-celled layer, lying on the stratum pigmentum, which contains 



L 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES Or PHILADELPHIA. 309 

a very meagre deposit of pigment; the anterior edge of this 
double-walled cup, formed by the retina and pigmented layer, 
come together, owing to the absence of the lens. It is stated ^ 
that no corpus vitreum is present. This degenerate eye is of 
little use to the animal, and, besides the loss of the lens, it is 
covered by the general integument of the body. Now it may 
be argued, upon my hypothesis, that the lens should be last to 
disappear, being phylogenetically the first to appear ; but as the 
secondary optic vesicle has taken up the principal function of the 
eye, viz.: the developing of nerve-energy, we would naturally 
expect that the accessory organs would be the first to disappear 
in the process of degeneration ; hence, the lens modified to an 
organ of refraction, although the most primitive part of the eye, 
would disappear before the secondary optic vesicle, since it has 
lost its function as an eye and acts merely as a refractive agent. 

Another objection may be raised, which may be well to insert 
here, viz. : Why should the process from the proencepbalon 
start before the invagination, to form the lens, the former being 
a secondary state in the phylogeny of the animal? I would 
explain this by the &ct that as the optic vesicle, being now the 
most important part of the eye, and so established for many gen- 
erations, now appears first and disappears last in degeneration. 

In Myxena glutinosa^ aa described by Wm. Miiller,' we have an 
eye consisting of the secondary optic vesicle, as in the case of 
Proteus^ but open in front and filled with a plug of mesodermal 
tissue. The eye is entirely devoid of pigment and lies buried 
beneath a layer of muscle underlying the skin. The optic nerve 
passes into the vesicle, and terminates in the retina, there being 
no layer of optic nerve-fibres present at all. This eye has pro- 
ceeded a step further in its degeneration, than the eye of Proteus j 
being entirely devoid of pigment, and having become more deeply 
imbedded, is covered by a layer of mesodermal tissue, the mus- 
cular stratum. 

Thus in degeneration, the eye proceeds, step by step, back- 
wards towards the brain, after first losing its accessories, such 
as the lens, cornea^ sclerotica, etc. 

^ Semper, CarL Animal life as affected by the natural conditions of exist- 
ence. Intern. Set Series, voL xxx. New York (Appleton), 1881, p. 78. 

' Holler, Wm. Ueber die Stammesentwickelung des Sehorganes der 
Wirbelthiers. Festgabe an Carl Ludw'g. Leipzig (Yegel), 1875, p. vii. 



810 PBOCKB0INQ8 OF THE AGADEBfT OF [1884. 

In Branchioatoma lanceolcUum we find the degeneration has 
reached its greatest extreme. There exists no trace of the eye, 
in form, and we recognize its existence only by a slight deposit 
of pigment on the anterior end of the nearal canal. The brain 
itself has disappeared in this degenerate form, it going hand in 
hand with the eye, so that the only remnant of it is a spot of 
pigment on the anterior end of the neural canal. 

Now this deposit of pigment that we find in Branchiostoma — 
and a similar deposit in the nei've-centres of some of the larvae 
of the Ascidia, looked upon at one time as the ancestors of the 
Yertebrata, while they are if Vertebrata at all, greatly degenerated 
ones— led Lankester * to regard the primitive type of the Verte- 
brata as a transparent animal with eyes sessile on the brain. 
I am of the opinion that forms so degenerate as Branchiostoma 
and the Ascidia should not be taken as a standard, on which to 
base our conclusions for the origin of the Yertebrata. 

In conclusion I may quote a passage from Tyndall,' which we 
have taken for our motto : '* The eye has grown for ages toward 
perfection, but ages of perfecting may still be before it." 

^ Lankester, £. R,, Defeneration, a Chapter hi Darwinism. Natoie 
series, Londoiit 1880. 
* TyndaU, John, Six Leotores on Light. London, 1878. 



1884.] 



NATURAL 8CIBN0B8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 811 



A BSmw OF THl AHSUCAV BTSCIMM Of STBOMATIIBJI. 

BT MOBTON W. 70BDIOE. 

In the present paper I have attempted to collect the ay nonymy 
of the American species of SUromateida, and to give an analytical 
key for the identification of the species. 

The specimens studied belong to the Moseam of Indiana 
wniversity. 

AnalywU of American Genera of StronuUeidm. 

*• ^«t«l« very mdimentary or absnt ; preopercle entire ; 
•nterior raysof doraal and anal fins more or less prodoeed; 
■«1«* very smaU and thin; candal pedonele slender, not 
keeled; gill-membnmes free from isthmns; candal fin 
*'**^ SirrfmaUm. L 

««* Tefcials iwesent, 1, 5 ; edge of preoperde serrate ; anterior 
^JB of drawl and anal fins not pfodoeed ; scaies ntber 
" ' giO'ttembnaes foe ftom isUunos; caudal 
stoQt, not kedad; eandal fin Innate. 

Leirwh II. 




P«M^ iL Sn, IfffMr 









812 PBOOXEDIIIOB or THB AOADSMT OF [1884. 

c. Region below dorsal fin with a series of pores ; outline 

elliptical ; height of body 2^ in length ; D. Ill, 45 ; A. 

Ill, 37 ; vertebrae, 144-19 ; occipital crest moderate, the 

height from supra-occipital bone 4 in head {Paronotus 

Gill). triacarUhus, 2. 

cc, Region below dorsal fin without conspicuous pores. 

d. Form elliptical ; height of body 2j in length; D. Ill, 

45 ; A. II, 39; vertebrfle, 14+17 ; occipital crest low, 

its height from supra-occipital bone 4| in head. 

aimillimus, 3. 
dd. Form broad-ovate; height of body, 1^^^ in length; 
dorsal with 42 developed rays ; anal with 32. 

medius, 4. 
aa. Pelvis not ending in a spine (Stromateus) ; no trace of ventral 
fins. 
€. Upper part of body with numerous round black spots ; 
head, 4^ ; depth, 2^ ; D. VII, 40-43 ; A. Ill, 38. 

maculatiLS, 5. 
1. Stromatani pam 

Paru BrcMitMi congener Sloan, Jamaica, 2, 285, tab. 260, f. 4, 1727 

(Jamaica). 
8tromat&u$ paru Linnteus, Syst. Nat., ed. x, 248, 1758 (based on 

Sloan's description); ibid., ed. xii, 487, 1766; Jordan & Gilbert, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1882, 597 (Charleston, S. C.) ; Jordan & Gilbert, 

Syn. Fish. N. A., 914, 1882. 
Cfhastodan alepidotus Linmeus, Syst. Nat., ed. xii, 460, 1766 (Charles- 
ton); Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 1240, 1788 (copied). 
Bhotnlma alepidotus Lac^pede, Hist. Nat. Poiss., ii, 821, 1800 (copied). 
PeprHue dUpidotus Goode, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1870, 112 (Fenutn- 

dina); Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1870, 180 (Pensacola); 

Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1880, 92 (Beaufort, N. C; Norfolk). 
Stromateue alepidotue Ltitken, Spolia Atlantica, 1880, 521 ; Jordan & 

Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 451 ; Bean & Dresel, Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., 1884, 156 (Jamaica); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. Acad. Nat 

Sci. Phila., 1884 (Egmont Key). 
Stemopiy^ gardenii Bloch & Schneider, Syst. Ichth., 494, 1801 

(Carolina). 
Stromateue gardenii Giinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., ii, 899, 1860 (New 

Orleans; Jamaica; Bahia). 
StromcUeus longipinnia Mitchill, Trans. Lit. Phil. Soc. New York, i, 

366, 1814 (New York Bay). 
RhomJtms longipinnia Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., ix, 401, 

pL 274, 1888 (New York); Dekay, New York Fauna, Fish, 186^ pi. 

75, f. 289, 1842. 



1884.] NATUllAL BODSirOlS OF PHUiADXLPHIA. 818 

f Seserinui xemthu/nu Quoy & Ckiimard, ^'Voy. Freyo. Zodl., 884^ 
1824." 

fBhonibus xantkurus Cuvier ftValeiicieiiiies, Hist Nat Poias., iz, 406 
(BrazU). 

f BhanUnu ckrgwUipinnis Cuvier ft Valenoieiiiies, Hist. Nat. Poiss., iz, 
405, 1838 (Montevideo). 

t BTumJbus eremiiahu Cnvier & Valenoiennea, Hist. Nat. Poias., iz, 410, 
1888 (Cayenne). 

f Bhombus orbieuUiris Guichenot, ''Hem. Soo. Imp, So. Natar. Oher- 
bourg, zii, 245, 1866" (Cayenne). 

Habitat — ^New York to Jamaica, also probably soathward to 
Brazil. 

As Dr. Bean has shown the identity of the northern fish with 
that found in Jamaica, there seems to be no doubt of the pro- 
priety of retaining the name paru for this species. 

Possibly the South American species (xanthurus) is different, 
the number of fin rays being given as D. lY, 40 ; A. Ill, 39. 

>• Btromataus triaeaBthus. 

Stromatetti triacanthuB Peck, ''Hem. Amer. Acad., ii, pt. 48, pL 2, t 
2, 1804" (New Hampshire); Gtinther, Cat Fish. Brit. Has., ii, 898^ 
1860 (Boston ; New York); Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. 8. Nat Has., 
1882, 697 (Charleston, S. C); Jordan & Gilbert, Syn. Fish. N. A, 
451, 1882. 

P6prUu9 tiiaeanthui Storer, Fish. Hass., 60, 1889 (Hassachusetts). 

Bhombui triaeanihus Dekay, New York Fauna, Fish, 187, pi. 26, 1842 
(New York Harbor). 

Foronotui triaeanthui Gill, Cat Fish. East Coast N. A, 1861, 85 ; 
Jordan & Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat Has., 1878, 877 (Beaufort, N. C); 
Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat Hus., 1880, 91 (Wood's HoU, Hass.; Noank, 
Conn.; Eastport, He.; Portland, He.; Norfolk, Va.; Tompkinsville, 
N. Y.; Banquereau; Vineyard Sound ; Gloucester, Hass.). 

BfromatevM eryptomu HitchiU, Trans. Lit Phil. Soc. New York, i, 865, 
pL 1, f. 2, 1814 (New York Bay); Cuvier & Valenciennes, Hist 
Poiss., iz, 408, 1883. 

HabUat. — ^Nova Scotia to Charleston. 

The nomenclature of this species offers no diflSculties. The 
generic name Portmotun proposed for it by Dr. Gill, seems unnec- 
essary, as the species is evidently very closely related to 8. 
8i7nillifnu8j which lacks the series of pores, on which Paronattia 
was based. 

21 



814 PBOOKEDINOB OF THE AOADEMT 0¥ [1884. 

On exammation of the skeletons of the three species, 8. paru^ 
triacanthuSj and aimillimus, I find the first interhsedial greatly 
developed in each of the species. The ocmpital crest is tery 
high in 8. paru ; it is medium in 8. triacanthus^ and k)W in S. 
eimiUimits. The h«Bmal and neural spines ai« more devdoped 
in 8. paru than in the other species, thns corresponding to the 
form of the body. The vertebree in S, tttacanthu^ are somewhat 
more numerous than in the others, as stated iti the analytical 
key. 

8. Stromateui ilmiUimui. 

Pbronotut iimUUmm Ayres, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. ScL, 1860, 84 (San 
Francisco) ; Cooper, Nat. Wealth Cal., 1868, 489. 

Sirofnat&u$ sinMimiis Roaa Smith, Fish. San Diego, 1880 (San Diego) ; 
Jordan and Jony, Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mns., 1881, 12 (San Diego; 
Santa Barbara) ; Jordan and Gilbert, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., 1881, 
46 C Entire Pacific Coast^ common, but most abundant from Santa 
Barbara to San Francisco"); Bean, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 1881, 
266 (name only) ; Jordan and Gnbert, Syn. Fish. N. A., 1882, 451. 

Habitat. — Puget Sound to San Diego. 

This species is common along the Pacific Coast, where it 
replaces 8. triacanthus of the Atlantic Coast. 

4. Stromateai mediua. 

^^omaieusmedituFeten, Berliner Monatsbericht, 1869, 707 (Masatlan) ; 
Lfitken, Spolia Atlantica, 1880, 621 ; Jordan, Proo. Phila. Acad. 
Nat Sci., 1888, 284 (original type). 

This species is now only known from the original type in the 
Museum at Berlin, erroneously described by Dr. Peters. In 
1882 numerous specimens were collected at Panama by Prof. C. 
H. Gilbert, but all of these have been sinde destroyed by fire. 

5. Stromateai maonlatiis. 

^omateus maculatui Cuvier and Valenciennes, Hist. Nat. Poiss., ix, 
399, 1883 (Valparaiso) ; Jenyns, **Zool. Beagle, Fishes," 74^ 1889; 
Gay, '*Hi8t. Chile, Zool./' ii, 248, AtL Ictiol. lam., 8 bifi, f. 1; 
Gfinther, Cat. Fish. Brit. Mus., ii, 898, 1860. 

Habttat.—Cosst of Chili. 

Head ^ 4J in length of body ; depth 2 J ; D. VII, 43 ; A. Ill, 39. 

Scales in lateral line about 160. Body ovate, compressed, 

* The description of S»romat0UB maeukOut was added by Seth E. Meek, 
who alone is responsible for it 



16B4.] NASUEAL SaHNOIB 09 BHILAiaUPKIA. 315 

dorsal and yentral oatlines very similar to each other. Profile 
evenly convex (with carve a little shorter at occiput) to snoot in 
firont of nostrils, where it descends almost vertically. A slight 
depression on each side of head, above nostrils, which mak^ tb^ 
profile more trenchant at that place. 

Mouth not very small ; the tip of maxiUary does not quite 
reach vertical from front of eye ; its length about 4^ in head. 
The teeth of the lower jaw pass just behind those of the upper 
jaw, wh/sn the mouth is dosed. Eye small, 5^ in head. Pseudo- 
branchie wdl developed. OiU-ndters weak and flexible, 12 below 
the angle, the longsest aboi^t f eye. Preoperde entire. Bjrapcl^- 
ostegals 6. Pelvis not ending in a spine. No trace of ventral 
fins. No poires along the base of dorsal fin. The soft dorsal and 
anal fins similar to each other, except that the anterior r^ys 
of dorsal are correspondingly higher than those of the anaL 

The dorsal spines are distant from each other, and quite 
imbedded in the skin. The first spine is on the vertical above^ 
from upper part of gill-opening. Distance of first ray of soft 
dorsal to tip of snout equals the depth of the body. Distance 
from first ray to last ray of soft dorsal is contained 1} in length 
of body. Distance of first ray of anal to tip of snout about % 
in length of body. Qaae of anal 2 \fx length of body. 

The mucus-pores on upper anterior part of head form a sort of 
irregular network. A main branch arises ^ little anterior to 
upper part of gill-opening, which sends off branches, extending 
backwards almost straight, and parallel to each other. 

The greatest width of head 2 in ito length ; the greatest width 
of body (midway on a line from upper part of gill-opening to 
base of last anal ray) 2| in head. Cheeks and operdes scaly. 

Color 1^ alcohol blue above, with numerous round dark blue 
spote, about ^ as large as eye ; below silvery. Below pectorals, 
on anterior half oi body, are some irregular blue markings. 
Pectorals blue; caudal ydlowish, with fikint bluish shade on tips 
of its rays. The pectoral fins are about as long as head. 

The above description was taken from a specimen in very good 
condition, from Rio Grande do Sul, South America. The speci- 
men is in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia. It was originally sent there from the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology. Length of specimen, 14 inches. 



816 PBOOIBDIlfQS or THE AOADIMT OF [18M. 

II. UntlTB. 
Ulrns Lowe, " Proe. Zool. Soo., London/' 1839, 82 {Utmetti «<- ovmlis). 
PaUlAlinif Dekay, New York Fannm, Fish, 118, 1842 {pereiformu). 
OriVf Valeneionnes, "Webb and Berthelot, Islei Caaar. Poisi." {benneUi). 
PtmmtUs Gttniher, Cat. Fiih. Brit. Mm., ii, 485, 1860 {perei/ormU), 
PaOlAnriehtbyi Gill, Proo. Aoad. Nat. Sei. Phila., 1880,20 (p^eiformU). 
Paliaurielltliyi Bleeker, abont 1880 (pereiformit). 

Analysis of American Species of Leirus. 

a. Body ovate ; the greatest depth, 2^ in length. Head, 3^ ; D. 
VIII, 20 ; A. Ill, 16 ; Lat. 1. 76. perciformis. 1. 

aa. Body more elongate, its greatest depth 3^ in length. Head, 
3 ; D. VIII-IX, 26-28 ; A. Ill, 18 ; Lat. 1. 80-90. 

perjianiLS. 2. 

I follow Jordan and Oilbert in regarding Leirits as a genus 
distinct from CentrolophiLS, from which it differs chiefly in the 
differentiation of the dorsal spines, and in referring to Leirus^ 
the Palinurichihys perciformis of American writers, which 
appears to be a near relative of Leirus oralis, although Dr. 
dUnther has placed it among the Carangidm. 

1. Xiairai ptroifbrmii. 

Budd&r jUh or Pdrch coryphene Hitohlll, Lit. PhQ. Soo., i, pi. vi, f. 7, 
1814 (no desoription). 

0<n^hen6 pere^formia Mitohill, Am. Month. Mag., ii, 244^ 1818 
(New York Harbor). 

PnUitwrus percifonnU Dekay, New York Fauna, Fish, 118, pL xziv, 
t 25, 1842 (Shrewsbury Inlet). 

Pammelai perefformU Gunther, Cat. Fish* Brit. Mus., U, 485, 1880 
(Coast of New York). 

BBainwriehthy$ pereiformia GUI, Proc. Phila. Acad. Nat Sci., I860, 
20 (name only) ; Bean, Proc. U. 8. Nat Mus., 1880, 91 (Wood's 
Holl, Mass.; Off Noman's Land; New York Market; Newport, 
B. I. ; Gloucester, Mass. ; Fishing banks, off coast of Maine). 

Lirtta pereiformia Jordan and Gilbert. Syn. Fish. N. A., 452, 1882. 

Traehinotus argenteus Storer, Mass. Rep., 55, 1880 (Holme's Holl, 
Mass. ; not of Cuvier and Valenciennes). 

Habitat, — Maine to New York. 

This species has apparently but a limited range on our Atlantic 
coast. It is apparently congeneric with Centrolophus ovalis 
Ouv. and Yal., the type of Lowe's genus Leirus. 



1884J 



OVmUMCMM, 



*H 








ft*<*r*iiShK*» IMUi00, f, ut, 



fme«ttrlKm m^tin^ rtoxir'* 4t*<v<^ 



Sie Mo^HMbnMm Of tM ^cftDMf Of []t884. 



OV A BnUXKABU EXPOflTBI OF COLUIOIAX TBAP fttAJt OitAVOS, 



iBT PtonB88bB AN0XCO fiBXEPBIlt. 

The remarkable exposure of trap, near Orange, New Jersey, td 
which attention has recently been called by the State Geologist, 
Prof. George H. Cook, is in many respects the finest example of 
geotechnic architecture to be found in the Eastern United States. 
Although a true columnar structure is by no means a rarity in this 
State, indeed, rather the contrary, yet strikingly enough, where 
any extensive exposure of the trap occurs, there the columnar 
structure appears to be in most instances either only partially 
developed, or where developed, only of a very indeterminate 
character. This is well shown in the case of the Palisades fronting 
the Hudson River, where, for the greater part of their extent, 
only an approximation to anything like such structure can be 
made out. In the case of the locality presently to be described, 
however, which is situated on the face of the first interior ridge 
trending parallel with the Palisades, whose age probably differs 
but little, if at all, from that of the Palisades, we are presented 
with the reversed condition of things ; the columnar structure is 
here developed, not only on a most imposing scale, but in all the 
varied conditions under which such structures appear. 

The exposure of CRourke's quarry (Plate VIII) is located some 
one and a half or two miles back of Orange, on the slope of Orange 
Mountain, and, consequently, in the line of the first trap ridge. 
It measures 750 feet in length, and 98 feet 2 inches greatest 
height above the base or working line. The material quarried 
(worked now for a considerable number of years) is the familiar 
post-Triassic (?) " trap,'* or " greenstone," the material of the 
Palisades quarries, which, until recently, supplied the city of New 
York with a great part of the Belgian paving blocks. That which 
immediately arrests the attention of the visitor to the quarry is 
the magnificent display of the columnar structure, thousands of 
basaltic columns of the hexagonal and pentagonal pattern appear- 
ing, if not in the absolute perfection of the similar columns of the 
Giant's Causeway and Fingal's Gave, in a perfection but very 
little initeior to these* The base or lower half of the exposure is 



1884.] NATURAL BQlXNCnS OF FHILADSLFHIA. 819 

made up of a vertical palisade of 120 or more eolmnnB, measiiriBg 
Individually from 15 to 40 or 42 feet in height, and from 3 to 5 
feet, or even more, in thickness. Towards the middle the height 
of this palisade has been greatly reduced, partly through the 
failing of the columns themselves, and partly through the artificial 
destruction that has here been effected. Above this line, which 
in some parts is sheared off as evenly as though it had been 
manipulated by the hand of man, the columns suddenly diminish 
in size, and instead of retaining the vertical position, now arch 
diagonally upward and outward, meeting from opposite sides to 
form an apex immediately under the highest point of the exposure. 
Many of the columns rest horizontally, or nearly so. Beyond the 
horizontal layer, what may be considered as a third series of 
columns makes its appearance, and here, again, the vertical posi- 
tion is assumed. The material of the glacial drift, as indicated 
by a heterogeneous assemblage of pebbles and boulders, rests on 
top, forming the subsoil of the region. 

The first impression produced upon the casual observer by the 
complete exhibit is one indicating disturbance; the arched or 
diagonally inclined, and apparently disturbed, position of the 
columns of the upper and inner portion of the mass, would seem 
to imply an upheaving thrust from below, just underneath the 
apex. In other words, it would appear that we were over the 
seat of some subterranean disturbing force, or in the centrum of 
volcanic action, and, therefore, in the position of a true vent. But 
had there been such a thrust as is here implied, we should expect 
to see its effects revealed in a fracture or dislocation below the 
top, whereas none such is apparent. On the contrary, the con- 
tinuity of the columnar mass is fully as well marked on top as 
anywhere else, and no indications of special disturbance are any- 
where manifest. We are hence forced to the conclusion that the 
irregular and apparently disturbed position of the colunms is not 
in reality due to any disturbing agent, but is merely the result of 
peculiar conditions of cooling and solidification of the original 
molten substance (lava). In other words, while some portions of 
this molten lava '* crystallized " into vertical prismatic columns, 
other portions '* crystallized '* horizontally, and in all the interme- 
diate planes lying between the horizontal and verticaL This 
irregular method of columnar formation, a perfect parallel of 



820 PBO0SIDINO8 or THE ACADIMT OT [1884. 

which is observed along the River Alignon in the Arddche. was 
first critically discassed by the late Poulett Scrope, who inTesti- 
gated its caases midst the volcanic debris of Central France, and 
clearly determined that it was the result of irregular convection 
and radiation of heat, and consequent irregular solidification. 
The deep layers, where the loss of heat was effected alowly 
through conduction with the underlying rock, produced stoat 
vertical columns; the more superficial layers, where radiation 
was most active, frequently produced horizontal columns, while 
between the two were found columns occupying all the interme- 
diate positions. 



1884.] NATUBAL SOIXNOES OF PHILADXLPHIA. 321 



VOnS OV BOMB HEW FORAMnrmSA FBOK THE VVKMUUnO 

FOBXATIOV OF FLORIDA. 

BT PB0F1SS80B ANQELO HEILPBIN. 

Since the publication of my paper on Nummulites Willcoxi 
Heilprin (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences, July, 1882 ; reprinted in my 
'^Contributions to the Tertiary Geology and Paleontology of the 
United States," Phila., 1884), in which the existence of a true 
Nummulite in the rocks of the North American continent was first 
indicated, I have had the good fortune to have passed under my 
supervision an extensive series of the Florida nummulitic rock. 
In these, for which I am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Joseph 
Willcox of this city, I have detected a considerable number of 
foraminiferal forms which have not hitherto been recognized, I 
believe, as occurring in the United States Tertiaries, but which 
are usually present in larger or smaller quantities wherever the 
nummulitic formation is largely developed. Among these, as 
coming from Hernando County, are the genera Heterostegina. 
Spheeroidina^ Biloculina (f), Triloculina, Quinqueloculina, and 
Spiroloculina. The genus OrbitoideB is very abundantly repre- 
sented in two or more species, one of which, unmistakably the 
O. ephippium (0. sella)^ so distinctive of the Oligocene portion 
of the European Terrain nummulitiqtie, appears pre-eminent for 
its large size. The great development of this species, irrespective 
of all other evidence, would almost be suflScient by itself to 
determine the age (Oligocene) of the rock formation in which it 
occurs. 

Associated with these forms are very considerable numbers of 
the Ifummulites Willcoxi^ and also a second species of the same 
^8^ genus of very much larger size. In it the whorls 
^nP expand very rapidly in size, and the septa, in addition 
jfummuiiutt ^^ being comparatively more numerous, are consider- 
^'•*'*^*"*''* ably more flexed than in the commoner species. The 
test measures between one-third and one-half of an inch in diam- 
eter. I propose naming this species Nummulites Floridensis^ 
although I am by no means satisfied that it may not prove to be 
identical with one of the many closely related forms that have 



#-'-#-« 



888 PKOCKKDHTQfl or thi aoaskht of [1884. 

been described fVom the south of Europe, the West India Islands, 
and elsewhere. Only an actual comparison of specimens can, in 
most instances, determine specific tdentitj 
or variation in the case of tiiis moat diffi- 
cult group of organisms. Pending the in- 
terval which must of necessity intervene 
before such comparison can be made, I 
have deemed it the safer plan to descrilte 
and name the species, sabjeot to revision, 
A new locality for Nummulilee Willcoti 
has been found by Hr. Willoox, sitiuted 
L nmuvi alia ; 3. Eoiu^M. somc flftccu milcs to the northeast of the 
locality on the Cheeshowiska River, whence the species was orig- 
inally obtained. Here the rock masses containing the fosule 
lie in ntu, and at an elevation of not less than 150 feet above tbe 
sea. The existence of a true nummuiitic basement formation is 
the State of Florida is thus placed beyond qaestion, and, doubt- 
less, the same will be found to have a very considerable extenBiin 
inward. 

No specimens of the Operculina rotella {= OpercultTia com- 
planata t) have been detected in this newer series of rock ftag- 
ments. 



1894.] NA^TTftAl. 0CtlBN61M C» PfiltADS^PffltA. 823 

The following anAual reports were read and referred to the 
PabUtsation Oomitiittee 



REPORT OF THE RECORDING SECRETARY. 

The Recording Secretary respectfully reports that daring the 
year ending l^ovember 30, 1884, thirty-two members and twenty- 
two correspondents have been elected. 

]3*esigtiations of membership have been received and accepted, 
On the usual conditions, from J. Henry Simes and John Shallcross. 

The deaths of eleven members and six correspondents have 
been announced. As these have been duly recorded in the Pro- 
ceedings under the date of announcement, the names are not here 
repeated. 

Thirty-three papers have been presented for publication, as 
follows : N. A. Randolph, 2 ; Miss S. Q. Foulke, 2 ; David S. Jordan, 
^ ; Angelo Heilprin, 2 ; Theo. Gill, 2 ; Seth E. Meek and Robert 
Kewland, 2 ; Seth E. Meek and David K. Goss, 2 ; Seth E. Meek, 
1 ; Seth E. Meek and Martin L. Hoffinan, 1 ; Andrew J. Parker, 
1 ; Benjamin Sharp, 1 ; Joseph Swaim and Seth E. Meek, 1 ; Rev. 
H. C. McCook, 1 ; Thomas Meehan, I ; Otto Meyer, 1 ; Rafkel 
Arango, 1 ; Eugene N. S. Ringueberg, 1 ; Jos. Willcox, 1 ; Edw. 
Potts, 1 ; flenry J. Carter, 1 ; Frederick D. Chester, 1 ; D. G. 
Brinton, 1 ; fienry F. Osborn, 1 ; Herman Strecker, 1 ; Asa Gray, 
1, and "F. Lamson Scribner, 1. 

These have all been printed in the Proceedings. 

One hundred and twenty-eight pages of the Proceedings for 

1883, and two hundred and sixty-four pages of the volume for 

1884, have been printed and distributed, the latter being illus- 
trated by six plates. Eighty-five pages of the Journal have also 
been published, completing the first part of the ninth volume. 
Tthese pages contain the conclusion of A. J. Garrett's paper on 
Society Island MoUusca, illustrated by two lithographic plates, 
containing one hundred and fifty-two figures, and a valuable pamper 
by Professor Beilprin, on the Tertiary Geology of the Eastern and 
Southern tTnited States, illustrated by a colored map. The Pub- 
lication Committee has recently been compelled by lack of means 
to decline a contribution to the Journal of a valuable paper, not- 
withstanding the fact that a series of beautiful illustrative plates 
were ofiTered free of expetise, except for printing. 



1 



824 PBOOBDmoB or tux agadbbct or [1884. 

Twenty-two foreign societies have been added to the exchange 
list, making now a total of 335 societies and journals, to which 
the numbers of the Proceedings are sent by mail as they are 
issued. Fifty-two of these receive also the JoumaL Letters 
applying for deficiencies, and proposing exchange of publications 
as noted in the report of the Librarian, have been productive of 
the most gratifying returns. 

The average attendance at the meetings during the year has 
been twenty-seven. Verbal communications have been made by 
twenty-six members ; they have been for the most part published 
in the Proceedings. 

The most important event in the history of the Academy 
during the past year, was the passage of an amendment to the 
charter by means of which the Society is empowered to hold a 
larger annual income than heretofore. The preliminary step to 
the securing of such an amendment was taken by the meeting 
held December 4, 1888, when the following preamble and resolu- 
tions were adopted by a unanimous vote : — 

Whereas, The limit of the yearly income of the Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, fixed by the charter at eight 
thousand dollars, is, in the opinion of the members, insufiicient 
for the necessary requirements of the corporation, therefore — 

Beiolved, That the oflScers of the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia be, and they are hereby authorized and empow- 
ered and requested to petition in due form the proper Court in 
Philadelphia, under the Act of Assembly of Pennsylvania, enti- 
tled ''An Act to provide for the incorporation and regulation of 
certain corporations," approved the 29th day of April, A. D. 
1874, to so amend the charter of said corporation as to enable the 
Academy to hold a much larger income, as follows, to wit : By 
striking out, in the proviso to Section I of said Charter, after the 
word '' income," the following words — ^^ of such estate shall not 
exceed eight thousand dollars, nor," and insert in lieu thereof the 
following words, |' from the real estate shall not exceed twenty 
thousand dollars ; nor shall the income of the corporation " — so 
that the proviso to said Section I, as amended, shall read as fol- 
lows : ^^ Provided, That the annual income from the real estate shall 
not exceed twenty thousand dollars ; nor shall the income of the 
corporation be applied to any other purpose than those for which 
this corporation is formed." 



1884.] NATURAL BanDTOSS OF PHILADXLPHIA. 325 

After the required formalities had been complied with, the 
consent of the Court to the amendment applied for was 
announced to the Academy at the meeting held January 22, 1884, 
and at the following meeting, the thanks of the society were 
tendered, by resolution, to Mr. Uselma 0. Smith, its solicitor, 
for his services in securing such action. 

Chapter I, Article 6, and Chapter XYI, Article 4, of the By- 
Laws were amended by the meeting held October 28, as reported 
at length under that date on page 261 of the Proceedings. 

On January 29, resolutions providing for an increase of the 
building fund of the Academy, were adopted, and on February 19 
a committee, consisting of Dr. W. S. W. Buschenberger, Dr. Chas. 
Schaffer, Mr. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., Prof. Angelo Heilprin, and Dr. 
Horace F. Jayne, with power to increase the number, was 
appointed to carry the resolutions into effect. 

Resolutions expressive of the Academy's interest in biological 
instruction, and urging the desirability of the endowment of 
biological professorships in connection with the Society, were 
adopted February 26. 

At the meeting held March 18, a communication from Dr. 
William Pepper, proposing the establishment of a Biological 
Institute, to be under the joint control of the University of 
Pennsylvania and the Academy, was referred to the Council for 
consideration and report. While the subject was still under con- 
sideration, and before the Academy was called upon to take 
definite action upon it, a letter was received from Dr. Pepper 
acknowledging, on behalf of the Trustees of the University, the 
courtesy with which their former communication had been 
received, but expressing the belief that '^ it is, for the present at 
least, wiser for the University to pursue independently the 
development of the special field of biological work and teaching 
devolving upon her." Further consideration of the desirability 
of the proposed joint government was thereupon suspended, and 
the operations of the Academy's Committee on Instruction were 
carried on independently, as set forth in the reports of the 
several professors herewith presented. 

Dr. Benjamin Sharp was elected Professor of Invertebrate 
Zoology January 29, and delivered his inaugural lecture on 
February 3. 

Dr. D. G. Brinton was elected Professor of Ethnology and 



326 nocnBDnroB or ths aioadmut ov [1884. 

Archflcology Fefornarj 86, and opened bis ooune in a leotare 
delivered before the Academy April 4. 

The reeignation of Dr. J. Gibbons Hunt as Fiofessor of 
Microscopic Technology was received and accepted May St. 
His suoeesaor has not yet been appointed. 

At the meeting of the Oooncil held November 84, Mr. Jacob 
Binder was appointed Curator of the Wm. S. Yaox Golleotions, 
to serve, in com{^iance with the Articles of Agreement, daring 
the ensuing twelve months. Mr. Binder accepted the position 
and dedined receiving a compensation for hie services. A reso- 
lution expressive of the Academy's appreciation of Mr. Binder's 
efficient discharge of the dnties of his position daring the pasi 
year, was adopted by the meeting held November 2«5. 

During the meeting of the American Association tor the 
Advancement of Science, held in September, the musenm and 
library of the Academy were visited by many of the att^ling 
members, and by representatives of the British Association. 
The Academy is to be congratulated on having been able to add 
materially to the interest of the important occasion, both by tlie 
extent of its library and museum, and the receptions and excur- 
sions given under the auspices of its Botanical, and Biological 
and Microscopical Sections. The genecous support given by the 
citizens of Philadelphia to the Local Committee, in its endeavor 
to provide fittingly for the meeting referred to, is an encouraging 
indication of an intelligent interest in science, and consequently 
in the welfare of the Academy and kindred institutions. 

All of which is respectftdly sutoiitted, 

Edw. J. Nolan, 

Recording Secretary. 



REPORT OF THE CORRESPONDING SECRETARY. 

The duties of the Corresponding Secretary, as defined by our 
laws, show very Uttle variety from year to year. It is, however, 
gratifying to note that the number of societies with which we 
are in correspondence shows a notable increase. The tmns- 
mission of our publications by mail, begun last year, places us 
in closer relation with foreign societies ; many of them have 
agreed to^reciprocate, while a few prefer the old method of tifana- 
mission, for reasons which have been read at various times. 



18S4.] NATURAL fiOIKNaiS OV PHILAB&fHIA. 327 

It being the duty of the Corresponding Secretary to 
acknowledge aH giflto to the Museum, the usual circulars have 
been signed, and the Curator4n-charge, to whom the addresses 
are generally known, has sent them to the donors. A full 
account of the donations will appear in the Curator's report. 

During the year ending November 30, there have been twenty- 
two correspondents elected, to all of whom notification has been 
promptly forwarded, and, excepting to those very recently 
elected, the diploma has also been sent. Of the correspondents 
elected during the present and past year, seventeen have 
acknowledged their election, many having at the same time 
transmitted valuable publications. 

Official notification has been received of the death of Joachim 
Barrande, Quintino Sella and Sven Nilsson, correspondents. 

While the number of letters from societies, etc., does not indi- 
cate the entire number receiving our publications, it may be inter- 
esting to note that nineteen are from societies, libraries, etc., in 
North America and Mexico, two from South America, and fifty- 
three from the Eastern Hemisphere. The entire number of 
letters, announcing the receipt of our publications, during the 
year is one hundred and nineteen. 

Letters of transmission, with which foreign societies usually 
accompany their publications, have diminished during the year, 
owing probably to the transmission of the publications by mail. 
These letters number forty-four. 

The activity of our Librarian, in endeavoring to supply defi- 
ciencies in our library, usually induces a corresponding demand 
on us from our corresponding societies. Letters of this 
character are noted to the number of nkxe. 

Letters of a miscellaneous nature — in response to our invita- 
tion to exchange by mail, regarding deficiencies for which we 
have applied, announcing anniversary festivities — have been 
received from foreign societies, numbering nineteen. 

In addition to the above, a considerable number of trivial 
letters have been received, and, where necessary, replied to, 
mostly entirely unimportant, and often of a purely personal nature. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Geo. H. Horn, M. D., 

Corresponding Secretary. 



328 



PBOGEKDINOS OF THE AOADBBCT OF 



[1884. 



REPORT OP THE LIBRARIAN. 

During the twelve months ending November 30, 1884, 3422 
additions have been made to the library, an increase of 419 over 
the growth of 1883. These additions have consisted of 480 vol- 
umes, 2160 pamphlets and parts of periodicals, and 182 maps, 
sheets, photographs, etc. 

They have been derived from the following sources :— 



Societies, 1366 

Editors, 866 

I. v. Williamson Fund, . . 620 

Authors, 280 

Dr. G. E. Abbot, 146 

Wilson Fund, 37 

Department of the Interior, . 29 
G^logical Survey of India, . 19 
€^l(^cal Survey of Swed^ 17 
Russian G^logical Commission, 16 
Dr. F. V. Hayden, .... 15 
Northern Transcontinental 

Survey, 14 

G^logical Survey of Belgium, 12 
Geological Survey of Kentucky, 10 
Minister of Public Works, 

France, 8 

Department of Agriculture, . 8 
H. B. M. Gk>vemment, ... 8 
Treasury Department, ... 7 
Prof. Anselo Heilprin, ... 6 
Second Geological Survey of 

Penni^lvania, '6 

Dr. R. J. Dunglison, ... 6 
Geological Survey of Oanada, 4 



Emrineer Department, U. S. A 

U. S. Fish Commission, . . 

Navy Department, . . . . 

G^lofi^cal Survey of New 
Zealand, 

War Department, . . . . 

Trustees of British Museum, . 

Smithsonian Institution, . . 

Ex. of Win. S. Vaux, . . . 

Commissioners of Inland Fish- 
eries, 

F. G. Schaupp, 

East Indian Government, . . 

G^logical Sm vey of Rouma- 
nia, 

Census Commission of Buenos 
Aires, 

W. H. Dougherty, . • . . 

Depaitment of Mines, Nova 
Scotia, 

Royal College of Suxgeons, . 

Justin Winsor, 

Trustees of Indian Museum, . 

Brazilian Museum, .... 

Dr. A. E. Foote, 

Chas. E. Smith, 



8 
3 



2 

2 
1 



J. H.Redfield, 4 

The departments of the library, to which these additions were 
distributed, and the proportions of such distribution, are as 
follows I — 



Journals, 

G^logy, 

Anthropology, 

General Natural History, . 
Conchology, . . , . . . 

Botany, 

Anatomy and Physiology, . 

Entomology, 

Medicine, 

Chemistiy, 

Physical Science, .... 
Ornithology, 



2882 

260 

166 

108 

82 

66 

68 

61 

46 

40 

28 

21 



Helminthology, ..... 20 

Education, 20 

Voyages and Travels, ... 14 

Mammalogy, 18 

Agriculture, 12 

Encyclopedias, 12 

Bibliography, 12 

Ichthyology, U 

Mineralogy, 10 

Geography, 8 

History, 1 

Miscellaneous, 2S 



In consequence of the necessary curtailment of appropriations, 
no binding has been done during the year. It is to be hope4 



1884.] NATURAL S0ISN0E8 OV PHILADSLPHIA. 829 

that a permanent Binding Fund may be soon placed at the dis- 
posal of the Library Committee. While the estimate for binding 
is, properly enough, one of the first to be curtailed when expenses 
have to be reduced, yet our rapidly increasing sets of journals 
and the many valuable illustrated books which reach us in parts 
as issued, are in danger of being injured or rendered incomplete 
while used in the unbound form. 

The card catalogue of periodicals has been completed, and will 
be transcribed in the form of a hand catalogue for the greater 
convenience of those consulting this, perhaps the most important, 
department of the library. Occasion was taken as the catalogue 
progressed to make careful memoranda of deficiencies. 248 
letters have been written applying for lacking parts and volumes 
of incomplete sets of journals now in our possession, and 59 
proposing exchange with societies, the publications of which are 
not represented on our shelves at all. The responses to these 
letters have been of such a satisfactory character as to account, 
perhaps entirely, for the excess of additions over the number 
reported at the last annual meeting. 

In recording the completion of the important work noted, it 
gives me pleasure to acknowledge the efficient service of Mr. 
Emanuele Fronani, of whose assistance I have again been enabled 
to avail myself during the summer months. 

The catalogue of the library, may be now said, for the first 
time in many years, to be complete. Care is, of course, taken 
to add the titles of accessions immediatel}"^ on their presentation. 

The portrait of the late Dr. Robert Bridges, which was 
approaching completion when my last report was presented, has 
been placed in its proper position in the gallery of Presidents, 
and is considered an unusually satisfactory likeness. The 
Academy is indebted for it to Messrs. Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., W. S. 
W. Buschenberger, Thos. Meehan, Jos. P. Hazard, J. H. Redfield, 
Jacob Binder, C. S. Bement, Harrison Allen, John Ashhurst, Jr., 
Edw. S. Whelen, Chas. Schaeflfer, Aubrey H. Smith, John S. 
Haines, Samuel Lewis, Geo. H. Horn, John Welsh, Chas. E. 
Smith, Jos. Wharton, Isaac Lea, and George Yaux. 

In view of the amount of work accomplished and the results 
thereof, the past year, in this department of the Academy, may 
be regarded as an unusually prosperous one. 

All of which is respectfully submitted, 

Edw. J. Nolan, 
32 Librarian. 



880 PBOOiXDiifas of thb acadbmt of [1884. 

REPORT OF THE CURATORS. 

The Curators present the following statement of the Carator- 
in-charge, Professor Angelo Heilprin, as their report for the 
year ending November 30 : 

Work in the various departments of the Museum, has during 
the past year, as in previous years, been largely of a volunteer 
nature, but, for this reason, none the less systematic, nor less 
valuable to the Academy. 

The Conchological, Entomological and Botanical departments, 
under direct control of the Conchological, Entomological and 
Botanical Sections of the Academy, have benefited almost 
exclusively from services of this kind, and the same is true of 
the Mineralogical department covered by the Wm. S. Yaoz 
trust. The Academy feels itself under deep obligation to the 
special conservators who have so generously contributed their 
time and labor to the interests of the institution. 

In departments other than those here indicated work has not 
been neglected, but, unfortunately, because of the limited means at 
the disposal of the Curators, and for general want of sxmce, which 
together constitute an almost insuperable obstacle to the proper 
care and exposition of the vast, and still rapidly increasing, 
collections of the institution, not so much has been accomplished 
as might have been desired. 

The entire series of alcoholics has been carefully overhauled, 
and the necessary disposition of alcohol toward the preservation 
of these perishable objects made. The collection may be said to 
be in a &irly good condition. The recent mammalia have all 
been redetermined and relabeled, and arranged according to the 
most approved systems of classification. In this department, 
the Academy is seriously deficient, and it is to be hoped that at 
no very distant day the numerous gaps that everywhere occar 
may be filled in. A complete catalogue has been prepared, 
showing the Academy to possess just 400 species and varieties, 
represented in all by 904 specimens. 

In the department of Ornithology comparatively little has 
been accomplished; the accessions have been very limited, as, 
indeed, they have been for a number of years past Although the 
collection of birds still ranks as one of the most complete, and 
in some tespects, the most complete of any in the wQ^ld, following 



1884.] NATXTRAL SOISNOES OF PHUiADSLPHIA. 331 

immediately after the collections of the British Museum, the 
National Museum of Vienna, and the University of Leyden, it 
has of recent years attracted but few students or specialists to 
its cases, a deplorable condition, doubtless due in great part to 
imperfect arrangement (incident to the want of a special curator) 
and the circumstance of the 85,000 or more specimens being 
mounted, instead of in the far more serviceable form of skins. 
The absolute necessity of having a specialist, whose services 
should meet with fit pecuniary compensation, in this, as in all 
other departments, cannot be too strongly insisted upon. Long 
neglect of a department means, practically, its collapse, at least 
so far as the advantages to be derived from it by special students 
are concerned, and unless it can be adequately supported, must 
ultimately, by its occupancy of space and the use of time in its 
preservation, become a drag rather than a spur to the institution 
of which it forms a part. Despite the general richness of the 
ornithological collection, it has, through want of adequate means 
for its support, suffered to such an extent that at the present 
time it lacks no less than about 110 species or varieties of North 
American birds alone 1 

The Conchological department, on the other hand, which has 
for two decades enjoyed a constant supervision from the part of 
a distinguished conchologist, is singularly complete, and both in 
the number and variety of its forms, stands unsurpassed by any 
similar collection, whether in this country or Europe. It com- 
prises no less than 150,000 specimens, mounted on upwards of 
42,000 tablets, and it alone, of all the various departments, rep- 
resents the actual state of a zoological science as we now know it. 

During the year a selection of birds from the general collection 
has been laid aside to complete a special collection illustrative of 
North American ornithology. 

The work of re-arranging and classifying the geological and 
paleontological specimens has made considerable progress. 

The ''local collection," intended for the illustration of the 
natural products of the States of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 
is, as far as the resources of the general collection would permit, 
complete, except in the department of entomology, for which no 
suitable cases have as yet been provided. A cabinet of the 
minerals belonging to the same geographical area has recently 
been placed in the Museum for the benefit of students. It is 



832 PB00IKDING8 OF THE AOABIBfT OV [1881 

intended to farther complete this department by a serial exposi- 
tion of the rock masses about Philadelphia, and by the prepaia- 
tion of a relief map illastrative of the geology of the city and 
its immediate surroundings. 

The work of labeling and mounting the Wm. S. Yaux collec- 
tion of minerals, comprising upwards of 6412 specimens, has 
been completed ; a report of progress in this department, pre- 
pared by the special Curator, Mr. Jacob Binder, is herewith 
appended. 

One of the most striking accessions made to the Musenm 
during the past year, is the collection of insect and aranead archi- 
tecture, deposited by one of the Vice-Presidents of the Academy, 
Dr. H. C. McOook. It is, doubtless, the most complete of its 
kind in this country, and may be considered to be, in many 
respects, unique. A valuable collection of fishes from the 
southern and western waters of the U. S., made by Prof. D. S. 
Jordan and Mr. Seth E. Meek, has been added to the Ichthyolo^ 
gical department. 

Various alterations have been made during the current year in 
the ground floor of the Academy building, but these require no 
special consideration. Specimens from the Museum have been 
loaned for study to the Smithsonian Institution, to Prof. James 
Hall, of Albany, Prof. R. P. Whitfield, of Ifew York, Proi: 
W. B. Scott, of Princeton, and Mr. Dobson, of London, who 
have severally rendered service to the Academy by the redeter- 
mination or description of the forms that passed through their 
hands. 

The Academy has during the year benefited through the 

services of five Jessup Fund beneficiaries, who, apart from 

their studies, have in various ways cooperated with, or assisted, 

the Ourator-in-charge, who hereby acknowledges his thanks. The 

Curator-in-charge also takes this opportunity of acknowledging 

his special indebtedness to Mr. Alan F. Gentry, who, daring 

the greater part of the year, has most efficiently acted as his 

assistant. 

Very respectfully, 

Anqelo Heilpbin, 

CuratorAnrcharge A. N, S* 
Joseph Leidt, 

Chairman Board of Curators^ . 



I 

1884.] NAtUBAL SOnBNOES OV PHUiADKUPHIA. 888 

SUMMARY OP THE REPORT OP WM. C, HENSZEY, 

TREASURER, 

PoB THE Year ending Nov. 30, 1884. 

Or. 

Salaries, JanitorS) etc 13310 93 

Freight 42 70 

Repairs 271 71 

Insurance 55 00 

Coal 551 00 

Printing and Binding Proceedings 838 59 

Mounting Plants 4 40 

Printing and Stationery 114 42 

Vials 6 00 

Plates and Engravings 378 00 

Postage 158 94 

Water Rents 28 36 

Newspaper Reports 70 00 

Gas Ill 92 

Books 27ft 79 

Miscellaneous 472 38 

A. Heilprin, Receipts Oommictee of Instruction . 64 00 

H. C. Lewis, Receipts, Committee of Instruction 235 00 

Uselma C. Smith, Solicitor, Expenses securing Amend- 
ment to Charter Acad. Nat. Sciences 25 10 

G, D. Camden, Professional fee, Opinion in regard to 

lands in TVler Co., W. Va 50 00 

Instruction and Lecture Fund, transferred to this Fund. 150 00 
Life Memberships transferred to Life Membership 

Fund 500 00 

17724 28 

Dr. 

To Balance from last account I 22ft 59 

" Initiation Fees 290 00 

'' Contributions (semi-annual contributions) Ift02 48 

" Life Memberships 500 00 

'' Admissions to Museum 868 35 

" Sale of Guide to Museum 30 00 

" Publication Committee ftl7 92 

" Fees, Lectures on Palaeontology 64 00 

" ** " " Mineralogy 235 00 

" Miscellaneous .' 32 17 

" Interest from Mortgage inveBtment, Joshua T. Jeanes' 

Legacy ^ 1000 00 

" Wilson Fund. Towards Salary of Librarian 300 00 

" Publication Fund. Interest on Investments 355 00 

" Barton Fund. " « " 240 00 

" Life Membership Fund." " " 165 00 

" Maintenance Fund. " " " 155 00 

" Eckfeldt Fund. " " " 125 00 

" Stott Legacy Fund. " " <* 100 00 

" Interest on Money awaiting Invefltl^e^t 79 28 

— — - 6485 79 

Balance otyerdrawn, General Account 11288 44 



884 PR00IIDINO8 or THX AOAPXMT OF [1884. 

THOMAS B. WILSON UBRART FUND. 

By Balanoe per last statement 1222 66 

For Books 279 78 

Transferred to General Account, toward Salary of Librarian 800 GO 

#802 28 
Licome from Investments 625 GO 

Balance overdrawn #277 28 

LIFE MEMBERSHIP FUND. (For Maintenance.) 

Balance per last Statement ^ f 500 00 

Interest on Investments 185 OO 

Life Memberships transferred to thisaccount 600 00 

11165 00 
Transferred to General Account 165 OO 

To Balance for Investment flOOO 00 

BARTON FUND. (For Printing and Illustrating Publications.) 

Interest on Investments I 240 00 

Transferred to General Account 240 OO 

JBSSUP FUND. (For Support of Students.) 

Balance per last Statement ~ f 595 01 

Interest on Investments 560 OO 

11155 01 
Disbursed 535 00 

Balance..'^ 1620 01 

MAINTENANCE FUND. 

Balance per last Statement I 8 14 

Interest on Investments 155 00 

Thos. P. Cope, deceased. Legacy 1000 OO 

R. G. Curtin, M. D. Subscription 6 OO 

11168 14 
Transferred to General Account 156 00 

To Balance for Investment 11018 14 

PUBLICATION FUND. 

Income from Investoients f 865 00 

Transferred to General Account 856 00 

ECKFELDT FUND. 

Income from Investments I 125 00 

Transferred to General Account ^ 126 00 



1884.] NATU&AL samron of phzladslphia. 885 

I. V. WILLIAMSON LIBRARY FUND. 

Balance per last Statement - f 770 41 

Rents Collec'^ed 1000 00 

Ground-rents OoUected 936 58 

Cash received. Principal of yearly ground-rent for ^2Ms 
Dollars. E.S. Lingo St., 170 feet north of Dickinson Bt. 1875 00 

Four Months' Interest on same 17 50 893 55 

13599 44 

For Books 11116 66 

Taxes and Water-rents 195 51 

Repairs to Properties 95 82 

Collecting 96 80 

1504 79 

Balance 12094 60 

1875.00 of the above Balance is to be re-invested. 

INSTRUCTION AND LECTURE FUND. 

Balance per last Statement I 56 00 

Transferred from General Account 150 00 

1206 00 
Disbursements 63 30 

Balance 1142 70 

MUSEUM FUND. 

Interest on Investments f 50 00 

Disbursements for Minerals, etc 45 00 

Balance $5 00 

VAUX FUND. 

Balance per last Statement 1428 84 

Income from Investments t 650 00 

Sale of Cabmet 50 00 

11128 84 

Minerals |272 71 

Cases 222 40 

Book 8 00 

Models 65 00 

Cards 2 75 

Furniture, etc., for Room 80 68 

661 54 

Balance $477 80 

Mas. STOTT FUND. 

Income from Investment 1100 00 

Transferred to General Account - 100 00 

BOOK ACCOUNT. (Jos. Jeanes' Donation). 
Balance as per last Statement. p |37 18 



836 PBOOIBDINQS OF THB ACADSlfT OF [1684. 

REPORT OP THB CURATOR OP THE WILLIAM S. 

VAUX COLLECTIONS. 

The Curator of the William S. Vaux collections respectfully 
reports to the Council of the Academy of Natural Sciences : — 

The arrangement and labeling of the minerals are now com- 
plete, each of the groups having labels indicating the chemical 
properties, the proportions in which the elements combine, the 
degree of hardness and specific gravity of each of the species. 
They are arranged in thirty-six horizontal and five upright cases. 
One of the upright cases has been made use of for the purpose of 
illustrating the six systems of crystallography— the forms of 
crystallization and the structure of crystals being demonstrated 
by typical specimens of minerals belonging to each sys^tem, and 
by six glass models, having the axial lines represented by threads 
of different color. In this case will also be found minerals repre- 
senting the relative degrees of hardness. 

The Archaeological collection has been entirely rearranged. 
All implements, such as axes, celts, chisels, gouges, arrow-heads, 
pipes, pottery, etc., belonging to the same locality, being 
placed together. This method was suggested by Professor 
Putnam, of Cambridge, and Professor Brinton, of our own 
Academy, and is thought to have advantages for ethnological 
study. By this method the McBride^ collection (which is con- 
sidered of undoubted authenticity), has been placed in the Ohio 
group. 

The localities represented are Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, Maine, Virginia, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Texas, Missouri, Wisconsin, 
California, and the Pacific Coast, together with Mexico, Costa 
Rica, Peru,'Switzerland, Denmark and Sweden. There are also 
a few Roman, Carthagenian and Egyptian specimens. They 
number in all 2940 pieces. 

An alphabetical catalogue of the mineral collection has been 
made, indicating the page and number in Dana, and the case con- 
taining the particular specimen. 

In my report of November, 1883, the number of minerals was 
counted by trays, notwithstanding many of them contained more 
than one apeoimon. I am informed that this is not the practice 



\ 



1884.] NATURAL SODBNOES OV PHILADILPHIA. 33? 

in other museams, either in this country or in Europe, nor does 
this method do justice to the collection. The same may be said 
with regard to the Archaeological part. 

The present method is based on the actual number of speci- 
mens, without regard to the number of trays, and is as follows : — 
Mineral specimens, .... 6,391 

Crystallographic models, .... 6 

Models of historical diamonds, . . 15 

6,412 

representing about 500 species. 

It may be of interest to members of the Academy to know the 

whole number of minerals contained in the Museum of the 

Academy (though not strictly in the line of this report) ; with the 

assistance of Mr. W. W. Jefferis, the specimens were counted as 

follows : — 

Mineral specimens, Academy proper, . 9,633 

Lithological specimens, Academy proper, . . 1,301 



Total, • . 10,934 

W. S. Vaux collection, . . . • . 6,412 



Total, IT, 346 

It will be remembered that, according to terms of the agreement 
upon which this collection was accepted by the Academy, all 
specimens purchased from the fund provided for increase, were 
subject to the approval of the Curators of the Academy in con- 
junction with the Curator of the collection. 

In making purchases, such specimens only have been bought — 

1. As represent new species. 

2. Species not represented in the collection. 

3. Species representing new localities. 

4. Such as are superior in character to those already in the 
collection. 

Sixty specimens have been purchased during the year 1884, as 
follows : — 

Minerals, 32 

Indian relics, *l 

Crystallographic models, ... 6 

Historical diamond models, . . . 15 

The collection has been visited by a large number of persons 
during the past yaar, many of them profeisional mineralogists. 



388 PBOosEDiNas or thx aoadebct or [1884. 

especially during the recent meeting of the American and British 
Association for the Advancement of Science. I have been much 
gratified to hear expressions of admiration of the collection, 
many of the specimens being pronounced unique in their charac- 
ter, and not represented in the museums of Europe. 

In conclusion, I embrace the opportunity of thanking those of 
my friends who have expressed a warm interest in my work, and 
have aided me with valuable suggestions. I take the liberty 
of making special mention of Dr. Leidy, Mr. W. W. Jefferis, 
Clarence S. Bement, and Dr. W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 

Very respectfully submitted, 

Jacob Binder, 

Curator. 



REPORT OF THE MICROSCOPICAL AND BIOLOGICAL 

SECTION. 

During the past year, eighteen stated meetings and one public* 
exhibition were held. 

The average attendance of members was about fifteen. 

At the exhibition given in September to the visiting members 
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a 
very large audience was present, and the display of microscopes 
and objects excelled all previous ones, both in number and in 
scientific importance. 

During the year, Dr. N. A. Randolph, Dr. Benjamin Sharp, 
and Joseph Mellor were elected membei*s. 

Edwiard S. Campbell, Hugo Bilgrim, and Sara Gwendolen 
Foulke were announced as contributors. 

Dr. J. H. Simes and Prof. H. C. Lewis resigned membership. 

Dr. Robert E. Rogers died. 

Among the more important contributions by members during 
the year, were : — 

A lecture, December IT, 1883, by Dr. M. B. Hartzell. Subject 
— The Bacteria. 

February 4, 1884, by Dr. Benjamin Sharp. Subject— Section 
Cutting. 

March IT, by Mr. W. N. Lockington. Subject— The Fishes of 
North America and the West Coast. 

AprU 21, by Dr. Sharp. Subject— The Eye of the Inverte^ 
brates. 



L 



1884.] NATUSAL flOIXNOIS OF PHILADSLPHIA. 839 

May 5, by Dr. J. G. Hunt. Subject — Fertilization in Some 
Plants. 
May 9, by Dr. Hnnt. Sabject— The Bioplasm of the Cell. 
June 2, by Dr. Gko. A. Rex. Subject— The Myxomycetes of 
Fairmount Park. 

Respectfully submitted, 

RoBT. J. Hess, M.D., 
Recorder, 

REPORT OF THE CONCHOLOGICAL SECTION. 

The Recorder of the Conchological Section respectfully reports 
that during the past year, the Academy has, as heretofore, con- 
tinued to publish such papers upon the subject of the Mollusca 
as have been approved by its Publication Committee. 

One member and seven correspondents have been elected. 
We have no deaths to report; neither has there been any change 
made in the By-Laws governing the Section. 

From the eighteenth annual report of Mr. Geo, W. Tryon, Jr., 
Conservator, we find that during the year ending December 1, 
1884, sixty donations of mollusks and shells have been received 
from thirty-one persons. The number of trays and labels thus 
added to the collection is 1126, of specimens 5224 ; larger acces- 
sions in both cases than for several previous years. The 
Conchological Museum now contains 42,448 trays and written 
tablets, with 151,015 specimens. 

The most important accession of the year is a remarkably fine 
snite of shells, collected last winter by Mr. Henr3^ Hemphill, on 
the West Coast of Florida. Most of the specimens are in much 
finer condition than those previously in our Museum, from the 
same region; many of them, hitherto known as West Indian, 
are now first ascertained to inhabit our coast, and not a few are 
new species. During the last summer, at the instance of Mr 
Wm. G. Binney, Mr. Hemphill explored the mountains of North 
Carolina for Helices, collecting a number of rare and fine specimens, 
of which, by Mr. Binney's generosity, we have obtained a share. 
This winter Mr. Hemphill is again spending on the Florida 
Coast, southward of his last year's operations, and arrangements 
have been made by which we shall receive a series of his 
collections. 

A very complete suite of the shells of our national capital 
were presented by Mr. F. Lehnert. 



340 PBO0SBDINQ8 OF THE ACADEMY OV [1884. 

Three donations of foreign shells are of unusual interest, 
namely : From E. Marie, a series of the shells of the island of 
Guadeloupe, W. I. ; from Andrew Garrett, eighty-four species of 
land shells of the Society Islands, including all the types figured 
in his paper on this moUuscan province, recently published hy 
the Academy ; from Dr. S. Archer and the Conehological Section, 
over three hundred species of marine shells, collected by Dr. 
Archer at Singapore. Another box, just received from Dr. 
Archer (contents not yet presented), will bring up our repre- 
sentation of the Singapore mollusks to upwards of five hundred 
species. 

A detailed list of the additions to the Museum accompanies 
this report (see Curator's report). 

The re-arrangement of the Conehological Museum steadily 
progresses. During the year, the Pleurotomidse, Terebridae and 
CancellariidflB of the marine gastropods have been carefully 
studied, and, to a considerable extent, re-labeled and mounted. 
A commencement has also been made with the series of Pal- 
monata, by the re-arrangement of the Testacellidse, Oleacinidse 
and Streptaxidse. 

Our Museum cases have become so overcrowded that the dis- 
play of all the species, under glass, is no longer possible; in 
many instances, the trays of specimens are piled up several tiers 
in height, so that the under rows cannot be seen. Unless better 
and more ample accommodation for the shell collection is soon 
provided, it may become necessary to withdraw portions of it 
from exhibition, in order to afibrd space for the display of the 
larger and more important specimens. 

At the annual meeting of the Section, held on the 4th inst., 
the following officers were elected : — 

Director^ . . . W. S. W. Ruschenberger. 

Vice-Director^ . . . John Ford. 

Becorder, . . . S. Raymond Roberts. 

Secretary y .... John H. Redfield. 

Treasurer, .... Wm. L. Mactier. 

Conservator, .... George W. Tryon, Jr. -* 

Librarian, .... Edward J. Nolan. 

Respectfully submitted, on behalf, of the Section, 

S. Raymond Roberts, 

Becorder, 



1884.] NATURAL SOnENOES OF PHIIiAPSLPHIA. 341 

REPORT OP THE ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION. 

During the year 1884, the Entomological Section has held 
its regular monthly meetings, dispensing as usual with those 
of July and August. The attendance has been fair, but by no 
means so large as is desirable. It was found that several 
members had been prevented from attending the Section, 
owing to other engagements. To remedy this, and with a hope 
that the change would be beneficial, by accommodating more 
persons, the Section, at its meeting held December 8, voted to 
change the time of meeting from the second Priday night to the 
fourth Monday night of each month, commencing January, 1885. 
The failure to secure additions to the membership has been very 
discouraging to the members of the Section, and it is earnestly 
hoped that the members of the Academy will assist in increasing 
the number. 

The collections under the supervision of the Section, are at 
present in quite good condition. Much work has been done in 
the way of disinfecting and arranging the specimens. In an ento- 
mological cabinet this requires constant watchfulness, and cannot 
be dispensed with. The thanks of the Section are due to Mr. S. 
P. Aaron for much of this work. 

Additions to the collection during the past year have been 
quite small. This has been principally owing to the fact, that 
those members generally most active in collecting, have been 
compelled by other more pressing calls, to defer such work to 
the future. 

In connection with the American Entomological Society, there 
have been published, during the year, articles upon Entomology, 
amounting to 335 pages of printed matter, together with 9 plates. 
In addition, there has been printed a biographical sketch of John 
L. Le Conte, M. D., late Director of the Section, written by S. H. 
Scudder, also posthumous papers of the same gentleman, edited 
by Dr. Geo. H. Horn, comprising in all 68 pages, making a total of 
403 printed pages. These entomological contributions continue 
to maintain the high standard of the journal in which they 
appear.. 

At the meeting held December 8, the following were elected 
officers of the Section for the year 1885 : — 



842 PBOOIIDINOS 07 TEE AGADXMT 07 [1884. 



Director^ 
Vice-Director, 
Recorder, 
Treasurer, . 
Conservator, 



. Geo. H. Horn, M. D. 

« Bev. Henry C. McCook, D. D. 

James H. Ridings. 

E. T. Cresson. 

Henry Skinner, M. D. 

Bespectfolly submitted, 

James H. Ridings, 

Becorder. 



REPORT OF THE BOTANICAL SECTION. 

The Yice-Director of the Botanical Section has to report to 
the Academy that the affairs of the Section are in a generally 
prosperous condition. 

Onr Herbarium, already one of which the Academy is justly 
proud, has been increased in new species 407 the past year, with- 
out including the additions among the lower cryptogams. The 
excellent progress made in other matters, under the superinten- 
dence of the Conservator, Mr. John H. Bedfield, is set forth in 
detail in his annual report to the Section, which is submitted 
herewith as part of the Section's report. 

Meetings have been held regularly every month, except July 
and August, the average attendance for the whole year being 
slightly larger than last. 

The Section is free from debt, and has a considerable balance 
in its treasury. 

One of the events of the year was the social re-union and enter- 
tainment, in the hall of the Academy, of the botanists in attend- 
ance on the meeting of the American Association for the 
Advancement of Science, under the auspices of the Section. The 
expense was borne by the members of the Section, without any 
draft on its regular fhnds, or on the funds of the Local Committee 
of the Association. It is believed that the result will be useful 
to the Academy, in making the work of the botanical department 
better known, reacting in the interest of botany everywhere. 

At the meetings of the Section many matters of interest to 
botanists have been presented, and some^ by Professor Gray, 
Professor Bothrock, and Messrs. Meehan and Scribner, deemed 
of sufficient general importance to appear in the Proceedings of 
the Academy. 



1884.] NATUBAL aamfCKS or philabslphia. 343 

The officers elected for the ensuing year are : — 

Director J - . . Dr. W. S. W. Rnschenbei^er. 
Vice-Direciarj Thomas Meehan. 

Recorder J . . F. Lamson Scribner. 

Cor. Secretary,^ . leaac C. Martindrfe. 

Treasurer^ > 

Coniervator^ • John H. Redfield. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Thomas Meehah, 

Vice-Director. 

Conservator's Beport for 1884. — The Conservator has, during 
the past year, continued to direct his attention to the care and 
improvement of the Academy's Herbarium, so far as was com- 
patible with the demands on his time and labor occasioned by 
receiving, preparing and placing new accessions. With some 
assistance from Mr. Scribner, certain portions of the North 
American Herbarium have been mounted, mainly of genera more 
especially needing this care, such as Viola^ JMygala^ LupinuSj 
Dalea^ Astragalus^ OxytropiSj PotentUla^ Eriogonum^ and others. 
Mr. Burk is now engaged in the work of rearranging the North 
American Compositse after Gray's New Synoptical Flora. In the 
General Herbarium the provisional alphabetical lists of species 
have been carried forward as far as Loranthace». These lists, 
imperfect and defective as they are, will justify the labor expended 
upon them, by the time saved to every one consulting the Her- 
barium. It is hoped that this merely preliminary work will soon 
be completed, and prepare the way for more deliberate and careful 
elaboration by expert botanists. 

During the latter part of the summer our work had to be tem- 
porarily suspended by the necessary preparations for receiving 
the members of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science at its September meeting in this city, and the gratifi- 
cation expressed by them on the visits to the Academy's library 
and herbarium, for the fraternal fellowship extended by our 
Section, is a source of satisfaction to us all. 

The donations of plants during the past year amount to 3183 
species, of which^ 407 are new to our collection. In these dona- 
tions are included three Centuries of Ellis' North American 
Fungi, of which a large proportion are probably new to us, and 



344 PBOOEEDINaS or the AOADEBfT OJ [1884. 

should be added to the above 407. The North American species 
received have been 1792, from tropical America were 3, and from 
the old world 1388. Among the additions may be specified 1057 
species, mostly European and North African, from the fine 
Herbarium of Geo. Curling Joad, presented by Dr. Gray. Though 
the most of these duplicated species which we already possessed, 
yet being choice specimens, collected and ticketed by eminent 
botanists, they greatly add to the value of our working material, 
while about one-tenth of them were previously unrepresented on 
our shelves. Our fellow-member, Mr. Canby, who, it will be 
remembered, was in charge of the Botanical Department of the 
Northern Transcontinental Survey, during the years 1882 and 
1883, in the interest of the Northern Pacific B. B., has contributed 
a very valuable suite of the collections made by himself, and by 
Scribner, Brandegee, Tweedy and others under his direction, along 
the northern border of Western North America, in the Territories 
of Dakota, Montana and Washington. This series comprehends 
851 distinct species of which about 90 were new to us. Our Yice- 
Director, Mr. Meehan, has also given us the result of his herbori- 
zations along the coast of Washington and Alaska Territories, 
during the summer of 1883, in a collection of 207 species, which, 
however add only five species to our earlier Alaskan collections 
received from Kellogg, Harrington, Dall, and others. Other 
smaller but valuable donations, will be detailed in the Academy's 
Donation List for 1884. 

In large collections, where constant accessions, during a long 
period of years, have repeatedly duplicated species, there is 
always a tendency to exaggerated estimates of the number of 
species represented. In regard to the Academy's Herbarium, the 
estimates have been so yagae and so evidently excessive, that the 
Conservator has been led to undertake an actual enumeration. 
This apparently simple task is really, attended with many diffi- 
culties, one of which consists in the varying views of botanists 
as to the specific validity of forms. In some families this 
diversity of opinion is so great as to materially afiect total 
results. In such cases, the Conservator has endeavored to 
follow the authority of the latest leading specialists. Another 
di£9culty arises fix>m the large amount of nn worked and unnamed 
material, which has accumulated since the early days of the 
Academy, some of it probably duplicating the named species. 



1884.] NATU&AIi aOIKlfOBS Or PHTTiADIEfiPHIA, 845 

ft 

The enameration is not yet complete, bat, as it coyers aboat 

three-fourths of the collection, a tolerably fair estimate may 

be made of the remainder, on the basis of space occapied. 

The conclusion is that the phanerogamic species will not exceed 

24,000. To these we must add the ferns — 1018, by count -and the 

remaining vascular crygtogams, estimated at 120 species, and 

we have a total of phanerogams and vascular cryptogams of 

a little more than 25,000 species. Of the extent of the collection 

of lower cryptogams, embracing mosses, liverworts, lichens, 

algse and fungi, the Conservator is at present unable to give any 

estimate. 

Respectfully submitted, 

John H. Redfibld, 

Conservator. 



REPORT OF THE MINERALOGICAL AND GEO- 
LOGICAL SECTION. 

The meetings of the Section have been held regularly during 
the year, but the attendance has not been as large as formerly. 
There have been, however, satisfactory additions to the collec- 
tions of minerals and rocks, in part by purchases made with the 
funds of the Section. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Theo. D. Rand, 

Director. 



REPORT OF THE PROFESSOR OF INVERTEBRATE 

PALEONTOLOGY. 

The Professor of Invertebrate Paleontology respectftiUy 
reports, that during the year he has delivered a course of lectures 
on paleontology and physiography, which course, as in previous 
years, was attended in principal part by teachers from the various 
schools of the city. A special course of lectures on geology, 
arranged by request of the Teachers' Institute of Philadelphia, was 
delivered before the members of that body, with an attendance 
ranging from one to two hundred. Six field excursions, em- 

28 



346 PROOEEDINOS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

bracing points of interest in the neighborhood of the city, and 
extending to the terminal moraine, on the line of the Delaware 
and Lackawanna Railroad in New Jersey, and the '^mountain 
colonnades " of Orange, were participated in by a fair proportion 
of the class. 

The condition of the collections of the Academy in the depart- 
ment of paleontology has been materially improved daring the 
year, a complete re-arrangement of the fossils of this country 
having been effected. The work of identifying and labeling has 
made considerable progress, and it is hoped that in a short time 
proper attention may be given to the rich collections illustrating 
European paleontology as well. 

The additions during the year, which are recorded elsewhere, 

have been neither very numerous nor important. A fine series 

of Oligocene fossils from Germany, comprising • nearly 200 

species, has been obtained from Dr. Otto Meyer, in exchange for 

American Tertiary forms. The Academy is also indebted to Mr. 

Joseph Willcox for an extensive series of the Nummulitic rock 

of Florida. 

Very respectfully, 

' Anqelo Heilpbin, 
Professor of Invertebrate Paleontology. 



REPORT OF THE PROFESSOR OF MINERALOGY. 

The Professor of Mineralogy respectfully reports that during 
the spring months of 1884, he' delivered a course of twenty lec- 
tures upon the Geology and Mineralogy of Eastern Pennsylvania. 
The alternate lectures were given in the open air, and consisted 
of studies in the field at localities of geological and mineralogical 
interest in the vicinity of Philadelphia. At the close of the 
course a more extended excursion was taken to Mauch Chunk, 
Hazleton, and Drifton, where, through the kindness of friends, 
unusual facilities were offered for studying the geological struc- 
ture and the methods of mining anthracite coal. A description 
of the " field lectures," as reported in a daily newspaper, is here- 
with presented. The average attendance was nearly forty per- 
sons, of whom more than one-half were ladies. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 347 

The mineralogical collection of the Academy, as shown in the 
accompanying Carator's report, has received a number of valuable 
additions. The placing of the minerals of Penns^^lvania in a 
special case will, it is believed, not only be a convenience to 
visitors, bat, as it becomes more complete, will stimulate a search 
for new mineral localities. The mineralogists of the State are 
particularly asked to contribute to this local collection. 

As in previous annual reports, attention is again called to the 
need, in this department, of scientific apparatus, both for the pur- 
poses of teaching and for the prosecution of original research. A 
lithological microscope, a reflecting goniometer, and a Groth's 
universal apparatus for polarized light, are among the instru- 
ments most urgently needed. 

Respectfully submitted, 

H. Carvill Lewis, 

Professor of Mineralogy. 



REPORT OF THE PROFESSOR OF INVERTEBRATE 

ZOOLOGY. 

The Professor of Invertebrate Zoology respectfully reports that 
during the past year, since March, when he was placed in office, 
he has delivered his inaugural address on " The Study of Biology 
in Germany" (March 10), and six lectures on " Elementary His- 
tology," with demonstrations. 

He further reports that the collections under his charge have 
greatly increased, especially by the addition of a superb collection 
of marine sponges from the western coast of Florida, presented by 
Mr. Joseph Willcox. The collection was described by Henry J. 
Carter in the Proceedings. 

A course of some twenty lectures is intended to be given in 
the early part of the coming year (January, February and March), 
the subject being " Some of the Principles of Zoology." 

Very respectfully, 

Benjamin Sharp, 
Professor of Invertebrate Zoology. 



848 FKOGEXDIKGB OT THX ACADKHT OF [18S4. 

REPORT OF THE PROFESSOR OP ETHNOLOGY AND 
iRCH^OLOGT. 

A short course of lectures on some points in general ethnology 
was delivered by me, immediately after my appointment u 
professor in April last. The subjects were : — 

Prehistoric Man in America. 

The Origin of the Aryan Nations. 

The Progress of American Linguistics. 

The Civilization of Ancient Mexico and Peru. 

These lectures were public and were reasonably well attended. 

After the oi^anization of the Bureau of Soientiflc Information 
had been established, I forwarded a circular to a considerable 
number of persons interested in my branch, in different parts of 
the United States, announciog both the professorship and the 
Bureau, and asking them to favor the Academy with such speci- 
mens and information as would be of advantage to instruction 
in this department. A number of promiaea to do bo have been 
received. 

There has been but small increase in the collections in my 
department since I took charge of it. The arrangement of the 
cabinet leaves much to be desired, but I see no remedy for this, 
unless considerably more space were at my disposal, and I am 
"well aware that the Academy is unable at present to supply this. 
I can obtain " for deposit " with the Academy, several very fine 
local collections of antiquities, were sufficient space for their 
proper display, and the usual guarantees of conservation, offered 
their owners. 

Very respectfully, 

D. G. Beinton, M. D., 
Profeetor of Ethnology and Archaeology. 



1884.] 



NATURAL SOIENOEB OF PHILADSLPHIA. 



349 



The election of Officers for 
result : — 

President^ 
Vice-Presidents^ 

Recording Secretary^ 

Corresponding Secretary^ 

Treasurer^ 

Librarian^ 

Curators^ 



Councillors to serve three 
yearSj . . . . 



Finance Committee^ . 



1885 was held, with the following 

Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Thomas Meehan, 

Rev. Henry C. McCook, D. D. 

Edward J. Nolan, M. D. 

George H. Horn, M. D. 

Wm. C. Henszey. 

Edward J. Nolan, M. D. 

Joseph Leidy, M. D. 

Jacob Binder, 

W. S. W. Ruschenberger, M. D. 

Angelo Heilprin. 

Chas. P. Perot, 
J. H. Redfield, 
S. Fisher Corlies, 
Charles Morris. 
Isaac C. Martindale, 
Clarence S. Bement, 
Aubrey H. Smith, 
S. Fisher Corlies, 
George Y. Shoemaker. 



ELECTIONS DURING 1884. 

M£MBSBS. 

January 29. — John Struthers, Thomas M. Fenton, M. D., H. 
W. Stelwagen, M.D., D. G. Brinton,M. D., Miss Helen C. D. Abbott, 
William Thomson, M. D., Rev. Wayland Hoyt, D. D., Benj. R. 
Smith. 

February 26, — Eugene W. Fiss, Francis E. Emery. 

March j^5.— Albert S. Bolles, Ph. D., R. W. Fitzell, Joseph W. 
Griscom. 

April 29. — J. L. Forwood, M. D., Lewis Woolman, John 
Eyerman, Edward Jackson, M. D., Miss S, D. Atkinson, E. J. 
Wheelock. 

May 27. — Henry N. Rittenhouse. 

June 24' — Lieut. Thos. L. Casey, IT. S. A. 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

August ^^.— Ralph W. Seiss, M. D., Bdw. P. Bliss. 

September SO. — Miss Adele M. Fielde, Henry F.Osbom, John 
Wanamaker. 

October 28, — H. La Barre Jayne, Edmund J. James, Ph. D., 
W. B. Scott, George Fales Baker. 

November 25. — W. Henry Grant, Rufus Sargent, M. D. 

COBEESPONDENTS. 

January 29, — Karl A, Zittel, of Munich ; August Daubr^e, of 
Paris ; Marquis de Gaston de Saporta, of Aix ; Quintino Sella, 
of Rome ; Albert Gaudry, of Paris. 

March 26. — Ludwig von Graff, of Aschaffenburg ; E. Renevier, 
of Lausanne ; G. Dewalque, of Liege ; Hans Bruno Geinitz, of 
Dresden ; Henry N. Moseley , of Oxford ; J. T. Burdon Sanderson, 
M. D., of London. 

April 29. — Ernest Andr^, of Gray, Haute Saone. 

October 28. — G. Vom Rath, of Bonn ; George E. Dobson, of 
London. 

November 25. — John Ball, of London; Wm. Carruthers, of 
London; Rud. Leuckart, of Leipzig ; Anton Dohm, of Naples; 
H. Grenacher, of Halle 1. S. ; Alex. Gotte, of Rostock i. M. ; 
Ludwig Will, of Rostock i. M. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 351 



ADDITIONS TO THE MUSEUM. 

ARCHiBOLOOY, ANTIQUITIES. IMPLEMENTS, ETC.— Joseph Leidy. Prag- 

ment of Druid stone, Avebury, Eng. 
Stuart Wood. Contents of an Indian shell-heap, Indian River, Fla. 
Miss A M. Fielde. Earrings of native work, Laos. 
H. Beates. Aboriginal urn, C*earfield Co , Pa. 
J. Willcox. Indian implements, Hernando Co., Fla. 
Marquis de Nadaillac. Paleoliths, Ras-el Oued, Tunis, Africa. 

Mammatia (recent and fossil).— W. P. Buck. Double-headed fodtal pig 
(Su8 serofa), 

Phil. Zool. Society. Macrorhinvs angustirostrU (skull), Coast of Cali- 
fornia ; Cereopithecus cUbttgularis, Africa. 

J. B. Betts. Condylura cristata, New Castle, Del. 

Mr. Kochusperger. . 8 mammalian skulls ; antlers of Cariaeus Virgini- 
anus; horns of Rupieapra traguSy Tamias striatuSf Scalopt aquatieus; 
skull of Cariaeus VirginianuSf Of>is a/ries (2j ; horns of Bos bubalus, 
and (his a/ries ; human skull. 

BiBDS. —Stuart Wood. Skeleton and eggs of PeUcanus fuseus^ from 
Florida ; skeleton of Colymbus torquatus ; Tachppetes aguila, 

Mr. Kochusperger. 89 bird skulls, Corvus Americanus, Melanerpes erythro- 
eephalusy Porzana Carolina^ and 12 birds' nests. 

G. Cochran. Diduneulus strigirostris, Samoa. 

H. England. Embryo pigeon showing five toes. 

J. Ford. Nest of Vireo olivaceus, Phila., Pa. 

Reptiles and Amphibians (recent and fossil). — Capt. Livermore. 20 

species of amphibians and reptiles from the valley of the R o Grande. 
Harrison Allen. Anolis prineipaXiSy Fla. 
E. Reiff. Eutcsnia sirtalis, Phila., Pa. 
E. A. Sturge. Lygosoma brachypodOy Petchaburi, Siam. 
J. Border. Vertebrad of Mosasaurus and crocodile ; tooth of Hyposaurus, 

and fragments of turtle bones, Mullica Hill, N. J. 
A. F. Gentry. Eutcsnia sirtalisy Ophiboltis doliatuSy Aromochelys odoratus, 

Rana elamilanSy Rana palustriSylPhilA., Pa. 
Wortman and Gentry. Eutcsnia sirtalis, Storeria Dekayi, and Spelerpes 

ruber, Phila., Pa. 
J. Hazard. Liopeltis vemalis, Peacedale, R. I. 
E. W. White. Ceratophrys ornatOy pampas of Buenos Ayres, S. A. 
H. Skinner. IHemyetilus miniatus, Diemyctilus mridescens, Adirondack 

and Catskill Mountains, N. Y. 
Unknown. Phrynosoma platyrhina and Phrynosoma Douglass^ Humboldt 

River, Nev. ; Phrynosoma JDouglassi, locality unknown. 

Fishes (recent and fossil). — E. F. Halliwell. IHodon hystrix, Barbadoes. 

Haloeypsehis &Dolans, 
J. Jeaues. Xiphotrygon acutidens, Eocene of Green River, Wyoming. 

A. F. Gentry. PomoHs aureus, Rhinichthys atronasus, Boleosoma Olmstedi, 
Phila , Pa. 

Wortman and Gentry. Prionotis lineatus, Coast of N. J. 
N. 8. Schuyler. Lagocephalus Icbvigatus, Bame^at Bay, N. J. 
J. Ford. Siphostoma fusea, Somers' Point, N. J. 
Prof. Porter. Fish, sp. ? Warren Co., N. J. 

Mr. Kochusperger. hippocampus Hudsonius, Pristis anHquorum, Sphyrena 
zygmna, Siphostoma fusca, 

B. Sharp. Amphioxus laneeolatus, Bay of Naples, Italy. 



352 paooEEDiNOS of ths aoadxmt or [1884. 

Abtiottlateb (Crastaceans, insects, arachnids, and myriapods, recent and 

fossil). — Joseph Leidy. Eupagurus poUieariSt Atlantic City, N. J.; 

EupaguTUB polUcaris in Natiea and Fulgur, Atlantic City, N. J. ; LiMnia 

eanaliculata, Atlantic City, N. J. 
J. Ford. Oeypoda arenaria, Atlantic City, N. J. 
H. Skinner. Cocoons of Actios Luna^ Callo8amia angulifera, and PlatyBOr- 

mia Columbia; chrysalids of Papilio Tumus, Papilto troihis, PapUio 

asteriai, and Saiurnia lo, Phila., Pa. 
H. C. Brick. Belostoma grandiSy Phila., Pa. 
W. Y. Heberton. LimtUus polyphemus (2 ', Cape May Point, N. J. 
Mr. Beck. Trap of Tarantula, 
H. Kingsbury. Case of insects, Blair Co., Pa. 
Purchased. Casts of Aia^hus megistot (Trilobite), showing impression of 

legs. 

MoLLUSOA (recent). — S. F. Aaron. Five species of land shells from Texas. 

Rafael Arango. Fifteen species of land, fresh-water and marine shells 
from Cuba, New Guinea and New Hebrides ; five marine species from 
Cuba ; four species from Cuba (types of descriptions). 

8. Archer. One hundred and twenty-five species of marine shells col- 
lected by him at Singapore. 

W. G. Binney. Six species terrestrial shells from N. Carolina, and five 
species from Georgia ; seventeen species from the mountains of Western 
N. Carolina. 

Mrs. A. £. Bush. JSelix ramentosa, Gould, and H.pulchellOy Mull, (intro- 
duced), from California. 

Conchological Section. Sixty-six marine species collected at Singapore by 
Dr. S. Archer ; three hundred and five trays of marine, land and fresh- 
water shells firom Florida, Texas, etc., collected by Henry Hemphill ; 
one hundred and twenty-five species marine shells from Singapore ; ten 
species of land and fresh water shells (from C. F. Ancey, Marseilles). 

John Ford. Littorina irroratay Say, South Atlantic City, N. J. ; Q^g cases 
of Fulgur carica and F. canaliculata, Brigantine Beach, N. J. ; 8olen ensii, 
L., Cape May, N. J.; Cytherea eonvexOf Say, Atlantic City, N. J.; Danax 
fosior, Say, and Petrieola pholadiformis. Lam.; Bulimus, from Syria, 
Cingula minuta, Totten, Providence, R. I. ; Mactra iolidisHmay Chemn., 
young, So. Atlantic City, N. J.; Gemma ManhattermSy Prime, Narra- 
gansett Bay, R. I. ; egg cases of Nassa, and Fistrieola pholadiformis, Lam., 
Sea Isle City, N. J.; Solen ensis^ L., with animals, and nidus of Natiea 
duplieatay Say, Somers' Point, N. J. ; fine specimen of TurhineUa ncoly- 
mu8, Bahamas; Natiea duplieata. Say, Atlantic City, N. J.; Fulgur 
eanaliculatay Say, Anglesea, N. J.; Mactra solidisaima, Chemn., and 
ZirphoBQ crispaiay L., from same locality; Area pexata and Natiea 
duplieata ; egg cases of Fulgur eanalieulata, attached to yalve of Maetra; 
all from Anglesea. 

Isaiah Greegor. Seven marine species from the Bahamas ; Bulima inter- 
media, Cantr., Florida ; Nerita peleronta, L. Bahamas. Three marine 
species from Florida, and two species from the Bahamas. 

Andrew Garrett. Eighty-four species of Terrestrial MoUusea, types 
figured in his paper on the Shells of the Society Islands, published in 
the Journal of the Academy, vol. ix. 

W. D. Hartman. Aehatinella Sawerbywna, and two other species of 
Aehatinella, 

F. L. Harvey. Seven species of fresh-water shells, Arkansas. 

Henry Hemphill. Six species of PleurotomidsB, from Florida. 

Benton Holcomb. Seven species fresh-water shells, Connecticut. 

J. A. Holmes. Mdrginella roseida, Redfield, from an Indian burial mound, 
N. Carolina. 

Jos. Leidy. ColumI>ella lunata, Say, Atlantic City, N. J* 



1884.'] NATUBAL 80IBN0B8 Of PHILADELPHIA. 353 

E. Lehnert. One hundi'ed and twelve trays, shells of Washington, D. C. 

E. Marie. Forty five species of shellH from Guadeloape, W. I. 
Isaac Massey. Banella pulehra, Japan. 

Wesley Newcomb. Bythinella MonroensiSy Frannfeld, Florida Springs, 
Florida. 

C. R. Orcutt. Thiri;y-four species, California ; three marine species, Lower 
California. 

G. H. Parker. Ommattrephet 8ctgitt€Utu, N. Jersey ; ten marine species, 
vicinity of Boston, Mass. 

W. H. Kush. Wood bored by Xylotrya fimbriata^ from Chesapeake Bay. 

A. W. Robinson. Helix buccuUnta, Gould, Norfolk, Va. 

Mrs. Benj. Sharp. My a arenarioy Linn., Nantucket, Mass. 

Benj. Sharp. Marcenaria violacea, Schum., Nantucket; eleven marine 
species from the Mediterranean Sea ; Limax agrestis, Linn., German- 
town, Pa. 

U. C. Smith. Uhio complanatuiy Solander, from branch of Maurice River, 
near Yineland, N. J. 

F. £. Spinner. Murex adustus^ Linn., from Bahamas ; four species of 
Unionid», from New Hampshire. 

L. H. Streng. Cerithium ocdlatum^ Brug., Panama; Flanorhis biearinatuSf 

Say, Salem, Oregon ; two species fresh-water shells from Michigan. 
Southwick and Jenks. Cingula minuta^ Totten, Naragansett Bay, R. L 
Joseph Willcox. Three marine species, and nidimental capsules of F(u- 

eiolariat 0%Prea paroiitiea, on mangrove branch, all from W. Coast of 

Florida. 
H. C. Wood, Jr. BulimuB altemaiv^ Say, Valley of the Rio Grande, 

Texas ; OmmcLstrepJies aagittatta, 

MoLLUscA (fossil).— E. W. Cooper. BelemnUella mucr<mata, Cretaceous, 

N. J. 
C. S. Bement. Cerithium giganteum^ Fleury, France. 
J. Border. Cast of Arca^ Mullica Hill, N. J. 

J. liCidy. Ostrea Virginiea, Buecinum undatum^ Atlantic City, N. J. 
J. Ford. Peeten irrctdian^, Fulgur carieoy Fulgur canalieulata, Orepidula 

fomieata. 
In exchange with Dr. Otto Meyer. 170 species of Oligooene shells, from 

Germany. 

WoBMS, EcHiNODBRMS, CcsLENTERATES AND Sponges (rccent and fossil). 

— J. Ford. Caudina arenaria, Atlantic City, N. J. ; MeUita te%tudinata. 

Holly Head City. N. J. ; Sponge, Somers' Point, N. J. ; Lepas anser- 

ifera, Atlantic City, N. J. ; Tubularia indivisa and Annelid, Sea Isle 

City. 
J. Leidy. Astrangia DancBj Atlantic City, N. J. 
E. Potts. 12 species of American fresh-water sponges, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 

Meyenia Leidyit Philadelphia, Pa. 
C. Wistar. Serpula diantkuSy Bamegat, N. J. 
J. Willcox. Six specimens of Marine Sponges, West Coast of Florida ; 

70 trays, containing about 50 (?) species of Marine Sponges, W. Coast 

of Florida. 
L. Woolman. Seolithus lineari$t Valley Forge, Pa. 

G. H. Parker. Botryllus OotUdii, Molgula Manhattentii, Daetylometra 
quinquecirrct. Shark River, N, J. 

Lieut. Ruschenberger. Sponge, Long Island. 

A. H. Smith. Peniremites pyriformis. Mammoth Cave, Ky. 

Inybbtbbratb Fossils, Unglassii ibd.— G. H. Parker. 26 species of 
Cretaceous and Carboniferous fossils, from Texas ; 10 species of Car- 
boniferous fossils, Wise Co., Texas. 



354 PBOOEEBINOS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

G. W. Holstein. 8 species of Cretaceous and Carboniferous fossils, from 

Texas. 
J. Willcox. 15 trays of Oli^ocene rocks and fossils, West Coast of Fla. 
T. H. Aldrich. 21 species of Tertiary fo(«ils, from Mississippi. 
W. Spill man. 4 species of Eocene fossils and 2 species of Cretaceous 

fossils, from Mississippi. 

Botany (recent).— Wm. M. Canby, in charge of Division of Economic 
Botany of Northern Transcontinental Survey. 1013 species of plants, 
collected in 1883, in Dakota, Montana and Washington Territories by 
himself, and by F. L. Sciibner, T. S. Brandegee and Frank Tweedy; 6 
species collected in Maryland and Florida, by J. Donnell Smith. 

A. L. Siler, Kane Co., Utah, through Thomas Meehan. 41 species plants, 
from Southern Utah. 

Wm. H. Jeffries, West Chester, Pa. Specimens of Oentiana campestHs^ 
from vicinity of Geneva, Switzerland. 

John H. Redfield. 180 species plants, from Atlantic and Pacific States, 
mostly new to Academy's Herbarium ; specimens of Corema Conradii 
Torr., from the chief known localities of the United States. 

John H. Redfield and Isaac C. Marrindale. 9 species plants collected by 
C. R. Orentt, on border of Lower California, in 1883, mostly new to the 
Herbarium. 

Isaac C. Martindale. Ellis* 11th, 12th and 13th Centuries of North 
American Fungi ; **Tuckahoe," or ** Indian Bread,'' collected at Kirk- 
wood, N. J., by Joel P. Kirkbride. 

Thos. Meehan. Sssbania punicea B. and H., cultivated in Southern States; 
Cuscuta racemosa Mart., var. ChUiana Engelm., growing on Lucerne, in 
California, with European specimens of same, lx>tli received from Dr. 
Engelmann ; 207 species of plants collected by him in British Columbia 

and Alaska, in 1883 ; Aphelandra , from Western Guatemaln ; 16 

species plants, coUectird in Arizona, by J. G. Lemmon ; Male Strobilus 

of Macrazamia , »n Australian Cycad ; Specimens of Halesia tetra- 

ptera Ij., from Mr. Meehan's garden, with specimens of an aberrant 
seedling from same plant, to illustrate remarks of Mr. Meehan in Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci., for 1884, p. 32. 

John W. Eckfeldt. 100 species Lichens, mostly from Pennsylvani, 
mounted nnd named by himself; 132 species Lichens, from Hawaiian 
Islands, England, Austria, Sweden, etc , mostly new to Academy's 
collection. 

Asa Gray. 39 species Arctic plants, collected by Dr. John Murdock, at 
Signal Service Station, Ooglamie, Pt. Barrow, Arctic Sea, lat. 71o ; 19 
species plants, collected at Copper I., and Behring's Island, Coast of 
Eamtschatka, by L. Stejneger, in 1882 and 1883 ; 101 species plauts, 
mostly from China, collected by Ford, David, etc. ; Aster now-Belgii L., 
and variety. Aster paniculatus Lam., and Aster eimineus Lam., all from 
Massachusetts ; 1057 species plants, mostly European, from Herbarium 
of Geo. Curling Joad. 

G. W. Holstein, through Thos. Meehan. 59 species plants, collected in 
Texas, Arizona and Southern California, in 1883. 

L. J. Wahlstedt, of Christianstad, Sweden, through Robert Nordbloem, of 
Philada. A collection of Scandinavian Characea, cr»nsisting of 31 species 
and numerous varieties and forms. 

John Donnell Smith, of Baltimore. Md. Hierticium Martanum, Willd., 
from Garrett Co., Md., formerly confounded with H, Chonovii L., now 
restored by Gray ; 26 species plants, collected by him in southern United 
States, in 1884. 

Thos. C. Porter. 19 species plants from New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 

H. J. Hunt, U. S. N., of the Arctic Relief Search Party for the survivors 
of the Jeanne tte, through Chas. E. Smith, of Philadelphia. 10 species 
Arctic plants, collected in 1882, near the mouth of Lena River, Siberia. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 355 

Aubrey H. Smith. Fruit of Torreya Galiforniea, California ; Nut of Areea 
Catechu, from S. China. 

G. Howard Parker. Usnea barbata and BatrackoBpermum moniUforrM, 
both from Hammonton, N. J. 

W. A. Kellerman of Manhattan, Kansas. 23 species plants, collected by 
him in western Kansas. 

Mrs. Fanny £. Briggs, Le Centre, W. T., through Thos. Meehan. 6 species 
plants, from Washington Terr. 

Xsaac Bulk. Trichinium exaltatum Buth., Cult., native of Australia ; Got- 
donia pribescenSf li^iieT., and Halesia (^ip^^ro, Willd., both from Bar- 
tram's Garden. 

Fossil Botany.— S. E. Paschal. Plant impressions, Triassic shale, 

Buckingham. Valley, Bucks Co., Pa. 
A. H. Smith. Wood, Gold Run Mine, Cal. 

Minerals. - Joseph Leidy. White fluorite, locality unknown* 

C. S. Bement. Topaz, beryl, clevelandite, apatite, zircon, montmoril- 
lonite, columbite, fluorite and orthoclase, Stoneham, Me. ; curved 
muscovite, Branchville, Conn. 

W. W. Jefferis. Melanite garnets, Frascati, Italy; blende, Santander, 
Spain * pyrite, Lancaster Co., Pal ; sphalerite, Alston Moor, Cumber- 
land, £ng. ; pyrite in calcite, Chester Co., Pa. 

J. Binder. 9 specimens of granite, Maine. 

W. B. Eltonhead. Corundum, Lehigh Co., Pa. ; graphite and anthracite 
in cast iron ; arsenio-pyrite, blen& and quartz, Dakota ; muscovite, 
Custer City, Dakota. 

J. Hartman. Siderite and hematite, millerite in hematite, Antwerp, N. Y. 

G. W. Fiss. Columbite, Amelia Court House, Va. 

J. Border. Mica schists, from marl-pit, Mullica Hill, N. J. 

J. G. Hiestand. Astrophyllite, celestite, barite and calcite, and zircon, 
Colorado. 

J. Lea. Cancrinite,' Chester Co., Pa. 

H. C. Lewis. Calcite with byssolite, Chester Co., Pa. 

W. Hoyt. Chalcopyrite, Chester Co., Pa.; volcanic ash, Krakatoa. 

W. H. Bates. Magnetite, Marion Co., N. C. 

A. K. Mc Henry. Pumice, Java tiea, near Krakatoa. 

H. J. Smitn. Cassiterite, Rockbridge Co., Va. 

H. H. Fames. Azurito and malachite, Santa Rita Mts., Arizona ; silver 
in chrysocola, Quijotoa Mts., Arizona ; muscovite and uranite, Ash 
Co., N. C. • 

J. Struthers. A collection of agates, silicified and opalized woods, land- 
scape and other marbles, fluoites, calcites, quartz crystals and other 
minerals, from yarious local itrs. 

S. Wood. Fossiliferous boulder, Escuminiao River, Bonaventure Co., 
Canada. 

Mr. Linn. Limonite (ochre), Montgomery, Ala. 

P. F. Brown. Vivianite Mullica Hill, N. J. ; byssolite in calcite, French 
Creek, Chester Co., Pa. 

D. S. Martin. Coal, Discoe Island, Greenland ; turba, Bahia, Brazil. 
Mineralo^cal Section A. N. S. Barite, Cumberland, England ; apophyl- 

lite and calcite, Chester Co., Pa.; crocidolite. South Africa ; vanadinite, 
Arizona ; strengite and cacoxenite, Giessen, Germany ; pseudomorphs 
after sarcolite, Canada ; priceite, Oregon ; pseudocotonnite, Vesuvius, 
Italy ; vesbite, Vesuvius, Italy ; dietrichite, Hungary ; struvite, Schem- 
nitz; dausthalite, Sweden ; menacannite, var. washingtonite, Litchfield, 
Conn.; euchlorine, Vesuvius, Italy; muscovite, barcenite, Mexico; 
bomite, Colorado ; schraufite, Bukowina ; cubanite, Cal. ; kjerulfite and 
tschermakit, Norway. 



356 P&OOEEDINGS or THE AOABJ&MT Of [1884. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIBRARY. 

December^ 1883^ to December^ I884. 

Ackermann, Carl. Beitrage zur physiscben Geographie der Ostsee. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Albrecht, Paul. Sur los ^l^ments morphologiques da Manubrium du 
Sternum ohez les Mammif^res. 
Sur les Homodynamies qui existent entre la main et le pied des 

Mammiferes. 
Erwiderung auf Herm Prof. Dr. Hermann v.. Meyer's Aufsatz : — 
**Der Zwischenkieferknocben und seine Beziehungen zur Hasens- 
charte und zur schragen Qesicbtsspalte." 
Ueber die Zahl der Zabne bei den Hasenscbartenkieferspalten. 
Ueber die morphologische Bedeutung der Kiefer-Lippen- und G^icht- 

spalten. 
Sur la fcBsette vermienne du crane des Mammiferes. Bruxelles, 1884. 
Sur les copulsB intercoHtoi dales. 
Sur la fente maxillaire double sous-muqueuse. 
Epiphyses osseuses sur les apophyses 6pineuses des vertebres d'un 

reptile. 
Note sur le pelvistemum des Edent^s. 

Sur les spondylocentres ^pipituitaiies du crane, la non-existence de la 
pocbe de Rathke et la presence de la chorde dorsale et de spondylo- 
centres dans le cartilage de la cloison du nez des yertebres. 1884. 
Sur la valeur morpbologique de la trompe d'Eustache et les d^riv^s de 
I'arc palatin, de I'arc mandibulaire et de I'arc bryoiden des vertebres. 
1884. The Author. 

Alcott, Wm. P. Introduced plants found in the vicinity of a wool-scouring 
establishment. Essex Institute. 

Alert. Report on the Zoological collections made in the IndoPacific 
Ocean during the voyage of H. M. S. "Alert." The British Museum. 
Allen, HaiTison. On a new method of recording the motions of the soft 
palate. 1884. The Author. 

Allen, J. A. Notes on the Mammals of portions of Kansas, Colorado^ 
Wyoming and Utah, 1874. 
List of Birds collected by Chas. Linden, near Santarem, Brazil, 1876. 
A list of Birds of Massachusetts, with annotations, 1878. 

Essex Institute. 
Anders, J. M. The exhalation of Ozone by flowering plants. The Author. 
Anderson, John. Catalogue and hand-book of the archaeological collec- 
tions in the Indian Museum, Part II. Gupta and Inscription Gal- 
leries, 1888. Trustees of the Indian Museum. 
Andr^, Ernest. Species des Hym6nopt^res composent le groupe des 
Formicides. 1881-88. The Author. 
Ashbumer, Ch. Brief descriptions of the anthracite coal fields of Penn- 
sylvania. The Author. 
Astor Library. 88d annual report of the trustees, 1881. The Authors. 
Bailey, G. E. Wyoming's wealth. Newspaper slip. The Author. 
Baillon, H. Traits de Botanique m6dicale phan^rogamique. ler Fasc. 
1888. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Dictionnaire de Botanique, 16me Fasc. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Baker, J . Gilbert. On the present state of our knowledge of the geography 
of British plants. The Author. 
Barral, J. A. Enquete sur le credit agricole faite sur la demande de M. le 
Ministre de PAgriculture. 1884. The Author. 



L 



1884.] NATURAL SOISNCES Of PHILADELPHIA. 357 

Baiy, A. de. Yergleichende Morphologie et Biolo^e der Pilze, Myoetozoen 
und Bacterien. 1884. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Bastian, Adolph. AUgemeine Grundziige der Ethnologie. 

I. V. WilliamRon Fund. 
Beck, L» Die Geschichte des Eisens in technischer und kulturgeschicht- 
licher Beziehung. 1 Abth. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Becker, George F. Monographs of the United States Geological Survey, 
Vol. III. Geology of the Comstock Lode and the Washoe District, 
with Atlas. Angelo Ueilprin. 

Beecher, Chas. Ceratiocaridse from the Chemung and Waverly groups at 
Warren, Pa. The Author. 

Bell, Clark. Madness and crime. The Author. 

Benoit, L. Nuovo catalogo delle conchiglie terrestre e fluviatili della 
Sicilia. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Berg, Carlos. Notas sinonimicas acerca de algunos Coleopteros y Lepi- 
dopteros. 
Addenda et emendanda ad Hemiptera Argentina. The Author. 

Berge, Ernst. Segmenta lignoium Indise occidentalis 10 cm. long, quae si 
superficies polita erit, lignorum structuram dilucide ostendent. 
Ceuturia I and III. The Author. 

Binney, W. G. Notes on the jaw and lingual dentition of pulmonate 
mollusks. 1884. Tlie Author. 

Blanchard, Raphael. Les coccides utiles, 1883. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 
Bliss, Richard. Library of Harvard University. Bibliographical Contri- 
butions, No. 10. Classified Index to the Maps in Petermann's 
geographische Mittheilungen, 1855-1881. Prof. Justin Winsor. 

Boguslawski, Georg von. Handbuch der Ozeanographie. Bd. I, 1884. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 
Boehm, Georg. Register zum zweiten Band der palsBontologischen Mit- 
theilungen aus dem Museum des E. Bayer. Staates, 1884. 

Wilson Fund. 
Bogdanow, Modesto. Conspectus Avium Imperii Rossici. Fasc. 1. 

The Author. 
Bohnenseig, G. C. W. Repertorium annuum Literature Botanicse Perio- 
dicae. VII, 1 and 2. L V. Williamson Fund. 

Boissier, E. Flora Orientalis. Y, 2. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Bolau, H. Fiihrer durch die Walfisch-Ausstellung im Zoologischen 
Garten zu Hamburg. 
Die Spatangiden des Hamburger Museums. HThe Author. 

Bombicci, Luigio. Commemorazione di Quintino Sella, promossa dal 
Circ«»lo Universitario Y. E. II. The Author. 

Borre, Preudhomme de. N* te sur les Glom^rides de la Belgique. m84. 
Tentamen Catalofti Glomeiidarum hucusque deiccriptarum. 
Le feuille qui se transforme en insect e. 
Liste des Mantides du Mus^e Royal d'histoire naturelle de Belgique, 

1883, 

Notice n^crologique sur Jules Putzeys. The Author. 

Bourguignat, J. R. Species novisbimsB Molluscorum, in Europseo syi^te- 

mati detectsB, notis diagnobticis succinctis breviter descriptse. 1876. 

MoUusques fiuviatiles du Nyanza Ouk^r^w^ (Yictoria Nyanza), suivi 

d'une note sur les genres Cameronia et Burtonia du Tanganika. 1883. 

MoUusques terrestros et fiuviatiles recueillis en Afrique dans le pays 

(^omalis Medjourtin. 1881. 
Histoire malacologique de la CoUine de Sansan, 1881. 
Meteriaux pour servir a Phistoire des MoUusques Ac6phales du Systems 

Europ4en. I. 1881. 
Monographies des genres Pechaudia et Hagenmulleria d6couverts en 
Alg^rie. 1881, 



358 PBOCSKDINQS OF THE AOADSMT OF [1884. 

Apen^ Bar lea UDionidjB de la Peninsule Italique. 1888. 

Paulia, on description d'une nouveau groupe g^n^rique de la Yille 

d'Avignon. 1882. 
Bythioepeum, on description d'lm nouveau genre des Mollusques 

aveugles. 1882. 
Histoire Malaoologique de I'Abyvsinie. 1888. 

Description de divemes especes terrestres et fluviatiles et de diflH^rent 
genre de Mollusques de TElgypte, de I'Abyssinie, de Zanzibar, dn 
Senegal et du centre de I'Afriqoe. 1879. 
Aper<;u sur les especes Franqaises du genre Suocinea. 1877. 
Miscellanys Italo-Malacologiques. 
Monographic du nouveau genre Filholia. 1881. 
Monographic du genre Emmericia. 1880. 
Inscription Roroain«'S de Venice (Alpes-Maritimes). 1869. 
Ouvraues de megalithologie, d'epigraphie, d*06teologie et de paleon- 
, tologie. 
Etude sur les fossiles tertiares et quatemaires de la Yall^ de la 

Cettina en Dalmatic. 1880. 
Recberches sur les ossementa de CanidsB constats en France a I'^tat 

fossiles pendant la p^riode quatemaire. 

Histoire des Felidae fosHiles constat^ en France dans les depots de la 

periode quatemaire. 4to. 1879. The Author. 

BrefeldL Oscar. Untersuchungen aus dem G^esammtgebiete der Mykologie. 

Fortsetzung der Schimmel und Hefenpilze. VI, H., Myxomyceten, 

1 ; Ehitomophthoreen, 2. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Brinton, Daniel G. Abor'ginal American Authors. 1883. 

Kaii Hermann Berendt. The Author. 

British Museum. Catalogue of the birds in the. Vol. IX. 1884. 

The Trustees. 
Bioeck, E van der. Note sur un nouveau mode de classification et de 
notation graphique des depots g^logiqnes bas^ sur I'^tud*^ des 
ph^iiom^nes de la sedimentation marine. The Author. 

Bronn's Elassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs. ler Bd., Protozoa 
(Butschli), 20-25 Lief. 5er Bd., II. Abth., 11 and 12 Lief. 6er 
Bd., Ill Abth., 41 and 42 Lief; lY Abth , and Y Abth., 27 Lief. 

Wilson Fund. 

Brooks, W. K. Handbook of Invertebrate Zoology, for laboratories and 

seaside work. Boston, 1882. Wm. H. Dougherty. 

The Law of Heivdity. 1883. L Y. Williamson Fund. 

Bruhl, C. B. Zootomie aller Thierklassen. Lief. 28, 29 and 30. 

I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Bucquoy, E., Ph. Dautzenberg and G. Dollfus. Les mollusques marins 

du Rouraillon. Fasc. 5 and 6. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Buckingham, B. H., Qeo. C. Foulk and Walter McLean. Observations 

upon the Korean Coast, Japanese-Korean ports and Siberia. 1883. 

Navy Department. 
Bureau of Education. Circulars of Information, No. 5, 1873 ; Nos. 3 and 
5, 1883 ; Nos. 1-^ 1884. Preliminary circular respecting the ezhi- 
b'tion of education at the World's Industrial and Cotton Centennial. 
1884. 
Report of American School at Athens. 
The Bufalini Prize. 1883. 
Education in Italy and Greece. 1883. 

The Department of the Interior. 

Bureau of Statistics. Quarterly report of the Chief. Nos. 2, 3 and 

Sept. 30, 1883-84 ; 1884. No. 4. Treasury Department. 

Buenos Ayres, Annuaire Statistique de la Province de. He Ann^ 1882. 

Bureau de Statistique Generale, Buenos Ayres. 



1 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 359 

Call, R. E., and C. E. Beecher. Notes on a Nevada shell (Pyrgula neva- 

densis). The Authors. 

Cantoni, Gaetano. Saggio di fisiologia vegetale, 1883. The Author. 

Carpmael, Ch. Report of the meteorological service of the Dominion of 

Canada, 1883. The Author. 

Casey, Thomas L. Contributions to the descriptive and systematic cole- 

opterology of Noith America. The Author. 

Caswell, E. T. Annual address before the American Academy of Medicine. 

1881. Dr. R. J. Dunglison. 

Censo general de la Provincia de Buenos Aires demografico, agricola, 

industrial, comercial, etc. Yerificado el 9 de Octubre de 1881. 

The Census Commisson. 
Certes, A. De Taction des haute pressions sur la vitality des micro- 
organisms d'eau douce et d'eau de mer, 1884. 
Sur la cuture, a I'abri des germes atmosph^riques des eaux et des 
segments rapportes par les expeditions du Travailleur et du Talis- 
man, 1882-83. The Author. 
Challenger, Vovage of. Report of the scientific results. Zoology, Vols. 
Ill — VIII ; Narrative, II ; Physics and Chemistry, I. 

Her Britannic Majesty's Government. 

Chamberlin, S C. The bearing of some recent determinations on the 

correlation of the eastern and western terminal moraines. 

Hillocks of angular gravel and disturbed stratification. The Author. 

Chapman, Henry C. History of the discovery of the circulation of the 

blood, 1884. The Author. 

Chief of Engineers, U. 8. A. Annual report, 1883. Pts. 1, 2 and S. 

Engineer Department, IT. S. A. 

Chief of Ordnance. Report of. 1883. War Department. 

Christian Philosophical Institute. Geometry of the circular plane and 

the harmony of the solar courses. 

Appendix and corrigenda to the earlier editions of John Hampden's 

map of the world as a circular plane. 
Common sense on scientific subjects. 
What is a Jew ? 

A compendium of practical instruction in the laws of nature. London, 

1884. , The Institute. 

City Hospital, Boston. Twentieth annual report of the Trustees, 1883-84. 

The Trustees. 

Colonial Museum and Geological Survey of New Zealand. 18tti annual 

report, together with the 14th annual report on the Colonial Botanic 

Garden, 1882-»3. 

Reports of geological explorations during 1882. The Survey. 

Colorado Scientific Society. Artesian wells of Denver, 1884. The Society. 

Comity Geologique, Russe. Bulletin 1882, 1883, Nos. 1-9 ; 1884, 1-5 ; 

Memoires I, 1, 2. The Survey. 

Commissiuner of Education. Reports, 1881-83. 

Department of the Interior. 

Commissioners of Inland Fisheries. 18th annual report, December 31, 

1883. The Commissioners. 

Cope, Edw. D. On the contents of a bone cave in the Island of Anguilla 

(West Indies). 

The evidence for evolutioi^ in the history of the extinct mammalia. 

1883. 
Paleontological Bulletins. Nos. 37-39. 
The Condylarthra. 
On Catagenesis, 1883. 
The Cre^onta. 

The Tertiary Marsupialia, 1884. 
The Batrachia of the Permian period of North America. The Author. 



360 PBOOEKDINOS OF THE AOADBBCT OT [1884. 

Corda^ A. C. J. loones fungomm huousque cognitorum. Vols. 1-6. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 

Correspondance Botanique. Xe ed. The Author. 

Corwin, CruiM of the Revenue Steamer, in Alaska and the N. W. Arctic 

Ocean in 1871. Treasury Department. 

Coues, K Key to the North American Birds. 2d ed., 1884. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Council of the City of Manchester. 31st annual report on the working of 
the Public Free Libraries, 1882-83. The Council. 

CranHale, A. R. Pn liminary report on the geology of Morgan, Johnson, 
Magoffin and Floyd Counties. Geological Survey of Kentucky 

Crudeli, Tomaso. Che cosa si puo fare in tempo di cclem ? 1884 

The Author. 
Dall, W. H. A new classification of the Mollusca. 

On a collection of shells sent from Florida. The Author. 

Dallas, Jiimes. On the primary divisions and geographical distribution of 

mankind. The Author. 

Dames, W. und E. Eayser. Palsaontologische Abhandlungen. ler Bd. 

H. 3, 4 ; II, 1-3. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Dana, James D. New text book of geology. 4th edition. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

De Candolle, Alph. MonographisB Phanerogamarum Prodromi. Vol. 5, 

Pars Prima. Cyrtandrc»e. Auctore C. B. Clarke. Wilson Fund. 

Delogne, C. H. Flore Cryptogamique dela Belgique. Ire Partie, Muscinea. 

ler Fasc. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

De Man, J. Q. Die, frei in der reinen Erde und im slissenwasser lebenden 

Nematoden der Niederlandischen Fauna, 1884. 

L y . Williamson Fund. 

Department of Agriculture, Miscellaneous. Special report, Nos. 3 and 5. 

Division of Statistics, N. S Report Nos. 3-7. The Department. 

Department of the Interior. Census Office. Report on the productions oi 

agriculture as returned at the 10th census (June 1, 1880). 

Statistics of the population of the United States at the 10th census, 

June 1, 188a 
Report of the manufactures of the United States. 2 Vols., 1883. 
General Geological map of the area explored and mapped by Dr. 
F. y. Hay den and the surveys under his charge. 18H9ul880. 

The Department. 
Department of Mines, Nova Scotia. Report for the year 1883. 

The Department. 
Dewalque, G. Notice explicative sur la Carte geologique de la Belgique 
et des Provinces voisines. 1879. Geological Survey of Belgium. 
Dobson, G. E. A monograph of the insectivora systematical and anatom- 
ical. Pts. 1 and 2. 1. y. Williamson Fund. 
Dollo, M. L. Quatrieme note snr les Dinosauriensde Bemissart. The Author. 
Drasche, Richard von. Beitrage zur Entwickelung der Polychseten. les H. 
1884. I. y. Williamson Fund. 
Drechsler, Adolph. Characteristic der philosophiscJien Systeme seit Kant. 
1863. 
Die Philosophic im Cydus der Naturwissenschaften. 1863. 
Die Stellung des Fichte'schen Systems im Entwickelungsgange der 

Philosophic. 2e Aufl., 1862. 
Die Personlichkeit Gottes und des Menschen begrifflich bestimmt imd 

als nothwendige Annahme dargethan. 1856. 
Astrologische yortrage. 1855. 

Scholien zu Christoph Rudolphs Coss. 1851. The Author. 

Dunker, W., and K. Zittel. XXX Bd., I. and II. Th., le Lief. 
PalsBontographica. B. XXXI., 3 folge, yil. B., 1 and 2 Lief. 

Wilson Fund. 



1884.] NATUBAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 361 

Elliot, D. G. A monograph of the FelidsB. Part XI. Wilson Fund. 

Ellis, John. Deterioration of the Puritan stock and its causes. 

The Author. 

EnoyolopsBdia Britannica, Vols. 16 and 17. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

EncyklopsBdie der Naturwissensohaften. le Abth., 35e~38e Lief., 2e Abth., 

17e und 25e Lief. L V. Williamson Fund. 

Engineer Department, U. S. A. Report on the International Exhibition 

of Electricity held at Paris, 1881. 

Professional notes by Capt. E. Maguire. 

Studies on coast defense applied to the Gulf of Spezia, by C. Guarasci. 

Engineer Department U. S. A. 
Engler, Edmund A. Time-keeping in Paris. St. Louis, 1882. 

Time-keeping in London. St. Louis, 1882. The Author. 

Expedicion al Rio Negro (Patagonia). Informe official de la Gomision 

cientifica agregado al estado mayor general de la. Ent. 1, 2 and 8. 

The Academy of Sciences of the Argentine Republic. 

Fabre, J. H. Souvenirs entomologiques. Etudes sur I'instinct et les 

moBurs des insectes, 1879. 

Nouveaux souvenirs entomologiques, 1882. Harold Wingate. 

Farlow, W. G. Notes on the cryptogamlc flora of the White Mountains. 

Notes on some species in the third and eleventh centuries of Ellis's 

North American Fungi. 
Notes on some Ustilaginese of the United States*. 
Euumeration of the PeronosporsB of the United States. The Author. 
Fernandez, Leon. Coleccion de documentos para la historia de Costa 
Rica. T. III. The Author. 

Fewkes. F. W, Contributions to the Myology of Tachyglossa hystrix, 
Echidna hystrix. Essex Institute. 

Financial Reform Almanack for 1884. Financial Reform Association. 

Fischer, Alfred. Uutersuchungen iiber das Siebrohren-System der Cucur- 
bitaceen. 1884. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Fischer, Paul. Manuel de Conchyliologie. Fasc. 6 and 7. The Author. 
Flemming, Walther. Zellsubstanz, Kern und Zelltheilung, 1882. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Florida University. Calendar, 1884-5. The Trustees. 

Flower, Wm . Henry, and John G. Garson. Catalogue of the specimens 

illustrating the osteology and dentition of vertebrated animals, 

recent and extinct, contained in the Muxeum of the Royal College 

of Surgeons of England. Part II, Class Mammalia, other than man. 

The Council of the College. 
Frazer, Persifor. The Peach-bottom Slates of the Lower Susquehanna. 
1884. 
Reply to a paper entitled "Notes on the Geology of Chester Valley 

and vicinity." 1884. 

Geological and mineral studies in Nuevo Leon and Coahuila, Mexico. 

1884. The Author. 

Fritsch, Ant. Fauna der Gaskohle und der Kalksteine der Permformation 

Bohmens. I, 4. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Garman, Samuel. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. 

The Author. 
Gaudry, Albert. Les Enchainements du monde animal dans les temps 
geologiqae. Fossiles primaires. 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Gautler, Lucien Marie. Les Champignons, Paris, 1884. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Geddes, Patk. Re-statement of the cell theory. The Author. 

Gegenbauer, C. Lehrbuch der Anatomic des Menschen, 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Genth, F. A. On Herderite, 1884. The Author. 

24 



362 PB00EEDINO6 OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

Geological and NaturiU History Survey of Canada. Report of Progress 
for 1880-81-82, with maps. 
PalsBozoic Fosfiils, III, 1. The Survey. 

Geoloj?ical Survey of India. Records, XV, 4 ; XVI, 1-4 ; XVJI, 1-8. 
Memoirs, 8vo, XIX, 2-4 ; XX, 1, 2. 

Memoirs, 4to, PalsBontologia Indica, ser. X, vol. 2, Pts. 4 and 6 ; vol. 

3, Pts. 1-4 ; Ser. XII, Vol. 4, Pt. 1 ; Ser. XIII, I, 4 ; Fasc. 1 and 2; 

Ser. XIV, Vol. I, Pt. 4. The Survey. 

Geological Survey of New Jersey. Annual report, 1883. The Survey. 

Geological Survey of Pennsylvania. Reports AA, AG, text and atlas, D^ 

Vol. II, G'. The Commission. 

Gerlach, Leo. Beitrage zur Morphologic und Morphogenie. I, 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Gervais, Henri, et Florentino Ameghino. Les Mammif^res fossiles de 

I'Ameiique du Sud. 1880. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Gilpin, Edwin, Jr. The folding of the carboniferous strata in the maritime 

provinces of Canada. The Author. 

Godwin- Austin, H. H. Land and freshwater mollusca of India Pts. 1-4. 

Text and atlas, 5, atlas. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Goode, G. Brown and Tarleton H. Bean. A list of the fishes of Essex 

County, including those of Massachusetts Bay. Essex Institute. 

Gould, John. The birds ofAsia. Pts. 34 and 35. 

Supplement to the TrocbilidsB or Humming-birds, Pt. 3. 

The Birds of New Guinea. Pts. 18 and 14 Wilson Fund. 

Graber, Vitus. Grundlinien zur Erforschungdes Helligkeits- und Farben- 

sinnes der Thiere. 1884. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Graff, Ludvngv . Monographic der Turbellarien, I. Rhabdoccdlida. Text 

and Atlas, 1882. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Gray, Arthur F. A complete list of the scientific papers of Thomas Bland, 

1884. The Author. 

Gray, Asa. Synoptical flora of North America. Vol. I, Pt. 2. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 

A revision of the North American species of the genus Oxytropis. 

Memorials of George Engleman and of Oswald Heer. The Author. 

Green, Samuel Abbott. Notes ou a copy of Dr. Wm. Douglass's Almanack 

for 1743, touching on the subject of medicine in Massachusetts before 

his time. The Author. 

Green, Traill. Annual address before the American Academy of Medicine. 

1882. Dr. R. J. Dunglison. 

Greene, C. A. Fertilizers in general, and the greensand marl of King 

William County, Virginia, in particular. 

An essay on insects injurious to vegetation, and how to get rid of 

them. The Author. 

Griffiths, G. S. On the evidences of a glacial epoch in Victoria, during 

postmiocene times. The Author. 

Gruber, Wenzel. Beobachtungen aus der menschlichen und vergleichen- 

den Anatomic. H. 4. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Guarasci, CsBsar. Studies on coast defense, applied to the Gulf vf Spezia. 

Engineer Department, U. S. A. 
Gtimbel, E. W. von. Grundziige der Geologic. I. Lief. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Guia da Exposigao anthropologica Braziliera realizada pelo Museu 
Nacional de Rio de Janeiro. 1882. The Museum. 

Guthrie, Malcolm. On Mr. Spencer's Data of Ethics. 1884. The Author. 
Haas, H. Beitrage zur Kenntniss der liasichen Brachiopodenfauna. 
Hall, James. Geological Sui-vey of the State of New York. Palson- 
tology, V, 1. Lamellibranchiata, L Text. 1884. The Author. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 363 

Hampden, John. Biblical Science Defense Association. The earth in its 

creation, its chronology, its phyMical features and the one alone 

portion of the universe adapted to man's occupation and service. 

1884. The Author. 

Hebert, M. Notes sur la geologic du Department de I'Ariege. 1884. 

The Author. 
Hector, James. Handbook of New Zealand. Wellington, 1883. 

The Author. 

Heilprin, Angelo. Contributions to the Tertiary Geology and Paleontology 

of the united States. The Author. 

H^raud, A. Nouveau dictionnaire des Plantes m6ridionales. 2me ed. 

1884. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hertwig, O. Die Ghaetognathen. 1880. 

Die Symbiose oder das Genossenscbaftsleben im Thierreich. 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Hertwig, O. and R. Die Coelomtheorie. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hertwig, R. Ueber den Bau der Ctenophoren. 1880. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hicks, Henry. On the Cambrian Conglomerates resting upon and in the 

vicinity of some Pre-Cambrian rocks (the so-called Intrusive 

Masses in Anglesey and Csemarvonshire. 

The succession in the Archaean Rocks of America, compared with that 

in the Pre-Cambrian Rocks of Europe. 

On the Pre-Cambrian Rocks of Pembrokeshire, with especial reference 

to the St. David's District. The Author. 

Hidalgo, J. G. Catalogo iconografico y descriptivo de los moluscos 

teiTestres de Espana, Portugal y las Baleares. 1884. The Author. 

Hobbs, Isaac H. The Me-hanism of the Universe. 1883. The Author. 

Homes, Rudolf. Elemente der Palseontologie (PalsBOzoologie). Leipzig, 

1884. ♦ I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Hooker, Sir J. D. The Flora of British India. Part 11. 

East Indian Government. 
Hoyle, W. E. On a new species of Octopus (O. macuiosus). The Author. 
Hunt, T. Sterry. The Geological History of the Serpentines, including 
studies of pre-Cambrian rocks. 1883. 
The Taconic question in Geology. Part I. 1883. The Author. 

Hutton, F. W. Notes on some New Zealand Land Shells, with descriptions 
of new species. 
Revittion of the recent Rhipidoglossate and Docoglossate mollusca of 
New 2^a]and. The Author. 

Indiana. Second Annual Report of the Department of Statistics and 
Geology. 1880. The Author. 

Department of Geology and Natural History. 11th and 13th Annual 
Reports. Part I, Geology and Natural History ; Part II, Paleon- 
tology. The Survey. 
James, Joh. F. Contributions to the Flora of Cincinnati. The Author. 
James, U. P. Descriptions of four new species of Fossils from the Cincin- 
nati group. 1884. 
On Conodonts and fossil Annelid jaws. 1884. The Author. 
Jannettaz, Ed. M^moires sur la clivages des roches Schistosite, Longrain, 
et sur leur reproduction. 1884. The Author. 
Jeffreys, J. Gwyn. On the Mollusca procured during the Lightning and 
Porcupine Expedition. 1868-70. Part VIII. The Author. 
Jewish Foster Home and Orphan Asylum of Philadelphia. 29th Annual 
Report. The Trustees. 
Jijima, I. and C. Sasaki. Okadaira Shell-Mounds at Hitachi. Tokio^ 
1883. The Author. 
Ealender und Statistisches Jahrbuch fiir das Eonigreich Sachsen. 1885. 

The Minister of the Interior, Saxony. 
Eeyserling, Eugen, Graf. Neue Spinnen aus Amerika. V. The Author. 



364 PBOGEEDINGS OF THE AOABEMY OF [1884. 

Egerolf, Th. Die Dislocationen im Christianiathal. 1884. The Author. 
Konigl. Frederiks Universitets Bibliothek, Fortegnelse over den Tilvaett. 

1880-81. The University. 

Eoren, Johan og D. C Danielssen. Bergens-Museum. Nye Alcyonider, 

Gorgonider og Pennatulider tilhorende Norges Fauna, 1883. 

The Museum. 
Eobelt, W. Iconographie der schalentragenden europaischen Meerescon- 

chylien. Heft 1 and 2, 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund, 

Eneeland, Samuel. The subsidence theory of earthquakes. The Author. 
Eriechbaumer, Dr. J. Fried. Elugsgesamelte Auftiatze iiber Blattwespen. 

1884. The Author. 

Krukenberg. C. F. W. Orundziige einer vergleichenden Physiologie der 

Farbstofftj und der Farben, 1884. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Eunz, G«o. F. Topaz and associated minerals from Stoneham, Maine. 
On the Tourmaline and associated minerals of Auburn, Maine. 

The Author. 
Laache, 8. Die Anamie. Ghristiania, 1 883. 

Royal Frederiks University of Christiana. 
Latzuia, Francis. The Argentine Republic as a field for European 

emigration. 1883. Argentine Scientific Society. 

Lawes, John Bennet. Memoranda of the origin, plan and results of the 

field and other experiments conducted on the farm and in the 

laboratory of, 1884. The Author. 

Lawrence, Geo. N. Descriptions of new species of birds of the genera 

Chrysotis, Formicivora and Spermophila. 
Characters of a new species of pigeon of the genus Engraptila from 

the island of Grenada, West Indies. ^ The Author. 

Lehmann, Johannes. Untersuchungen uber die Entstehung der Alt- 

crystallinischen Scheifergesteine mit besonderer Bezugnahme auf 

das sachsische Granulitgebirge, Erzgebirge, Fichtelgebirge und 

Bairisch-Bohmische Grenzgebirge I. V. Williamson Fond. 

Leitgeb, Hubert. Ueber Bau und Entwicklunff der Sporenhaute und 

Verhalten bei der Eeimung. 1884. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Lenhoss^k, Joseph Edlen von. Die Ausgrabungen zu Szeged-Othalom in 

Ungam. 1884. The Author. 

Les^uereux, Leo and Thos. P. James. Manual of the Mosses of North 

America. 1884. L Y. Williamson Fund. 

Levick, James J. A fairy tale written for and first read to .... at 

a dinner given to Prof. Jos. Leidy M. D. The Author. 

Lewis, H. C. The Geology, Lithology, and Mineralogy of Philadelphia 

and vicinity. Newspaper slips. 1883. 

On supposed glaciation in Pennsylvania south of the terminal moraine. 

Summary of pnigress in mineralogy in 1883. The Author. 

Leydig, Franz. Untersuchungen zur Anatomie und Histologic der Thiere. 

1883. 

Die augenahnlichen Organe der Fische, 1881. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Library of the Suigeon General's Office, United States Army, Lidez 

Catalogue, Vol. V. War Department. 

Light-House Board, annual report, June 30, 1883. Tieasury Department. 

LinnsBus, framed portrait of. Chas. E. Smith. 

Linney, W. M. Notes on the rocks of Central Eentucky, vnth lists of 

fossils. 

Repoil; on the botany of Madison, Lincoln, Garrard, Washington and 

Marion Counties, Ey. 
Report on the geology of Garrard County, Ey. 
Report on the geology of Mercer County, Ey. 
Report on the geology of Washington County, Ey. 
Report on the geology of Lincoln County, Ey. 

G^logioal Survey of Eentucky. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 865 

Lippincott's Gazetteer of the World. New Edition, Philad., 1883. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Liverpool Free Public Library, Catalogue. Reference Department, Part 
3. The Trustees. 

Locard, A mould. Monographic des Helices du groupe de T Helix bolenensis 
Locard. 
Histoire des moUusques dans I'antiquite. 
Les coqnilles sacr^s dans les religions Indoues. 1884. 
8ur quelques cas d'Albinisme et de M^lanisme ches les moUusques 

terrestres et d'eau douce de la faune Fran^aise. 
De la valeur des caracteres sp6cifiques en Malacologie. 1883. 

The Author. 

Loewe, Ludwig. Beitrage zur Anatomie und zur Entwickelungsgeschichte 

des Nervensystem der Saugethiere und des Menschen. 2. Bd. 1. Lief. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 
Lyman, Benj. Smith. Geological and topographical sketch maps of the 
Hinckley Coal Tracts in Brookfield Township, Trumbull Co., Ohio ; 
near Warsaw, Coshocton Co., Ohio, and of the New York and 
Westmoreland Gas Coal Company's lands at Manor Station, West- 
moreland Co., Pa. 
Geological Survey of Japan. Geological and topographical maps of 
the oil lands of Japan. 1882. The Author. 

McCook, H. C. How Lycosa fabricates her round cocoon. 
Note on the amphibious habit of Lycosa. 
A Spider that makes a spherical mud-daub cocoon. 
The rufous or thatching ant of Dakota and Colorado. 
Note on two new California spiders and their nests. 
A web-spinning neuropterous insect. 
The Occident ant in Dakota. 
How a carpenter ant queen founds a formicary. 

Restoration of limbs in Tarantula. The Author. 

McGill University. Annual calendar of the faculty of medicine. 1884. 

The University. 

Maclntire, Chas., Jr. The percentage of college-bred men in the medical 

profession. Dr. R. J. Dunglison. 

McLachlan, Robt. A monographic revision and synopsis of the Trichop- 

tera of the European fauna. First additional supplement. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Maguire, Capt. E. Professional notes. Washington, 1884. 

Engineer Department, U. S. A. 
Marcy, Henry O. Annual address before the American Academy of Medi- 
cine. 1883. Dr. R. J. Dunglison. 
Marques, Manuel Enfrazio de Azevedo. Apuntamentos historicos, geo- 

fraphicos, biographicos, estaticos e noticiosas da Prov-ncia de S. 
*aulo. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

Martin, H. Newell, and W. A. Moale. Handbook of vertebrate dissection. 
Part I, How to d'ssect a Chelonian ; Part II, How to dissect a bird. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Martini und Chemnitz. Systematisches Conchylien-Cabinct. 825e-330e 

Lief. Wilson Fund. 

Meinert, Fr. Caput ScolopendrsB. 1883. I, V. Williamson Fund. 

Meehan, Thos. Catalogue of plants collected in July, 1883, during an 

excursion along the Pacific coast in southeastern Alaska. 

The Author. 
Mercantile Library Association of the City of New York. 63d annual 
report, 1883-84. The Trustees. 

Mercantile Library Associatli n. Ban Francisco. Annual report, 1883. 

The Association. 



366 PROCEEDINGS OF THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

Mercantile Library CoDipany of Philadelphia. Bulletin I, 6. 61st annual 

report. The Directors 

Meteoriten-Ereisreichen als Erzeuger der Kometen Sonnenflecke, des 

Erdmagnetismus, des Winds mid Regens, des Sonnenlichtes, der 

Sonnenhize, u. s. w. The Author. 

Meunier, Stanislaus. Les pierres et les terrains. 1881. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Mexico and Central America. A fine collection of Chamay photographs 

of antiquities, peoples, stations, etc., consisting of 109 cabinet and 

34 large and 2 extra large plates. Dr. G. E. Abbott. 

Michael, D. British Oribatoidae. Ray Society, 1884. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Miller, V. The useful minerals of European Russia. Text, pp. 1-244, 

and map in two sheets. 1882. The Author. 

Ministerulu Lucrariloru Publice. Anuarulu Biurouliu Geologicu Anulu. 

1882, 1883. No. I, Bucuresoi, lt84. 

The Denartment of Public Works. 
Monterosato, Marchese di. Conchiglie littoraJi Mediterranee. 

The Author. 
Mueller, Baron F. von. Western Australia. The plants indigenous 
around Sharks Bay and its vicinity. 1883. 
Geological survey of Victoria. Observations on new vegetable foEsUs 

of the auriferous drifts. Melbourne, 1883. 
Select extra-tropical plants, readily eligible for industtial culture or 
naturalization, with indications of their native countries and some 
of their uses. 1884. 
Eucalyptographia, 9th decade. 
Additions to the census of the genera of plants hitherto known as 

indigenouii to Australia. 
Excoipts from Prof. Hugo Schulz's treatise on eucalyptus oil. 

The Author. 
Miiller, Fritz. Facts and arguments for Darwin. 1869. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Mus^e Royale d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique. Service de la Carte 
g^ologique du Royaume, Explication de les feuilles de Natoye, 
Denant, Bilsen, Clavier und Bruxelles. With five maps. 

Geological Survey of Belgium. 

Musser, J. H. On paroxysmal fever — not malarial. The Author. 

Natural History Society of Toronto. Check list and label list of the 

insects of the i 'ominion of Canada. 1883. The Society. 

Naturw. Landesforschung von Bohmen, Archiv. Ill, 1 ; V, 3, Geol. Abth. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Nederlandsche Dierkundige Vereeniging. Catalogue der Bibliotheek. 
1884. The Society. 

Newlands, John A. R. On the discovery of the periodic law and on rela- 
tions among atomie weights. llie Author. 
New South Wales. Australian Museum ; report of the trustees for 1883. 

The Trustees. 
Norske Gradmaalingskommrssion. Vandstandsobservationer. II H. 1888. 

The Commission. 
Northern Transcontinental Survey. Topographical Bulletin, No. 1, six 
sheets of maps. Forest Department, No. 1, otte map. Agricultural 
Department, Bulletin No. 1, one sheet and three maps. Agiicul- 
tural Department, MaJ) Bulletin, No. 1, by E. W. Hilgard. Forest 
Department, Map Bulletin, Np. 1. Takmia Region, W. T. 

The Director. 

Oberdieck, Gustav. Ueber Epithel und Driisen der Hamblase und weib- 

lichen und manulichen Uretra, 1884. The Author. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENGES OF PHILADSLPHIA. 367 

Pal^ntologie Fran^aise. Terrain Jurassique, Livr. 65-70. Terrain 
Cr^tac6. Livr. 30-33. Wilson Fund. 

PalaBontographical Society Publications, Vol 37. 

I V. Williamson Fund. 
Palmen, J. A. Ueber paarige Ausfuhrungsgange der Geschlechtsorgane 
biei Insecten. 1884. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Parker, J. A course of instruction in Zootomy. I, V. Williamson Fund. 
Peacock, R. A. Saturated steam the motive power in volcanoes and 
earthquakes; great importance of electricity. 1882. The Author. 
Peale, A. C The World's Geyser Regions, 1884. The Author. 

Peale, Titian R. Plates of Lepidoptera, issued after the publication of 
first number. The Author. 

Pelzeln, A. v. Zur Ornithologie Braziliens. Resultate von Johann Naterers 
Reisen in den Jahren 1817-1835. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Pennsylvania Museum and School of Industrial Art. 8th annual report, 
December 31, 1883. The Trustees. 

Peter, Robert. Comparative views of, the composition of the soils, lime- 
stones, clays, marls, etc., etc., of the several geological formations. 

Geological Survey of Keni ucky. 
Philadelphia Society for Organizing Charity. 5th annual report. October 
1, 1883. The Society. 

Photographic appliquee au sciences biologiques. Lyon, 1884. 

The Author. 

Pictet, F. J. Historic Naturelle generale et particuliere des Insectes 

n^uropteres. Ire Monog., Pereides, texte and plates. 2e Monogr., 

Epheiuerines, Ire-lOeLivr. L V. Williamson Fund. 

Pilar, Georgio. Flora fossilis Suscedana. 1883. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Piolti, G. II porfide del Vallone di Roburent ( Valle della Stura di Cuneoj 

1884. 
Plateau, Felix. Recherches sur la force absolue des muscles des Inver- 
t^bres. Ire Partie. The Author. 

Plumer, Mary N. Dissemination of Seeds, 1881. Essex Institute. 

Portis, Alex., and Guiseppi Piolti. II Calcare del Monte Tabor. 1883. 

The Author. 
Powell, J. W. 2d annual report of the U. 8. Geological Survey. 1881-81. 

Department of the Interior. 
Prince, C. L. The summary of a meteorological journal kept by C. L. 
Prince, F. R. A. S., at his Observatory, Crowborough, Sussex. 

The Author. 
Procter, John R. Geological Survey of Kentucky. Resources of the North 
Cumberland Valley. Part 4, Vol. VI, 2d Ser. 
Information for emigrants. The Survey. 

Putnam, F. W. Abstract of an account of recent archsBological excursions 
in Wisconsin and Ohio. 
On the antiquity of man in America. April 30, 1884. 
Abnormal human skulls from stone-graves in Tennessee. 
A new stand for skulls. The Author. 

Quaterfages, A. de. Hommes fossiles et hommes sauvages. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Queenstedt, F. A*. Die Ammoniten des Schwabischen Jura. Hefts 2 and 

3. Text and atlas. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Radekofer, Ludwig. Ueber die Methoden in der 'botanischen systematik 

insbesondei e die anatomische Methode. Royal Academy of Sciences 

of Munich. Another copy. The Author. • 

Randolph, N. A. A. study of the distribution of gluten within the wheat 

grain. 

A note on the feces of starch-fed infants. The Author. 



868 PBOOSEDINQS OF THS AOADElkfT OF [1884. 

Randolph, N. A., and A. E. Roussel. An examination of the feces of 

twenty persons receiving inunctions of cod-liver oil. By N. A. 

Randolph, M. D., and A. E. Roussel, M. D. The Authors. 

Rantoul, Robert S. Memoir of Benjamin Peirce, 1881. Essex Institute. 

Rathbun, Frank R. A revi8ed list of birds of Central New York, 1879. 

The Author. 
Rayet, M. Observations pluviometriqnes et thermometriques faites dans 
le department de la Gironde de Juin 1882 a Mai 1888. The Author. 
Renevier, E. Orographic de la partie des Hautes-Alpes calcaires comprise 
entre le Rhdne et le Rawyl. 1881. 
Rapport sur la maiche du mus^ geologique Vaudois en 1881. 
La mus^ geologique de Lausanne en 1882. 

Rapport d"expertise sur les eaux thermales de Lavey addresse au 

D^partement de Tlnterieur du Canton de ^ aud par Messieurs E. 

Renevier, T. A. Forel, A. Heim, E. Stockalper and D. Colladon. 

, 1883. 

Etude geologique sur le nouveau projet de Tunnel Conde traversant le 

massif du simplon. 1883. 

Tableau des terrains sedimentaires formes pendant les ^poques de la 

phase organique du globe terrestre avec leurs representants en 

Suisse et dans les regions classiques. Ten sheets. The Author. 

Report of the Canadian observations on the transit of Venus, 6th Dec. 1882. 

Report on the Cotton production of the Indian Territory and the States 

of Arkansa;^ Texas and Georgia. Four pamphlets. Angelo Heilprin. 

Report of the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880. Vols. 4-8. 

Department of the Interior. 
Republica Argentina. Sistema de Medidas y Pesas, 1881. 

The Academy of Sciences of the Argentine Republic. 

Reusch, Hans H. Silurfossiler og pressede Eon^lomerater i Berg^ns- 

skrifrene. 18^2. Royal Frederiks University of Christiania. 

Ridgway, Robt. Descriptions of 8ome new birds from Lower California, 

collected by Mr. L. Belding The Author. 

Rivero, Mariano E. de, y Juan Diego de Tschudi. Antigiiedades 

Peruanas. Ge«». Vaux. 

Robinson, John. Notes on the woody plants of Essex County, 1879. 

The Flora of Essex, 1880. 

Our trees in winter. Essex Inst, 

i Rogers, Henry Raymond. Force, its origin and philosophy of development. 

The Author. 
Rosmassler's Iconographie der europaischen ]and- und siisswasser-Mol- 
lusken. N. f. ler, Bd. 3e-6e Lief. Wilson Fund. 

Rostafinskiego, Jozefa. Sluzowce (Mycetozoa) monografia. 1875. 

Dodatek 1, do Monogiafii Sluzowcow. 1876. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 
Roux, Wilhelm. Der Eampf der Theile im Organismus. 1881. 

Uebr die Zeit der Bestimmung der Hauptrichtungen des Fruschembryo. 

Leipzig. 1888. 
Ueber die Bedeutung der Eemtheilungsfiguren. Leipzig, 1883. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 

Rumphius, G. E. Herbarium Amboinense. 4 vols., folio. Amstelodami, 

1741. John H. Redfield. 

Russ, Karl. Die fremdlandischen Stubenvogel. 4er Bd., 3e und 4e Lief. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Ryder, John A. On the preservation of embryonic materials and small 

organisms, together with Mnis upon embedding and mounting 

serially. 

A contribution to the embryography of the osseous fishes, with special 

reference to the development of the cod, Gadus morrhua. 1884. 
Rearing oysters from artificially fertilized eggs, together with notes 
on pond culture, etc The Author. 



1884.] NATURAL 8CIEN0E8 OF PHILADELPHIA. 369 

Saranac Exiles. A winter's tale of the Adirondacks. Philada., 1880. 

The Author. 

Saossure, H. de. La question du Lac (L^man), 2me Partie. Geneve, 

1881-82. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

Note sur le Cervus paludosus Desm. et les espeoes voisines. Geneve, 

1883. The Author, 
ticheafer, P. W. and C. W. Report on coal lands, Hans Fork ai d Twin 

Creek, southwestern Wyoming Territory, 1883. Dr. F. V. Hayden, 
Bchlesische Blinden-Unterrichts-Anstalt. 56er Jahresbericht, 18t53. 

The Institution. 
Schmidt, Oscar. Die Baugethiere in ihrem Verhaltnisse zur Yorwelt. 

1884. L V. Williamson Fund. 
Schneider, Dr. Zoologische Beiti-age, Bd. I. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Schomliurgh, K. Report on the progress and condition of the Botanic 

Garden and Government Plantations dming the year 1883. - 

The Director. 
Scudder, Samuel H. Triassic insects from the Rocky Mountains 1884. 

The Author. 
Secretary of the Navy, Report of the, for 1883, vol. 2. The Department. 
Seebohm, Henry. A history of British birds. Pts. 3 and 4. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Selenka, Emil. Studien iiber Entwickelungsgeschichte der Thiere. 2es 
und 3es Heft. L V. Williamson Fund. 

Semper, C. Reisen im Archipel der Philippinen. 2er Th., 4er Bd. le 
Abth., 2es H. Wilson Fund. 

Sergi, G. Un cranio della Necropoli di Yillanova, presso Bologna 
L*angolo faciale ed un nuovo goniometro. 
Liguri e cetti nella valle del Po. 
Orani Italici del Piceno. 

Polimorfismo e anomalie delle tibie e dei femori degli Scheletri 

Etruschi di Bologna. The Author. 

Servain. Histoire des moliusques ac^phales des environs de Frankfurt. 

1882. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Sharp. Benj. Beitrage zur Anatomic von Ancylus fluviatilis O. F. Miiller 

und Ancylus lacustris GeofFroy. 1888. 

On the anatomy of Ancylus nuviatis O. F. Muller and Ancylus 

lacustris Geof. 
On the visual organs in Solen. 

On Semper's method of making dried preparations. The Author. 

Sbepaid, Charles Upham, Jr. Meteoric collection of 1884. HThe Author. 
Silliman, Benj. Sketch of the life and scientific work of- 

Sketch of the life and scientific work of Dr. John Lawrence Smith. 

1884. The Author. 

Smith, Eugene Allen. Geological Survey of Alabama. Report for the 

years 1881 and 1882. Angelo Heilprin. 

Smith, R. Angus. A centenary of science in Manchester. The Author. 

Smithsonian Institution. Annual report, 1882. The Institution. 

Smucker, Isaac. Mound-builders* work near Newark, Ohio. The Author. 

South Afiican Museum. Report of the Trustees for the year ei> ding 31 

Dec, 1883. The Trustees. 

South Carolina. Resources and population, institutions and industries. 

Published by the State Board of Agriculture, 1883. Angelo Heilprin. 

Sowerby, G. B. Thesaurus Conch yliorum. Pts. 41 and 42 W ilson Fund. 

Standard Natuial History. Pts. 1-28, I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Statistische Mittheilungen iiber den Civilstand der Stadt Frankfurt a. M. 

im Jahre 1^83. 
Stieler, Adolf. Handatlas iiber alle Theile der Erde und iiber das Welt- 
gebaude. Gotha. I. V. Williamson Fund. 



370 FBOOBBDINQS OT THE AOADEMT OF [1884. 

Stein, Bitter t. Der Organismos der InfuBionsthiere. 8e Abth. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Steiner, Lewis H. Annual address before the American Academy of 
Medicine, 1879. Dr. R. J. Dunglison. 

Stockton- Hough, John. An inquiry concerning the relative influen e of 
the sex of the foetus iQ utero on the mental, physical, pathological 
and developmental conditions of the mother during gestation, lacta- 
tion and subsequently, 1884. The Author. 
Stow, J. P. South Australia; its history, productions and and natui'al 
resources, 1883. The Author. 
Sveriges Geologiska Undersokning, 4to, Bb, 8 ; C, 54, 55, 57. 8vo, A a, 80, 
90 ; Art, 7, 9 ; C, 63, 56, 58, 59, 80. With maps. 

Geological Survey of Sweden. 
Switzerland. Beitraflre zur geologischen Earte der Schweiz. 19er und 27er 
Lief. Bern, 1883. Dr. F. V. Hayden. 

Taczanowski, Ladislas. Omithologie du P^ron. T. ler, 1884. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Taramelli, Torquato. Delia posizione stratigrafioa delle Bocce Otiolitiche 

nell' Appennino. 1884. The Author. 

Taylor, Thomas. Naphthaline as an Insecticide. The Author. 

Thomas, Charles Hermon. Downward displacement of the tranKverse 

colon ; three cases, with autopsies. The Author. 

Trembley, J. B. Beport and statistics of the meteorology of the City of 

Oakland, Cal., for the yeais 1U82 and 1883. The Author. 

Tryon, Geo. W., Jr. Manual of Conchology, structural and systematic. 

Parts 21-24. The Author. 

Structural and Systematic Conchology. in. The Author. 

Tschermak, Gustav. Lehrbuch der Mineralogie. 8e Lief. 

I. y. Williamson Fund. 
Tschirch, A. Untersuchungen uber das Chlorophyll. 

I. V. Willia.i.son Fund. 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey Beport, June, 1882. 

Treasury Department. 
United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Beports of the Commis- 
sioner for 1880 and 1881. The Commission. 
United States Entomological Commission. Third Beport, 1883. 

Department of Agriculture. 
United States Geological Survey. Bulletin No. 1, 1888. 

Second annual report, 1880-^1. Department of the Interior. 

University of Kiel. Forty-three philosophical and scientific theses. 

The University. 
University of Pennsylvania. Catalogue and announcements, 1883-84. 

The Trustees. 
University of Wurzburg. Eighteen philosophical and scientific theses. 

The University. 
Untersuchungen der deutschen Meere in Kiel. Vierter Bericht der Com- 
mission. yiL bis XI. Jahrg , 2. Abth. Berlin, 1883. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 
Upton, Winslow. The solar eclipse of 1868. Essex Institute. 

Vogt, C, and F. Specht. Die Saugethiere in Wort und Bild. Lief. 21-28. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Yogt, Carl, and Emile Yung. Traits d* anatomic compar^e pratique. 8e-^e 

Livre. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Wahlstedt, L. J. Monografi dfver Sveriges och Norges Characeer. 1875. 

The Author. 

Waldeyer, W. Atla« der menschlichen and thierischen Haare sowie der 

ahnlichen Fasergebild. Lahr, 1884. I. V. Williamson Fund. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 371 

Watson, R. Boog. MoUusoaof H. M. S. "Challenger" Expedition. Parts 
17, 18 and 20. 1883. The Author. 

Weisbach, Albin. Synopsis mineralogica. II. Aufl., 18B4. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Weismann, Aug. Studies in the theory of descent. 2 vols., 1882. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Wesleyan University. 12th annual report of the Curator of the Museum. 

1883. The Author. 

Whiteaves, J. F. G^l. and Nat. Hist. Surv. of Canada. Mesozoic Fossils 

I and III, pp. 1-238. Paleozoic Fossils, III. The Survey. 

Wilcox, Jos. Notes on the geology and natural history of the west coast 

of Florida, 1884. The Author. 

Williams, Albert. Mineral resources of the United States, 1883. 

Department of the Interior. 
Willson, E. B. Memoir of John Lewis Russell, 1874. Es^ex Institute. 
WoUe, Francis. Dettmids of the United States and list of American 
Pediastrums, with 1100 illustrations. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Women's Medical Colle^ of the New York Infiinnary. Catalogue and 
announcement. «)une, 1884. The College. 

Wood, Dr. H. C, and H. F. Formad. Memoir on the nature of diphtheria. 

The Authors. 
Wood-Mason, J. Report on the tea-mite and the tea-bug of Asam. 1884. 

The Author. 
Wright, H. Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Circular of 
Inquiry, 1888. The manuscripts of the Earl of Ashbumham. 

The Society. 
Yale College. Catalogue of the officers and students, 1883-84. 

The College. 
Yarrell, Wm. A history of British Birds. 4th ed. Parts 18-25. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Zincken, C. F. Die Fortschritte der Oenlogie der Tertiarkohle, Kreide- 

kohle, Jurakohle und Triasekohle oder Erganzungen zu den Physio- 

graphie der Braunkohie. Leipzig, 1878. The Author. 

Zittel, Karl A. Handbuch der PalsBontologie. 2 Abth., 3 Lief., II, 3. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
2k>ological Society of London. List of the vertebrated animals now or 
lately living in the Gardens. 8th edition, 1883. The Society. 

Zoologischen Garteu zu Hamburg, Fuhrer durch den. 

Das Aquarium des Zo<»l. Garten The Zoological Society of Hamburg. 

Zoologischen Station zu Neapel. Fauna und Flora des Golfes von Neapel 

und der Angrenzenden Meeres-Abschnitte. YII, IX and XI Monogr. 

1883-84. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Journals and Periodicals. 

Altenburg. Mittheilungen aus dem Osterlande, n. f ., 2er Bd. Catalog der 

Bibliothek. The Society. 

Amsterdam. K. Akademie van Wetenschappen. Yerslagenen Mtdedee- 

lingen. Afd. Letterkunde, II R., Deel 1-12. Afd. Naturkunde, II, 

R., Deel 18. 

Jaarboek, 1882. 

Processen-Yerbaal, 1882-83. 

Yerhandlingen. Afd. Naturk. Deel 23. Afd. Natur> . Deel 14. 

The Society. 
Angers. Soci6t^ d*6tudes scientifiques. 12e and 13e Ann^s. 
Soci^t^ national d' Agriculture Sciences et Arts. 

M^moires. T. 24 and 25. The Society. 

An vers, Sooi^t^ de G^graphie. Bulletin, IX, 1. The Society. 



372 P&OOSEDINaS of the AOADEBfT OF [1884. 

Augsburg. Naturhistorischer Verein, 27er Bericht. The Society. 

Auxerre. Soci^t^ des Sciences historiques et uaturelles de 1* Tonne. Bul- 
letin, 87e Ann^. 
Baltimore. American Chemical Journal, V , 6 - YI, 4. 

Johns Hopkins University. 
American Journal of Mathematics, YI, 2— Yll, 1. 

Johns Hopkins University. 
Johns Hopkins University. Studies from the Biological Laboratory, 
111, 1. The University. 

Maiyland Medical Journal, Xll, 2. The Editor. 

Peabody Institute. 17th annual report. The Institute. 

Basel. Naturforschende Gesellschafb, YII« 2 mit Bihang. The Society. 
Schweizerische palaontologische Gesellschaft, X. 

I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Batavia. Naturkundig Yereen in Nederlandsch Indie. Naturkundig 

Tijdschrift voor x^ederlandsch Indie. 8e Ser. Deel III, 1, 2 ; 1^ 

1-4; V, 1. The Society. 

Belfast. Naturalists' Field Club. Annual report. Series 2, Yol. II, Pt. 3. 

The Society. 
Natural History and Philosophical Society. Proceedings, 1^82-88. 

The Society. 
Berlin. Archiv f&r Naturgeschichte, 48er Jahr., 4 H. — 49er Jahr.. 4 H. 

The Editor. 

Botanischer Jahresberioht, 8er Jahr., le and 2e Abth., I and II ; 9er 

Jahr., I, 1, 2 ; II, 1. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Deutsche Geologische Gesellschaft. Zeitschrift, XXXY, 3— XXX Y 1, 1. 

The Society. 
Entomologischer Yerein. Berliner entomologische iZeitschrift, 27er 
Bd., 1 U.— 28 Bd., 1 H. The Society. 

Garten-Zeitung (Wittmack), 1883, 1-12. The Editor. 

Gk«ellschafC Naturforschende Freunde. Sitzungs-Berichte, 1883-84, 
1 7. The Society. 

Jahrbiicher fiir wissenschaftliche Botanik (Pringsheim). XI Y, 3 — 
XY, 2. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Natur» Novitates, 1883, 21—1884, 20. The Publishers. 

Der Naturforschf-r, XYI, 40-XYII, 26. The Editor. 

E. Preuesische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Bericht, 1836. 
Monathbericht, 1854, ia')5, 1856, Dec. 1877. 
Sitzungsberichte, 1883, XXXYIII— 1884, XXXIX. 
Abhandlungen, mathematische, 1888 ; physikalisch, 1883 ; Anhang, 
1883. The Society. 

Bern. Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Mittheilungen, 1072-1082. 

The Society. 
Besan^on. Academic des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts, 1882, 1883. 

The Society. 
Beziers. Soci^t^ d'^tude des sciences naturelles. Bulletin, 6e An. 

The Society. 
Birmingham. Philosophical Society. Proceedings, III, 1, 2, The Society. 
Bisiritz. Gowerbeschule Jahresbericht, ler — 5or, lOer. The Society. 
Bologna. Accademia delle Scienze. Memorie. 4 Ser., lY. The Society. 
Bonn. Archiv fiir Mikro kopische Anatomic, XXII, 2 XXIY, 2. 

I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Na^urhistorischer Yerein. Yerhandlungen, 89er Jahr., le H — 41er 

Jahr., le H. The Society. 

Bordeaux. Academie Nationale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres et Arts. 

Actes, 43e Ann^e, 1-4 Tr. Tables historiques, etc. The Society. 

Soci^t^ Linn^eune. Actes. T. 36. The Society. 

Soci6U des Sciences pi ysiques et naturelles'. M^moires, 2e Ser., Y, 3. 

The Society. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENGES OF PHILADELPHIA. 373 

Boston. American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Proceedings, XIX, 1-8. 

The Society. 
American Monthly Microscopical Journal, IV, 12. The Editor, 

The Auk, I, 1-4. The Editor. 

Literary News, V, 4-10. The Editor. 

Science Record, II, 2-12. The Editor. 

Society of Natural History. Proceedings, XXII, p. 225— XXIII, p. 32. 
Same, X, Nos. 2, 3, 4. 

Memoirs, III, 8-10. . The Society. 

Zoological Society. Quarterly Journal, III, 1. The Society. 

Braunschweig. Archiv fiir Anthropologic, 15er Bd., 1-8. The Society. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Bremen. Natnrwissenschaftlicher Yerein. Abhandlungen, YlII, 2. 

The Society. 
Brescia. Ateneo. Commentari, 1883. The Society. 

Brisbane. Royal Society of Queensland. Proceedings, I, 1. The Society. 
Bristol. Naturalists' Society. Proceedings, IV, 2. The Society. 

Briian. Naturforschender Verein. Verhandlungen, XXI, 1, 2. 

The Society. 
Brux«flles. Academic Royale des Sciences, des Lettres et des Beaux-Arts 
de Belgique. Annuaire, 1881-84. 
Bulletin, 2me Ser., T. 50 ; 3me Ser., T. I -VII, 8. 
M6moires. T. 43, 2e Partie, T. 44. 
M^moires couronn^s, 8vo, T. 31-35. 
M^moires couronn^s, 4to, T. 44. 

Tables, 1867-1830. The Society. 

Soci4t6 Beige de Microscopic. Bulletin, X, 1-11. 

Annales, T. VII and VIII. The Society. 

Soci^i^ Entomologique. Comtes-Rendu, Ser. Ill, Nos. 86, 87, 88, 40, 
43, 46, 48, 49. 

Annales, T. 27 and 28. The Society. 

Society Malacologique. Annales, XVII. 

Proces Verbaux, 4 Aout, 1882—1 Juil., 1883. The Society. 

Budapest. Gazette de Hongrie, IV, 6-28. Hungarian National Museum. 

Ungarische Akademie der Wissenschaften, mathematische und natur- 

wissenschaftliche Berichte aus Ungam, I. 1 he Society. 

Ungarische National Museum. Naturhistorische Hefte, VII. 

Buenos Aires. Sociedad Cientifica Argentina. Anales, XVI, 5— XVIII, 8. 

The Society. 

Buffalo. Society of Natural Sciences. Bulletin, IV, 4. The Society. 

Caen. Academic nationale des Sciences. Arts et Belles-Lettres, M^moires, 

1883. The Society. 

Calcutta. Asiatic Society of Bengal. Proceedings, 1883, No. 7—1884, 

No. 5. 

Journal, LII, Pt. 1, Nos. 3 and 4 : Pt. 2, Nos. 1-4, LIII ; Pt. 1, Nos. 

1 and 2 ; Pt. 2, Nos. 1 and 2. The Society. 

Cambridge. Appalachian Mountain Club. Appalachia, III, 3 and 4. 

The Society. 
Harvard University. Library Bulletin, Nos. 27, 28 and 29. 

The University. 
Museum of Comparative Zoology. Memoirs, X, 1-8 ; XI, 3 ; XII, 1. 

Bulletin, XI, 5 10. The Director. 

Peabody Museum of American ArchsBology and Ethnolo^. 16th and 

17th annual reports. The Director. 

Cambridge. Science, Nos. 43-94. I. V. Williamton Fund* 

Cambridge, Eng'd. University, 18th Annual report of the Library 

Synd[icate. The Authors. 

Canada. Royal Society. Proceedings and Transactions, 1882-83. 

The Society. 



374 PBOOEEDINGS OF THE AOABEMT OF [1884. 

Gassel. Malakozoologische Blatter, VII, 1-4. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Verein fiir Naturkunde. Berioht, XXX [. The Society. 

Catania. Accademia Gioenia di Scienze Naturali. Atti, 8a Ser., T. 16-17. 

The Society. 

Cedar Rapids. Iowa Agricultural College. Department of Entomology. 

Bulletin, No. 2. The College. 

Chicago. Academy of Sciences. Bulletin, I, 1-4. The Society. 

American Antiquarian, V, 4 — YI, 5. The Editor. 

American Chemical Review, III, 12. * The Editor. 

Christiania. Archiv for Mathematik og Naturvidenskab, YIII, 3 — ^IX, 4. 

The Editor. 
Norwegische Meteorologiske Institut. Jahrbuch 188 1. T he Director. 
Nyt Magazin for Naturvidenskabeme, XXYII, 2 - XXYIII, 1. 

The Editor. 

Yidenskab Selskab. Forhandlinger, 1882. The Society. 

Cincinnati. Ohio Mechanics' Institute. Scientific Proceedings, II, 3. 

The Institute. 

Society of Natural History. Journal. YI, 4— YII, 3. The Society. 

Zoological Society, 10th annual report. The Society. 

Columbia. University of the State of Missouri. Bulletin of the Museum, 

I, 1. The University. 

Congres international des Americanistes. Compte-rendu de la 5me 

Session. The Congress. 

Copenhagen. E. D. Yidenskabemes Selskab. Oversigt, 1883, Nos. 2, 3 ; 

1884, No. 1. 

Skrifer, 6me Ser., II, 4, 5. The Society. 

Naturhistoriske Forening. Yidenskabelige Meddelelser, 1882, 1 ; 1883, 
I. The Society. 

Naturhistoriske Tidsskrift, XIII, 3 ; XIY, 1, 2. 

I. Y. Williamson Fund. 
Soci^t^ Royale des Antiquaires du Nord. M^moires, n. s., 1880-81. 

The Society. 
Cordoba. Academia nacional de Cienoias exactas. Actas, lY, 1 ; Y, 1. 

Boleti'., Y, 1-4; YI, 1. 
Crawfordsville. Botanical Gazette, YIII, 12 IX, 11. The Editor. 

Danzig. Naturforschende GesellbchafC. Schriften, n. f., YI, 1. 

The Society. 
Darmstadt. Yerein fiir Erdkunde. Notizblatt, lY, Folge, 4, H. 

The Society. 
Detroit. American Meteorological Journal I, 1, 2. The Editor. 

Dorpat. Naturforscher Gesellschaft. Sitzungsberichte, YI, 3. 

Archiv fiir die Naturkunde Liv.-Ehst- und Eurlands, 2e Ser., IX, 5. 

The Society. 
Dresden. E. Leop. Carol. -Deutscher Akademie der Naturforscher. Nova 
Acta, Yol. 44. 

Leopoldina. H. 18. The Society. 

Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft Isis. Sitzun^sberich*e und Ab- 
handlungen, 1883 Jan. - 1884 Juni. The Society. 

S. E. Sammlung fiir Eunst und Wissenschaft. Bericht, 1880-81. 
Mittheilungen, 1873. 

Eatalog, 1874. The Director. 

Yerein fiir Erdkunde. Jahresberichte, XYIII-XX. The Society. 

Dublin. Royal Geological Society of Ireland. Journal, XI (I), 1-XV 1, 2. 

The Society. 

Rc^al Irish Academy. Proceedings, Science, lY, 1, 2. 

Transactions, Science, XXYIII, 14-16. The Society. 

Dtirkheim a. d. Haardt. Pollichia. Jahresbericht, 36-42. Beigabe zum 

40en. The Society. 



1884.] NATURAL SOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 375 

Edinburgh. Botanical Society. Transactions and Proceeding XV, 1. 

The Society. 
Royal Physical Society. Proceedings, 1882-88. The Society. 

Royal Society. Proceedings, XI, XII. 

Transactions, XXX, 2— XXXII, 1. The Society. 

Scottish Naturalist, n. s. Nos. 3-6. The Editor. 

Elberfeld. Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein. Jahresberichte, Ges H. 

The Society. 
Emden. Naturforschende Gesellschaft, 68er Jahresberichte. The Society. 
Erlangen. Physikalisch-Medicinische Societat, Sitzungsberichte. 15es H. 

The Society. 
Florence. Nuovo Giornale Botanico Italiano (Camel), XYI, 1-4. 

The Editor. 

Societa Italiana di Anthropologia, Etnologia e Psicologia Gomparata. 

Archivio. XIIL 3 ; XIV, 1. The Society. 

Folkestone. Natural History Society. First series, Oct., 1883— Aug., 1884. 

The Society. 

France. Association Franqaise pour T Advancement des Sciences. Comp- 

tps Rendus, Ire-lle Session. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Frankfurt a. M. Aerztliche Verein. Jahresbericht, XXVII. The Society. 

Deutsche Malakozoologische Gesellschaft. Jahrbiicher, XI, 1-3. 

Nachrichtsblatt, 1884, 3-10. The Society. 

Frankfurter Verein fiir Geographic und Statistik. 46er und 47er 

Jahresberichte The Society. 

Neue Zoologische Gesellschaft. Der Zoologische Garten, XVIII, 5 ; 

XX, 3, 4, 11, 12 ; XXI, 9 ; XXII, 10 ; XXIII, 4, 6 ; XXIV, 1 ; 

XXV, 3. Dr. H. Bolau. 

Physikalischer Verein. Jahresbericht, 1882-83. The Society. 

Senkenbergische Naturfoi schende Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen, X III, 

3, 4. 

Bericht, 1882-83. The Society. 

Frauenfeld. Thurgauische Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Mittheilungen, 

H. ler-6er. The Society. 

Gaud. Archives de Biologic (Van Beneden und Van Bambeke), IV, 2 — 

V, 1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Geneva. Recueil Zoologique Suisse (Fol.), I, 1. The Editor. 

Revue Geologique Suisse (Faure), XIV. The Editor. 

Genoa. Museo civico di Storia Naturale. Annali, 1870, Nos. 1-6. 

The Director. 

Societa di Letture e Conversazioni Scientiflche. Giornale, VII, 12 — 

Viri, 11. The Society. 

Germany. Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte. Festschrift 

der 56er Versammlung. The Society. 

Giessen. Jahresbericht iiber die Fortschritte der Chemie (Fittica), 1882, 

No. 1 ; 1883, No. 1. The Editor. 

Oberhessische Gesellschaft fiir Natur und Heilkunde, 23er Bericht. 

The f^ociety. 
Glasgow. Natural History Society. Proceedings, V, 2. The Society. 
Philosophical Society. Proceedings, XIV. The Society. 

Gottiugen. K. Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften. Nachrichten, 1883. 

The Society. 
Gotha. Dr. A. Petermann's Mittheilungen aus Justus Perthes' geographi- 
scher Anstalt, 1888, H. 11 ; 1884, H. 10. Erganzungsheft, 74er. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Graz. Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein fiir Steiermark. Mittheilungen, 

1883, Hatipt-Repertorium. The i?ociety. 

Halle. Naturforschende Gesellschaft. Abhandlungen, XVI, 2. 

Bericht, 1883. The Society, 



376 PBOGEEDINQS OT THE AOADElfT OF [1884. 

Halle a. S. Verein fiir Erdkunde. Mittheilungen, 1881. The Society. 
ZeitBchrifb fur Wissenschaften, LVI, 6 ; 4te, F. m, 1-S. 

The Society. 
Hamburg. Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein. Jahresbuch, 1883 (Abstracts). 

The Society. 

Zonlogische G^esellschaft. ler-22er Berichte. The Society. 

Hanover. Gtesellschaft fur M kroskopie. 2er Jahresbericht. The Society. 

Harlem. Hollandische Maatschappij der Wetenschappen. Programma, 

1882. The Society. 

Soci^t^ HoUandaise des Sciences. Archives, XVIII, 2 — XIX, 1. 

The Society. 

Heidelberg. Naturhistoricher Verein. Verhandlungen, n. F., Ser Bd., 

3es U. The Society. 

Helsingfors. Finska Vetenskaps - Societeten. Observations Meteoro- 

logiques, 1880. The Society. 

Sallskapet pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Meddelanden, 9, 10. 

The Society. 
Hermannstadt. Siebenbtirgischer Verein fur Naturwissenschaften. Ver- 
handlungen und Mitttheilunjren, VII XXIX, XXXIV. The Society. 
Innsbruck. Ferdinandeum. Zeitschrift^ 27er H. The Society. 

Jena. Medicinisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Gesellschaft- Zeitschrift, j 

XVI, 4 XVIII, 1. The Society. 

Kansas City. The Kansas City Review of Science and Industry, VII, 8 — 

VIII, 7. The Editor. 
Karlsruhe. Naturwissenschaftlicher Verein. Verhandlungen, les H., 

1864 9es H , 1883. The Society. 

Universitat. Verzeichnins, 1883, II-IV ; 1884, I. The Society. 

Klagenfurt. Landesmuseum von Kamten. Jahrbuch, 16er H. 
Bericht, 1883. 

Diagramme der magn. u. meteor Beobachiungen, 1882-83. 

Carinthia, 1882 ; 1883 ; 1884, No. 9. The Editor. 

Konigsberg. Physikalisch-okonomische Gesellschaft. Schriften, XXIV, 

1, 2. The Society. 

Lancaster. Linnean Society. Bulletin, 1-4. The Society. 

Lausanne. Soci^t^ Vaudoise dea Sciences Naturelles Bulletin, No. 89. 

The Society. 
Leeds. Philosophical and Literary Society. Annual report, 1883-^. 

The Society. 

Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Transactions, I-VII. The Society. 

Leiden NederUndsche Dierkundige Vereeniging ' Tijdschrift, I, 1 ; 

III ; V ; Suppl. l>, I, 2. The Society. 

Leipzig. Archiv far Anatomic und Physiologic. Anatomische Abth., 1883, 

H. 4—1884, H. 6. Physiologische Abtheilung, lb83, H. 4—1884, H. 5 

and Supplement B. Supplement Band, 18^. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 

Botanische .Tahrbacher (Engler), V, 1; VI, 1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

International Zeitschrift fur Allgemeine Sprachwissenschaft ( Techner), 

1, 1. The Editor. 

Jahresberichte iiber die Fortschritte der Anatomic und Physiologic 

(Hofmann und Schwalbe). XI, 2 H. alfte, 1 Abth. 

I. V. WilUamson Fund. 
Journal fur Omithologie. XXXI, 4 ; XXXII, 1 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
K Sachsische Gesellscbaftder Wissenschaften. Abhandluneeu, XII, 9. 
Bericht iiber die Verhandlungen, 1882. The Society. 

Morphologische Jahrbuch, IX, 2— X, 1. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Naturt'orschende Gesellschaft. Sitzungsbericht, 1888. The Society. 
Zeitschrift fiir Krystallographie und Mineralogie (Groth), VIII, 4— 

IX, 4. I.T. Williamson Fund. 



1884.] NATURAL 80IEN0ES OF PHILADELPHIA. 377 

Zoologische Station zu Neapel Mittheilung, Y, 1 und 2. 

Zoologische Jahrbericht, 1879» 1880, 1882, I-IV. The Director. 

2kx>lo^iBcber Anzeiger. (Cams). Nos. 158-180. The Editor. 

Leyden. Leyden Museum. Notes edited by H. Schlegel, I-YI. 

The Museum. 

Lille. Society g^ologique du Nord. Annales, XI, 8. The Society. 

Lisbon. Associapao dos Engenheiros Civis Portuguezes. Kevista de 

Obras publicas e Minas. Nos. 165-1 7K. The Society. 

Liverpool. Free Public Library, Museum and Walker Art Gallery. 29tii 

and 80th Annual Reports. The Directors. 

Literary and Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Nos. 85-37. 

The Society. 

Naturalists* Field Club. Proceedings, 1879-1884. The Society. 

London. The Anglers' Note-Book and Naturalists' Record. 1884, Nos. 

2 and 8. The Editor. 

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. 1888, No. 72—1884, 

No. 83. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Astronomical Register. Nos. 252-268. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

British Association for the Advancement of Science. Report, 58d 

Meetinsr. The Society. 

Chemical Society. Journal, Nos. 253-264. Supplement, Vols. XLIII 

and XLIV. The Society. 

Cosmos No. 2i The Editor. 

Crystallological Society. Proceedings, 1877, 1 ; 1882, 1 and 2. 

The Society. 
Curtis's Botanical M^razine, Nos. 1162-1172. I. V. Williatmson Fund. 
The Electrician. XIi; 2— XIII, 26. The Editor. 

Entomological Society. 1883, No. 4—1884, No. 2. The Society. 

The Gardeners? Chroiiicle, n. s. Nos. 517-567. The Editor. 

Geological Magazine. Nos. 234-245. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Geological Society* Quarterly Journal, Nos. 156-159. The Society. 
Hardwicke's Science Gossip. Nos. 228-239. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Ibis, 5th Ser., I, 5— II, 8. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Journal of Anatomy and Physiology. XVIII, 2 — XIX, 1. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Journal of Botany, British and Foreign. Nos. 252—263. 

L V. Williamson Fund. 
Journal of Conchology. IV, 1-6. The Editor. 

Journal of Physiology (Foster), IV, 4 — ^V, 8, and Supplement to V. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Journal of Science. Nos. 120-181; I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Knowledge. Nos. 105-167. The Editor. 

Linnean Society. Journal, Botany, Nos. 180-133 ; Zoology, Nos. 101 

and 102. 

Transactions, 2d Ser. Zoology, II, 9, 10 ; III, 1 ; Botany, II, 6 and 7. 
List, 1888. 

Proceedings October, 1888. The Society. 

London, Edinburgh and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, 1888, No. 
102—1884^ No. 118. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Mineralogical 
Magazine and Journal of the. Nos. 25-27. The Society. 

The Naturalist. Nos. 109-112. The Editor. 

Nature. Nos. 784-785. The Editor. 

Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science. Nos. 93-96. 

I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal, XV, 4 — 
XVI, 8. The Society. 

Royal Geographical Society. Proceedings, n. s., V, 11 — VI, 9. 

The Soolety. 
85 



878 PRO0EEDINO8 OF THE ACADEMY OF [1884. 

Royal Institution of Great Britain. Proceedings, X, 2. The Society. 
Royal Microscopical Society. Journal, 2d Ser., Ill, 6 — ^IV, 5. 

The Society. 
Royal Society. Proceedings, Nos. 227-231. 

Philosophical Transactions, Vol. 174, Nos. 2 and 8. The Society. 
Scottish Naturalist. January, 1884, 2d ser., Nos 4 and 5. The Editor. 
Society of Arts. Journal, vol. 31. The Society. 

Society for Psychical Research. Proceedings, I, 1-6. The Society. 
Trubner's American and Oriental Literary Record, Nos. 191-202. 

The Editor. 
Zoological Record, 1882 I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Zoological Socie^. Proceedings, 1888, 8, 1884, Parts 1 and 2 
Transactions, XI, 9. 
Catalogue, 1883. 

List of Fellows, 1884. The Society. 

Zoologist, Nos. 84-96 I. V. Williamson Fund. 

London, Ca. The Canadian Entomologist, XV, lO-XVI, 8. The Editor. 

Louvain. University Catholique. 17 theses. The University. 

Lubeck. Naturhistorische Museum. Jahresbericht, 1853, 1854, 1858, 

1857, 1864, 1866, 1868-1870, 1873-1877, 1882, 1883. The Society. 

Liineburg. NaturwissenschaftlicLer Yerein. Jahreshefte, V. The Society. 

Luxembourg. Institute Royal. Publications, XIX. The Society. 

Lyon. ActS^ie des Sciences, BeUes-Lettres et Arts. M^moires, classes 

des sciences, XXVL The Society. 

Soci^t^ d' Agriculture, Histoire Naturelle et Arts Utiles Annales, 

5me Ser., V. The Society. 

Madrid. Memorial de Ingenieros y revista cientifico-militar, XXXYIlX 

22-24 ; XXXIX, I, f. Tlie Society. 

Mannheim Mannheim Verein fiir Naturkunde. Jahresbericht, 1878-82. 

The Society. 
Manchester. Literary and Philosophical Society. Proceedings, XX- 
XXIL 

Memoirs, VII. The Society. 

Scientific Students' Association. Annual Reports, 1862-1865, 1867- 
1872, 1874, 1876, 1879, 1881-1888. 

Catalogue of Library. The Society. 

Marburg. Gesellschaft ztir Beforderung der gesammten Naturwissen- 

schaften. Sitzungsberichte, 1882, 1888. The Society. 

Melbourne. Royal Society of Victoria. Transactions and Proceedings, 

XIX, XX. The Society. 

Metz. 8< ci^t^ d'Histoire Naturelle. Bulletin, 5me Cahier, 2e Partie. 

The Society. 

Verein far Erdkunde. Ser Jahresbericht. The Society. 

Mexico. Ministerio de Fomento. Anales, VII. The Editor. 

Museo Nacional. Anales, III, 5, 6. The Director. 

Revista Cientifica Mexicana, If, 1. The Editor. 

Sociedad Mexicana de Hihtoria Natural. La Naturaleza, VI, 18— 

VII. 1. The Society. 

Milan. Fondazione Scientifica Cagnola. Atti, VII. The Society. 

R. Istituto Lombardo di Scienze e Lettre. Rendiconti, Sen IL YoL 

XV-XVII, No. 16. 

Memorie, XV, 1, 2, 8 ; XVII, 4. The Society. 

R. Istituto technico superiore. Prommma, 1883-84. The Society. 

Minneapolis. Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences. Bulletin, II, 4. 

The Society. 

Modena. R. Accademia di Scienza, Lettere ed Arti. Memorie, Ser. Ill, 

Vol. II. The Society. 

Mons. Society des Sciences, des Arts et des Lettres du Hainaut. 

M^oires et Publications, IV Ser., T. 7me. The Society. 



1884.] NATURAL BOIENOES OF PHILADELPHIA. 879 

Montpelier. Academie des Sciences et Lettres. M^moires de la Section 

des Sciences, X, 2. The Society. 

Montreal. Canadian Recoi'd of Natural History and Geology, with Pro- 

ceedinjTs of the Natural History Society, I, 1. The Society. 

Moscow. Soci^te Iinpeiiale des Natural istes. Bulletin, 1882, Nos. 3 et 4; 

1883, Nos. 2 et 3: 1884, Nos. 1 et 4. Beilage T. 57-59. The Society. 

Miinchen. Gesellschaft fiir Anthiopologie, Ethnologie und Ur^eschiohte. 

Beitrage, V, 4, VI, 1. The Society. 

K. B. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sitzungsberichte der math.- 

phys. Classe, 1883, Nos. 1-3. 

AbhanHlungen, mathem.-physikal. Classe, XIY, 2, 3. The Society. 
Miinster. Westfalischer Provinzial-Yerein fur Wissenschaft und Eunst. 
Jahresbericht, I, IH, IV, V, XI, XIT. The Society. 

Nancy. Society des Sciences. Bulletin, Ser. 2, HI, 15. The Society. 

Neubrandenburg. Verein dor Freunde der Naturgeschichte in Mecklen- 
burg, Archiv, 37er Jahrg. The Society. 
Neuchatel. Societe des Sciences Naturelles. Bulletin, XIII. The Society. 
New Haven. American Journal of Science. 1888, No. 156 ; 1884, No. 167. 

The Editor. 
Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences. Transactions, VI, 1. 

The Society. 
New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association. Proceedings, 1884. The Society. 
New York. Academy of Sciences. Annals II, 9, 13 ; HI, 1-4. 

Transactions, II, 1, 3-8. The Society. 

American Bookseller, XY, 3. The Editor. 

American Chemical Society. Journal, lY ; V ; YI, 1-4. The Society. 
American Geographical Society. Bulletin, 1883, No. 1 — 1884, No. 1. 

The Society. 
American Museum of Natural History. Annual Report; 15th. 

Bulletin, No. 4. The Director. 

The Book Buyer, n. s., II, 1. The Editor. 

Forest and Stream XXI, 18 -XXIII, 17. The Editor. 

Library Journal, VIII, 9— IX, 10. I. V. WiUiamson Fund. 

Linnean Society. Transactions, II. The Society. 

Literary News, Y, 1-11. The Editor. 

New York Medical Journal, XXXYHI, 22— XL, 21. The Editor. 

Medico- Legal Journal, II, 1, 2. The Editor. 

Popular Science Monthly, Jan. — Dec, 1884. The Editor. 

The Sanitarian, No. 172. The Editor. 

Torrey Botanical CJub. Bulletin, X, 10— XI,^ 9. The Society. 

Normal. Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. Bulletin, II, 1. 

The Director. 
Padova. Societa Yeneto-Trentina di Scienza Naturali. Atti, YII, 2. 

Bulletino, III, 1, 2. The Society. 

Palermo. II Naturalista Siciliano, IH, 3— IV, 2. The Editor. 

Societa di Scienze Naturali et economiche. Giomale, I-XIY. 

The Society. 
Paris. Academic des Sciences. Comptes Rendus, Vols. 93, 94, 95 and 96. 

The Society. 
Annales des Mines, 8me Ser., Ill, 3 — V, 3. 

Minister of Public Works, France. 
Annales des Sciences G^ologiques, XII-XY. The Editor. 

Annales des Sciences Naturelles. Zoologie et Paleontologie, XY, 5 — 
XVII, 2 ; Botanique, XVI, 6— XYIII, 6. I. V. Williamson Fund. 
Archives de Zoologie Experimentale et g^n^rale, 1883, No. 3—1884, 
^No. 2. I. V. Williamson Fund. 

Ecole polytechnique, S. 28m<>, 52e Cah. The Director. 

Journal de Conchyliologie, 3e Ser., XXII, 8— XXIV, 2. The Editor. 



380 PBOGEEDINGS 01 THB AOADEBfT 01 [1884. 

Journal de Micrographie, VII, 11, 12 ; VIII, 1 and 2. The Editor. 

. Museum d*Histoire Naturelle. Nouvelles Archives, 2me S^r., V, 2 ; 

Vr, 1. The Society. 

Le Naturaliste, N<s. 46-69. The Editor. 

Revue d'Ethnographie, I; IL 5— III, 8. 1. V. Williamson Fund. 

Revue Geo^aphique Internationale, Nos. 96^107. The Editor. 

Revue et Magasin de Zoologie, 1874, No. 6, without plates. 

F. G. Schaupp. 
Revue Internationale des Sciences, 1888, Nos. 11 and 12. The Editor. 
Revue Politique et Literaire, 8e Ser., 3e An., Nos. 28-26. The Editor. 
Revue Scientiiique de la France et de I'^tranger, 3me Ser. Ill, 21 - 

IV, 19. The Editor. 

Science et Nature, I, 1 50. The Editor. 

Soci^t^ d'Acclimatation. Bulletin, 8d Ser., X, 10— 4e Ser. I, 7. 

* The Society. 

Soci^t^ de Biologic. Compte Rendu des Stances. 7me Ser., Ill ; V, 

1-4, 6-85. The Society. 

Society Kntomologique de France. Annates, 6me Ser. II, 1-4. 
Soci^te Geologique de France. Bulletin, 8me Ser., XI, 7 ; XII, 1-7. 

The Society. 
Soci^t^ Malacologique de France. Bulletins I, II, Announcement, 

By-Laws, etc. 

Annales de Malacolo^ie, T, 4. The Society, 

Soci6t6 Min^i-alogique de France. Bulletin VI, 7-VII, 7. The Society. 
Soci^t^ Nationale d'Agiiculture de France. Bulletin, 1883, No. 8- 

1884, No. 7. The Society. 

Social 4 Zoologique. Bulletin, 8er An., 8 — 9e An. 2. The Society. 

Philadelphia. Academy of Natural Sciences. Proceedings, 1883, No. 8— 

1884, No. 2. 

Journal, IX, 1. Publication Committee. 

Report of Transactions, 1824. Dr A. E. Foote. 

American Entomological Society. Transactions, X, 8, 4. The Society. 

American Journal of Medical Science, Jan.-Oct., 1884. The Editor. 
American Journal of Pharmacy, 1883, XIII, 12—1884^ XIV, 11. 

The Editor. 
American Naturalist, XVII, 12-XVIII, 12. The Editor. 

American Pharmaceutical Association. Proceedings, Blst annual 

me» ting. The Society. 

American Philosophical Society. Proceedings, Nos. 114 and 115. 
College of Pharmacy. Alumni Association, 20th annual report. 

The Sciciety. 
The Dental Cosmos, XXV, 12— XXVI, 11. The Editor. 

Engineers' Club. Proceedings, III, 6 — IV, 8 and supplement. 

The Society. 
Franklin Institute. Journal, 3d Ser., Nos. 696-707. The Society. 

The Gardeneis' Mon hly, 1888, Deo.— 1884, Nov. The Editor. 

Historical Society of Pennsylvania. Pennsylvania Magazine of His- 
tory and Biography, VII, 4— VIII, 8. The Society. 
Library Company of Philadelphia. Bulletin, July, 1884. The Directors. 
Literary Era, II, 1-12. The Editor. 
Mercantile Library. Bulletin, I, 7. The Directors. 
Naturalists* Leisure Hour, Feb.— Dec, 1884. The Editor. 
Papilio, IV, 1-6. The Editor. 
Verein Eosmos. Jahresbericht, 1888, 1884. The Society. 
Zoological Society. 12th annual report. The Society. 
Pisa. Societa Malacologica Italiana. Bollettino Malacologico Italiano, 

X, Fogli, 1-8. The Society. 

Societa Toscana di Sdenze Naturali. Atti, 18 Gen., 1884 -Luglio, 1884. 

The Society. 



1884.] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 881 

Portici. R. Scuola Superiore d'Agricoltura. Annuario lY, 1-8. 

The Director. 
Poughkeepsie. Yassar Brothers' Institute. TransactioDS, II. The Society. 
Prag. Lotos Yerein. Jahrbuch far Naturwissenschaften, n. F., Y, 1884. 

The Society. 
Raleigh. Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Journal, 1888-84. 

The Society, 

l^orth Carolina Department of Agriculture. Monthly Bulletin, March, 

1884. The Depaitment. 

Regensburg. Zoologisch-mineralogischer Yerein. Oorrespondenz-Blatt, 

8 . er Jahrg. The Society. 

Reichenbach i. Y. Yo^^tlanditscher Yerein fur allgemeine und spezielle 

Naturkunde. Mittheilungen, 4es H., und wissenschaftliche Beilage. 

The Society. 
Riga. Naturforscher-Yerein. Correspondenzblatt, 26er und 27er Jahrg. 

The Society. 

Rio de Janeiro. Istituto Historico Geographico e Ethnographico do 

Brasil. XLFV' 2, XLY. The Society. 

Observatoire Imperial, Bulletin astronomique et m^t^orologique, 1888, 

Nos. 8-12. The Director. 

Rochester. Society of Natural Sciences. Annual report, 1883. 

The Society. 
Ward's Natural Science Bulletin, III, 1. The Editor. 

Rome. R. Accadeoiia dei Lincei, Ser. 8a. Atti, YII, 15— YIII, 15. 

The Society. 
Sticfeta Geografica Italiana. Bollettino, Ser. II, Yol. 9, Fnsc. 2-9. 

The Society. 
Societa degli Spettroscopisti Italiana. Memorie, XII, 11— XIII, 8. 

The Society, 
Saco. York Institute. Publications, I, 1, 2. The Society. 

Saint John. Natural History Society of New Brunswick. Bulletin, 8. 

Annual repoit, 1881. 
St. Louis. Academy of Sciences. Transaction!^, lY, 8. The Society. 

St. Petersburg. Societas Entomologica. HorsB, XYII. The Society. 

Phyfeikalische Cthtral-Observatorium. Annalen, 1882, 1 and 2. 

The Director. 

K. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Repertorium fiir Meteorologie, 

YIII. The Society. 

Hortus Petropolitanus. Acta, VIII, 2. The Society. 

Salem. Eshex Institute. Bulletin, XIY, 7— XYI, 3. The Society. 

San Francisco. California Academy of Sciences. Bulletin, No. 1. 

The Society. 
Semur. Soci^t^ des Sciences historiques et naturelles. Bulletin, 1881-82. 
Siena. R. Accademia de Fisiocritici. Atti, Ser. 2a, II, 1. 2 ; Y ; YI ; YII. 
Ser. 8a. II, 1,2; III, 1-8. 
Revista Scientifica, YI, YII. 

Rapporti, I, 1, 2. * The Society. 

Springtield. Illinois State Museum of Natural History. Bulletin, 1882, 

No. 2. The Society. 

Staunton. The Yirginias, lY, 12— Y, 10. The Editor. 

Stockholm. Entomologisk Tidskrift, lY, 1 - Y, 2. The Editor. 

E. Yetenskaps Akademien. Ofversigt 40de Arg. 5 — 41e Arg. 8. 

Bihang, VIII, 1, 2. The Society. 

Humboldt, II, 12—111, 11. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Kosmos, YIII, 7—1884. II, 8. I. Y. Williamson Fund. 

Neues Jahrbuch far Minoralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie. 1888, 
II, 8—1884, U. 2, and III ; Beilage, Bd. 1. The Editor. 

Y* rein fQr Yaterlaodisohe Naturkunde in WArtemberg. Jahreshefte, 
40er JabreilMit The Societyi 



882 PBOOSKDINQS OT THE AOABEMT OF [1884. 

Switzerland. Naturfonchende Gesellschaft. Verhandlungen, 1882-88. 

The Society. 

Sydney. Linnean Society of New South Wales. Proceedings, VIII, 8-- 

IX, 2. The Society. 

Royal Society of New South Wales, Journal and Proceedings, XYU. 

The Society. 
Tasmania. Royal Society. ' Proceedings and Reports, 1883. 

The Society. 
Throndhjem. E. N. Yidenskabeis Selskab. Skrifter, 1881. The Society. 
Topeka. Washburn Laboratory of Natural History, Bulletin, I, 1. 

The Director. 

Torino. Accademia Reale delle Scienze. AUi, XYIII, 4— XIX, 4. 
Memoria, Serie 2a, T. 34 and 35. 

II Primo Secolo. 1783-1883. The Society. 

Regio Osservatorio della Regia Universita. BoUettino, Anni 17 and 18. 

The Director. 
Toronto. Canadian Institute. Proceedings, N. S., I, 6 — II, 3. 

The Society. 

Entomological Society. Annual Report, 1883. The Society. 

Toulouse. Academic des Sciences, Inscriptions et Belles-Lelti es. Me- 

moires, 8me Ser. V, 1, 2. The Society. 

Revue Mycologique, VI, 22. The Editor. 

Trieste. Societa Adriatica di Scienze Natural!. BoUettino, VIII. 

The Society. 

Truro. Royal Institution of Cornwall. Journal, Vni, 1, 2. The Society. 

United States. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 

Proceedings, XXXII. 

Programme of the 31st and 32d meetings. The Society. 

American Society of Microscopists. Proceedings, 6th annual meeting. 

The Society. 
Upsal. Observatoire de rUniversit^. Bulletin Meteorologique, XV. 

The Director. 
Regia Societas Scientiarum. Nova Acta, 8d Ser., XI, 2. The Society. 
Urbana. Central Ohio Scientific Association. Proceedings, I, 2. 

The Society. 

Venice. L'Atereo Veneto, Ser. VIIT, Vol. I, 4— II, 2. The Society. 

R. Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Aiti. Atti, Ser. 6a, T. I, 

Disp. 4~II, 2. The Society. 

Vienna. Anthropologische Gesellschaft. Mittheilungen, XIII, 2 — XIV, 1. 

The Society. 
Embryologische Institut der E. E. Universitat. Mittheilungen, II, 3. 

The Director. 
K. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Sitzungsberichte, mathem.-na- 
turw. Classe, 86 Bd., le Abth., I— V ; 2e Abth., II-V ; 3e Abth., III- 
V ; 87 Bd., le Abth., I-V ; 2e Abth., I-V ; 8e Abth., I-III. 
Denkschriften, 45er and 46er Bd. The Society. 

E. K geologische Reicbsanstalt. Jahrbuch 1884^ I-UI. 
Verhandlungen, 1883, No. 18—1884, No. 14. The Society. 

Mineralogische und petrographische Mittheilungen (Tschermak), n. F.» 
V, 5 -VI, 3 r V. Williamson Fund. 

Naturwissenschaftlicber Verein an der Universitat. Mittheilungen, 
1883-1883. The Society. 

Wiener Illustrirte Garten Zeitung, 1883, No. 10—1884, No. 9. 

The Editor. 

E. E. zoologisch botanische Qesellschafb. Veihandlungen, XXVIII, 

88 mit Beiheft. The Society. 

Zoologische Institut Arbeiten, V, 2, 8. The Society. 



1884.] NATURAL SClfafGBS 09 PHILADELPHIA. 883 

Waahington. American (Monthly) Microficopical Jonmal, V, 1 — ^11. 

The £ditor. 
Anthropological Society. Abstract of TransactionSy IT. The Society. 
Philosophical Society. Bulletin, YL The Society. 

United States Fish Commission. Bulletin, IQ, 18—17, 29 et seq. Also^ 

IQ and lY complete. The Director. * 

United States National Museum. Proceedings, YI, 16 - VII, 30. 

Depsirtroent of the Interior. 

Wellington. New Zealand Institute. Transactions, XVI. The Society. 

Westers B. Bedogorelae for Hogre Allmanna Laroverket i Wester&s, 

1883-84. The Westerss Gymnasium. 

Wiesbaden. Nassauischen Yerein for Naturkunde. Jahrbucb, 36er 

Jabr. The Society. 

Wilkes-Barre. Wyoming Historical and Geological Society. Publications 

(Proceedings) Nos. 1-8. The Society. 

Worcester. American Antiquarian Society. Proceedings, m, 1, 2. 

The Society. 
Wurzburg. Botanisches Institut. Arbeiten, III, 1. 

I. Y. Williamson Fund. 
Physikalisch-medicinische GesellschafL Yerhandlungen, n. F., XYII. 
Sitzungsberichie, 1883. The Society. 

Zoologisch-zootomisches Institut. Arbeiten, Y, 1-4 ; YI, 1-3 ; YII, 1, 2. 

L Y. Williamson Fund. 
Yokohama. Asiatic Society of Japan. Transactions, XI, 1, 2 ; XII, 1. 

The Society. 

York. Natural. History Journal (and School Beporter), I, 1877— YU, 

1883 ; Ym, 64-70. The Editor. 



INDEX TO GENERA, ETC. 



1884. 



TAQM. 

Abies ....80, 92 

Acanthint 167 

Acanthinion 122, 124 

Acanthocystis 293 

Acanthopterygii 154 

Acanthurus. 102, 108, 227-231 

Acafati..: 157 

Acentrachme 164 

Acer 81 

Achillea 86 

Achinis 45 

Acineta 218 

Aconitam 80 

Acronurus 229, 230 

ActCBa 80 

ActsBon 104 

Actlnophrys 17, 293 

ActinosphflBiium 298 

Adenocaulon 86 

Adiantum 96 

Agalena ^ 138 

AgODus 103 

Agrostis 94 

Aira 95 

Alcyonella 213 

All i gator. 47 

Allium 93 

Alnus 91 

Alopecums. 95 

Alutera. 46 

Amelanchier 82 

Ammodyteiformes 182 

Ammodytidce. 181 

Ammonites 58, 54 

Amphileptus 51 

Amphisilidfld 155 

Amphisile 163, 164 

AmphiiiUda.... 164 



TAOB. 

AmphisiliDffi 164 

Amphisiloidei 164 

Amphiuma 262-278 

Anacantini 168 

Anacharis 37, 50 

Anaphalis 87 

Anguiliformes 1 77 

AnoplarchuB 1(|B 

Antennaria 87 

Antennarius 45, 46 

Apeltes 157 

ApeltinsB 157 

•Aphorisda 45 

Aphyostomes , 162 

Aplysina 202 

Aplysiuida 202 

Apocynum 30 

Apodes 167 

ApogoD 99 

Apsilus 87, 39, 40, 50, 51 

Aquilegia 80 

Arabia 80 

AracesB 94 

AraliacesB 85 

Arbutus 88 

Arcestes 54 

Archangelica 85 

Arctia 284 

Arenaria 81 

Arenosa 203 

ArgyrotsBninsB 182 

Armeria 88 

Arnica , 87 

Ascaltis 208 

Ascidia 310 

Aspidium 96 

Astasia 61 

Aster 18, 87 



(885) 



886 



PAOOBEDINGS OF THE AOADEMY 09 



[1884. 



Astragalus 82 

Atoleopodidffi 182 

Atractomia 1^7 

Atractosoines 157 

Atripex 90 

Atropus 95 

Atta 61 

Attus 294 

Aulichthys 160 

Auliscops 160 

Aulo. hynchidffi 154, 150 

AulorhynchinsB 160 

Aulorhynchoidce. • 159 

AulorhyDchus 155, 160 

Aulostoma 161 

Aulostomateidffi 160 

Aulo8tomatid» 155, 160 

Aulostomatoidei 160 

Aulostomia 161 

Aalo8tomid» 154, 160 

Aulostomidea 154 

Axinella 205 

Axinellida 205 

Bahia 87 

Balistes 46, 99 

Barbero 228 

Batrachus 45 

Bdella 47 

Bellerophon 54 

Betula 91 

Betulace® 91 

Bibu'ida 202 

Biloculina 321 

Bleniiiidae 169, 173 

Blennioidei.... 180 

Blennius 103 

Boa 140 

Bombus 61 

Borraginace«e 89 

Boschniakia 81, 89 

BothrolsBmus 128 

Brachyrliincus 98 

Branchiostoma 810 

Bregmacerotidffi 173 

Brodisa 98 

Brosmiidffi 171 

BrosminsB. 171 

BrosmophyciiUB 176 

Brosmophycis 175 

Brotula 169, 175 

BrotulidsB 169, 175 

Biotulina 176 

Brotullna 176 

Brotuloidoa 175 

Brotulopbididtt 176 

Bwtolophii 176 



TAGS. 

Branella 90 

Bryanthns 88 

Bulla 104^ 110 

BusycoQ 192 

Bythitiuffi 176 

Cadulus Ill, 112 

Galcarea 208 

Caltha 80 

Campanula. 87 

CamponotuB 9 

Cancellaria 104 

CaprifoliacesB 86 

Caranx 98 

Caranxia 157 

Oarcharias 97, 98, 100 

CarditA ,.. 104 

Cardium 104 

Carex 94 

Carya 15 

Cashiope 88 

Ca^siterite 9 

Castanea 15, 80 

Caatillija 89 

Catalpa 78 

Caudina 18 

CavocbaliDida 204 

Centaurea 201, 287 

Centiiscbini 161, 162 

Centrisci 162, 164 

Centrscidffi 155, 162, 164 

Centrisc'uffi 168 

Centriscoidei 162 

Centriscops 163 

Ccntriscus 163, 164 

Centrolophus 817 

Centronotides 157 

Gcphalosomes 178 

Cerastium 81 

Ceratina 202 

Cerithium 105 

Cervus 119 

Cetengraulis 85 

ChsBtCKJipteruB 45 

GbsBtodon 99, 102, 122, 124, 812 

Cbalina 204 

Cbalinida 204 

CliaiDSBoyparis •. 92 

Cbamorbynobus 163 

CbenopodiaoesB 90 

GhiasmoduutidsB 183 

CbiasiDodontinn 183 

Cboanopoma 211 

Cbouetes 54 

Gborizopia 167 

Cbriomitra , 288 

ChryBoatroDiiit. • ^ •••• 811 



1884.] 



MATCRAL BCIENCE8 OP PBILADBLFBIA. 



Ciconia 49 

Cillatiiue 179 

CiDMt. 286, 2m\ 

Circeft 84 

Cladastrla 118 

CUtUria 204 

CUthiina 208 

Clathrulina 17, 18, 19 

Claytonia 81 

Cliona 307 

Clupea 42 

Cnjuus 67 

Cochluaria 80 

Cochlespira. 107 

CcBcula 42 

Collomia 89 

ComposilfB 80 

Congrogadide ISO, 178 

CongrogadiDie 178 

CoD^rogaduB 179 

Conifeife 92 

Conulsria 64 

CopliB 80 

CorbiB 104 

Cofbula 104 

Cordjlophora 318 

CoregODUs 136 

Cktrnaces 85 

Cornalites 148 

Coniua 89 

Corvjna 96 

Coryliw 16, 117 

Coi7pJ<(Bnidta 181 

Coi7t>h(eiia 103 

Coryphene 816 

Cottua 103 

CrantKiit 85 

CraMulacen. 84 

Crepidnla 13 

CriHtatella 193, 197, 196 

Crius 318 

CrotaluB 140 

Crucifers 80 

Cryptogramme 96 

Cncui'bitacMe 85 

Cnpelopsgus. S7, 39, 40, SO, 51 

CupulifenB 92 

Cybium 283-285 

Cycloptonu 45 

Cylichna 104 

Cylindrella 211 

Cyperacen 64 

Cypi«a 104 

Cypitedia 104 

Cystoptetis 96 

Dalilis 16 



Deutalium 113 

Deecbampsia 9S 

Deyeuxia 9S 

Diodon 46 

Dietyoc;liDdrus 20S 

Dictyophora 87, 88, 60, 81 

DiBtama 47 

Ditrupa 113 

DodocatbeoD 88 

Doliodon 124 

DoDatia 20S 

Poroeoma 42 

Drcwera. ..' 84 

DroBeracesB 84 

Dryaa 83 

DiileB 98 

Dyeidea 803 

Ecbinoclatbria 204 

EchinocfBtis 85 

EctainODemata 204 

Echiodou 170 

Ecpantlieria 288 

Elymus 95 

Empetracea 90 

Empetrum 90 

EncheilophiB. 175 

E ■ ■ -M 178 

E 84, 85 

K i 98,99, lOa 

E 84 

E 88 

E 3 95 

E 95 

E 88 

EraDtliiB 116 

Eiicacefsa 88 

EiigeroD 87 

Briopborum 94 

EryBtmain go 

Eschara ig 

Ebox 68,74, 75,188, 335 

Eucalia. igs 

Eucalyptocriniu 143 

EulepCorliampfaua 331 

Eumeces qq 

EuonyrauB 15 

Eupagurus 18 

Euphrasia , 89 

PaBcicolaria 190, 193 

Fatzia 85 

Festuca gg 

Fiatola 311 

Fieraafer 175 

Fierasferide 169, 178 

Fiaraaferlna 179 



888 



PB00ESDIMQ8 OV THE AOADEBfiT OV 



[1884. 



PAOX. 

Filaria 47, 48 

Filices.... 96 

Fissurella 808 

Fistularia 161, 162 

Fistulari® 161 

FistularidsB 154, 160, 161, 162 

FistularinsB 162 

Fistularini 162 

Fistularioidei 161 

Formica 57, 59, 64 

Fragaria 82 

Fraxinus 88 

Fulgur .». . . 12, 292 

Fungispongia 147 

Fusus 804 

Gadi 168, 171, 172 

Gadid® 168, 170, 171, 172 

Gadiformes 171 

GadinsB 171 

Gadini 170, 171 

Gadinia 170,172 

Gadites 171 

Gadoidea 170, 171, 172 

GadoidesB 171 

Gadoides 170, 172 

GadopsidsB 183 

Gadus Ill 

Galeopsis 90 

Galeus 100 

Galium 86 

GasterocanthuB 158 

Gasteropoda Ill 

Gasterostei . ... 157 

GasterosteidsB 157 

GasterosteinsB 158 

Gasterosteini 157 

Gasterosteoidea 154, 157 

Gasterosteus 157, 158 

Gastropacha 286 

Gaultheria 88 

Gelsemium 14 

GentiaDa... 88 

GentianacesB 88 

Genypterus 178 

Geodina 208 

Geraniace» 81 

Geranium 81 

Geum 82 

Ginnotini 178 

Glaiix •. 88 

Gloveria 286 

Glyceria 95 

Glyphidodon 99 

Gnaphalium 87 

Gobiesox 45 

Gordius.-. 294 



FAGI. 

Gk>88ypium 296 

GraminsB 94 

GymnelinsB 180 

Gymnothorax « 101 

Habenaria 98 

Halesia 82 

Ualichondria 206, 208 

.Haliophis 179 

Haliotis 803 

Harpyia.' 284 

Helianthus 16, 200 201, 287 

Hemibranchii 154 

Hemlramphus 98, 221-226 

Hepatus 229 

Heptranchias 100 

Heracleum 85 

Herpyllus 158 

Heteromeyenia 216, 217 

Heterostegina .190, 321 

Heuchera 84 

Hieracium 14, 87 

HierochlcB I . . . 95 

HippocampidsB 166 

Hippocampus... 103 

Higginsia 205 

Hircinia 203 

Hirciaida 203, 203 

Holcus 95 

Holacanthus 102 

Holobranches 167 

Holorhaphidota. 206 

Hoakenya 81 

Hordeum 95 

HybocrinuB. 145 

HypericacesB 81 

Hypericum 81 

Hyporamphus 222 

Hyporthodus 98 

Hypostomides 166 

Impatiens 81 

IridiicesB , 93 

Isesthes 103 

Isodictya... 206 

Isodictyosa 206 

Isurus 100 

Juglans 16 

Jugulares . . . . , 167 

JuDcacesB 94 

Juncus 94 

Ealmia. 88 



Labiate 
Laoerta. 



90 
66 



1884.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



389 



PAOB. 

Lamna 100 

Lathyrus SI 

Lasiocampa 286 

Ledum 88 

Leguminosce 82 

Leiuras 158, 816 

Lemna 17 

LentibulariacesB 90 

LeoDtodon 87 

L^pidol^pridsB 174 

LepidosomatidsB 174 

Lepidosteus 101 

Leptophidium 178 

Libinia : . . . . 12 

Lichia 128 

Ligusticum 85 

LiliacesB 93 

Lilium 298 

Limnias 214, 218 

Limulus 12 

Lingula 148 

LinnaBa 86 

Linum 88 

Liquidamber. 293 

Lirus 316 

Littorioa 292 

Lomaria 96 

LoDicera 86 

Lophionotes 173 

Lophius 45, 46 

Lopboteryx 285 

Lotes 168 

LotinsB 171 

Lotini 171 

Loxopbyllum 51 

Lumbricolus 260 

Lupinus 82 

Lutjanus 45 

Luzula 94 

Lycenchelys 180 

Lycocara 180 

Lycodes 180 

Lycodida 179 

LycodinsB 180 

Lycodoidea . 179 

Lycodonus 180 

Lycodopsis 180 

Lycopodiaceffi 96 

Lycopodium 96 

Lycosa 138 

Lygosoma 66 

Lysichitou 94 

Macbffirium 179 

MacrorbamphosidsD 156, 162 

Macrorbamphosus 163 

Macrouriforme* 174 



PAOB. 

Macrourini 174 

Macrarid® 168, 178, 174 

Macruruidea 170 

Mactra 10, 12 

Madia 87 

Malacopterygii 168 

Maltbe 45, 98 

MalvacesB 81 

Manayunkia. .... .21, 80, 48, 49, 218 

Mastodon 22 

Megalops 42 

Melongena 190 

MenObrancbus 262-273 

Menopoma 262-274 

Mentba 90 

Menziesia 88 

Merluccia 171, 172 

MeiiuccnaB 171, 172 

MerluciidsB 171, 172 

MerluciinaB 172 

Mertensia 89 

Meyenia 218, 216, 217 

Metrosomes 170, 172 

Meyenia 28, 184 

Micaria 152, 158 

Micromeria 87, 90 

Mimulus 89 

M i tcbella 298 

Modiola 12 

Moneses 88 

Monotropa 81 

Montia 81 

MursBna 101, 804 

Mya 10,12, 108 

Mylodon 22 

Myrmellon 59 

Myropbis 44 

Mytilis 10, 12 

Myxena 809 

Nabulus 87 

KaidacesB 94 

Nassa 12, 804- 

Nasturtium 80 

Natica 12 

Navarretia 89 

Neillia 82 

Niso 104 

Nummulites 190, 821 

Nuttallia 82 

(Enantbe 85 

Ofidilna 177 

OleacesB 88 

OnagracesB 84 

Oncbidium 808 

OninsB 172 



390 



PBOCEEDINQS OF THE ACADElfT OF 



[1884. 



PAOB. 

Operculina 322 

Ophichthys 43, 101 

Opbidid® 177 

Ophidiidffi .109, 170, 177, 178 

Ophidiina 177 

Opliidiiformes 177 

Ophidiini 177 

UphidinsB 177 

Ophidioidea 175 

Ophidioidei 177 

Ophidium 175, 178 

OphidonidsB 177 

OpisthobranchiatsB 110 

OpUthonema • 42 

Opunt a 15 

Orbitoides 190, 821 

OrcbidacesB 93 

OrtbicbtbyinsB 103 

Ortbichthys 163 

Osmerus 131 

Ostrea 10, 12, 104, 301 

Oxytropis 82 

Palinuricbthys 316 

Palinurus 316 

Paladioella .30, 213, 218, 219 

Pammelas 316 

Parantbias 98 

Paraspongia 202 

Parnafcsia 84 

Para 312 

Pasitbea 104 

Pal ella 302, 303 

Pecten 104, 190, 302 

Pedicularis 89 

Pectinatella 195, 196, 197, 218 

Pegasi 166 

PegasidsB 165 

Pegasini 166 

Pegasoidei 166 

PeDtastomum 140 

Peprilus 311-313 

Perca.. 99 

Percoides 157 

Peristerite 215 

Pescador 42, 46 

Pezomacbus 152 

Pbegopteris 96 

Phillipsia 54 

Phleum . 95 

PbycidcB 171 

Pby cin» 171 

Pbysoclysti 168 

Picea 92, 117 

Pinguicula 90 

Pinus 92,295, 296 

PlantaginaoesB 90 



PAGS. 

PI an tago 90 

Platanus 14, 117 

PlatyonicbuB 12 

Pleurotoma 104, 106, 107 

Plamatetla 218 

Plumbaginace» 8 ^ 

Poa 95 

PolemonlaoesB 89 

Polycantbus .... 159 

PolygonacesB 90 

Polygonum 90 

Polypodium 96 

Polyprion 99 

Polyptericbtbys 161 

PomacaDtbus 102 

Pomacbia. 166 

PoronotuB 311, 314 

Poiitulacacee 81 

Potamogeton 60 

Potentilla 83 

Primula 88 

PrimulacesB 88 

Prinos 298 

Prionotus 103 

Pristis 101 

Productus 54 

PromicropteroB 99 

Prosartes 93 

Proteus 308, 309 

Prunus 83 

Psammonemata. 203 

Pseudopriacanthus 98 

xSoraiGa ••.•..■• ..•*.••••••... Ow 

Pteridium 175 

Pteris. 96 

Pteropoda 110 

Pygosteus 158 

Pyretbram 87, 95 

Pyi-ola 88 

Pymla 104 

Pyras 82 

Pyxioola 214, 218 

Quercus 30, 92 

Quinquelooulina , 321 

Rana 278 

RanicepitidsB 173 

RanunculacesB 80 

Ranunculus 80 

Ranzania 100 

Rapbyras 207 

Reniera 205, 206 

Renierida 206 

RbampbosidsB 165 

Rapbidiophrys 293 

Rbapbidonemata 204 



1884.] 



NATURAL SOIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



891 



PAGS. 

Rhea 47 

Rhinobatus 42 

Rhombus 311-814 

RbypticuB 99 

Ribes 84 

Richardia 142 

Rosa 14, 83 

RosacesB 82 

Rotalia 28 

Rotifer 260 

Rubiacesd 86 

Rubus 14, 83 

Riimex 90 

Sagina 81 

SalicacesB 91 

Sdlix 91, 151 

Salmo 131 

Balpa 113 

Sambucus 86 

Sanguisorba 84 

Sanicula 85 

Saphindacess 81 

Harcodes 81 

Saunis 131 

Saxicava 108 

Saxif raga 84 

SaxifragacesB 84 

SceliominsB 295 

BcisBna 102 

Bcirpus 94 

Scomber 233 

8comberidsB 161 

Scomb^roides 157 

Bcomberomorus 282-235 

ScorpsBDa 45, 98, 99 

Scrophularia 89 

ScropliulariacesB 89 

Sc> phobranchii 168 

Hcytalina 179 

Sedum 84 

8enecio 87 

Serpula. 18 

Seserinus 811, 818 

Sidalcea 81 

Sidera 42 

8igaretus 104 

Biphonostomes ..... 161 

Siphostoma 45 

Siphostomia 161, 162 

SirembinsB 176 

Bisyrinchium 93 

Sium 85 

Bmerinthus 283 

BmilaciDa. 98 

Bolarium . . 104 

Solen 10, 802 



PAOS. 

Solenostomus 161, 162 

Sol i dago 13, 87 

BoDchus 87 

Bqualus 97 

Bporgula 81 

Spherionidi 166 

SphsBroidina 821 

SphyrsBna 67-75, 101 

bpilosoma 284 

Spinachia 155, 159 

SpibachiaDSB 159 

SpiuachiiDSB 159 

BpirsBa 83 

Spiranthes 98 

Spirogyra 87 

Hpiroculina 821 

Spirophyton 144 

Spoudylus 802, 308 

Spongelia 203 

SpongiUa 28, 215, 217 

Stachys 90 

Stellaria 81 

Stereolepis 99 

Bternopygii 168 

Stictopora 146, 147 

Btolephorus 84, 85 

Streptopus 93 

Strix 47 

StromateidsB 811 

Stromateus 45, 811-314 

Sternoptyx 812 

Subbranchiani 168 

Suberites 206 

Symphoricarpus 86 

Symplocos 117 

ByngnathidsB 166 

Synodus 180-186 

Tachynotus 45 

Tfflnia 187 

Tapirus 119 

Taraxacum 87 

TaxacesB 92 

Taxus 92 

Tellima 84 

Terebra 1C5 

Tethya 208 

Tetrodon 99, 100 

Tetrapodes 167 

Textularia 28 

Teuthis 227-281 

Thuja 98 

Tiarella 84 

Tibiella 110 

Tofieldia 93 

Tornatella 104 

Trachelius 51, 62 



392 



PBOOEEDINQS OF THE AOADEMT OF 



[1884. 



FAOB. 

Trachinia 174 

Tjachinidi 173 

Trachinocephalus. 131 

Tracbynotus 101, 131-129 

Triacrinus .....144-146 

Trientalis 88 

Tri fol i um 82 

Trigla 99 

Triglid® 157 

Triglbchin 94 

TrilocuUna 321 

Triaetum 95 

TriRotropis 102 

Trochita 104 

Tseudtsuga 93 

Tsuga 93 

Tuba 204 

Tubel la 216, 217 

Turdus 228 

Turns 106 

UmbellifersB 85 

Urnatella 29, 218, 282 



FAGB. 

Uronectes 180 

UrospbenidsB 165 

yaccinium 88 

Venus 10,12, 301 

Veronica 89 

Viburnum 86 

Vicia 82 

Viola 81 

ViolacesB 81 

Vomer 98 

XenocepbalidsB 182 

Xenooepbaliformes 182 

Xipboides 177 

Zapbrentis 54 

Zeid» 157 

Zinnia 210 

Zircon 214 

Zoarces 1 69, 1 79 

Zoarcbidffi 179 

Zoarcins 180 



1884.] 



NATURAL 80IENCB8 OF PHTLADKLPHTA. 



898 



GENERAL INDEX. 



AnnouncemeDt of 
Announcement of 



Additions to the Library, 356. 

Additions to the Museum, 351. 

Amendments to By-Jjaws, Chapter 
I, Art. 6, and Chapter XVI, Art. 
4, 261. 

Arango, Rafael. Descriptions of new 
species of terrestrial mollusca of 
Cuba, 113, 211. 

Audenried, J. T. Announcement of 
death of, 66. 

Bayard, C. P. 
death of, 282. 

Bentham, Geo. 
death of, 236. 

Binder, Jacob. Report of the Cura- 
, tor of the Wm. S. Vaux CoUec*. 
tioDS, 3»6. 

Biological and Microscopical Section, 
report of, 338. 

Botanical Section, report of, 342* 

Brinton, D. G. Inaugural Lecture, 
113 ; Tunisian Flints, 219 ; On the 
Cuspidiform Petroglyphs, or so- 
called Bird-track Rock-sculpture 
of Ohio, 260, 275 ; Impression of 
the Figures on a Meday Stick, 278 $ 
Fired Stones and Prehistoric Im- 
plements, 279 ; A Glacial Pebble, 
299 ; Report of the Professor of 
Ethnology and ArchsBology, 348. 

Buckley, Dr. S. B. Announcement 
of death of, 66. 

By-Laws, amendments to Chapter 
I, Art. 6, and Chapter XVI, Art. 
4, 261. 

Carter, Henry J. Catalogue of 
Sponges collected by Mr. J. Will- 
cox, on the West Coast of Florida, 
187, 202, 237. 

Chester, F. D. The Geology of Del- 
aware ; Laurentian, PalsBOZoic and 
Cretaceous areas, 200, 236. 

Claghom, Jas. L. Announcement 
of death of, 215. 

26 



Conchological Section, report of, 889. 

Corresponding Secretary, report of, 
326. 

Curators, report of, 830. 

DoUey, Chas. S. On the Process of 
Digestion in Salpa, 113. 

Elections during 1884. 349. 

Elwyn, Dr. A. L. Announcement 
of death of, 66. 

Englemann, Geo. Announcement of 
death of, 80. 

Entomological Section, report of, 
341. 

Famum, J. Edwards. Announce- 
ment of death of, 282. 

Foore, A. E. A Large Zircon, 214. 

Ford, John. Embryology of Ful- 
gur, etc., 292. 

Fordice, Morton W. A Review of 
the American species of Stoma- 
teidsB, 299, 311. 

Fonlke, Sara G. Some Phenomena 
in the Life History of Clathrulina 
elegans, 9, 17 ; On a New Species 
of Rotifer, of the Genus Apsilus, 
28, 37 ; Some Notes on Manayun- 
kia speciosa, 48 ; Dictyophora as 
Apsilus vorax, 51 ; A New Species 
of Trachelius, 51. 

General Index, 393. 

Gill, Theo. On the Mutual Rela- 
tions of the Hemibranchiate Fish- 
es, 151, 154 ; On the Anacanthine 
Fishes, 151, 167. 

Gray, Asa. Flora of North America, 
1 3 ; Some Notes on the Movements 
of the AndroBcium in Sunflowers, 
279, 287. 

Guyot, Arnold. Announcement of 
death of, 30. 

Haines, Wm T. 
death of, 28. 

Hand, James C. 
death of; 20. 



Announcement of 
Announcement of 



394 



PBOCEEDINOB OF THE AOADEMY OF 



[1884-. 



Heilprin, Angelo. On an Ammonite 
from the Carboniferous Formation 
of Texas, 47, 53 ; The Tertiary 
Qeo1o};y of Eastern and Southern 
United States, 47 ; Antiquity of 
Implement-makiug Man, 220 ; On 
a Remarkable Exposure of Colum- 
nar Trap near Orange, N. J., 298, 
818 ; Note on some new Forami- 
nifei*a from the Nummulitic For- 
mation of Florida, 298, 321 ; Re- 
poi*t of the Curators, 330 ; Report 
of the Professor of Invertebrate 
Paleontology, 345. 

Henszey, Wm. C. Report of the 
Treasurer, 833. . 

Hess, Robert J. Report of the Bio- 
logical and Microscopieal Section, 
339. 

Hoin, Geo. H. Report of the Cor- 
responding Secretary, 326. 

Index to Genera, etc.. 385. 

Jordan, David S. List of Fishes 
from Egmont Key, Florida, in the 
Museum of Tale College, with De- 
scriptions of two new Species, 28, 
42 ; Notes on Species of Fishes 
improperly ascribed to the Fauna 
of North America, 66, 97. 

Leidy, Joseph. Ant infected with 
a Fungus, 9 ; Cassiterite from 
Black Hill, 9 ; The New Jersey 
Coast after the Storm of Jan. 8, 
1884, 12 ; Fossil Bones from Lou- 
isiana, 22 ; Foraminifei'a in the 
Drift of Minnesota, 22 ; Distoma 
and FilarisB, 47 ; Dictyophora as 
Apsilus vorax, 50; On Eumeces 
chalcides, 66 ; Vertebrate Fossils 
from Floriria, 118 ; A rare Human 
Tapeworm, 137 ; Pentastomum 
proboscideum, 140 ; Organisms in 
Ice, 260 ; Report of the Curators, 
332. 

Lewis, H. Carvill. A Phosphores- 
cent Variety of Limestone, 10 ; 
Volcanic Dust from Erakatoa, 185; 
Report of the Professor of Miner- 
alogy, 346. 

Librarian, report of, 328. 

Library, additions to, 356. 

McCook, Rev. Henry C. The Rufous 
or Thatching Ant of Dakota and 
Colorado, 50, 57 ; How Lycosa 
fabricates her round Cocoon, 138 ; 
Note on the Amphibious Habit of 
Lycosa, 140 ; A Spider that makes 
a Spherical Mud-daub Cocoon, 151; 



^ote on the Intelligence of a 
Cricket parasitised by a Gordius, 
293 ; A new Parasitic Insect upon 
Spider Eggs, 294. 

Meehan, Thomas. Botanical Notes ; 
Double Flowers in Gelsemium 
nitidium, Euonymus Japonicus, 
Development of Fruit of Opuntia, 
Helianthus tuberosus, Carya gla- 
bra, 14 ; The Longevity of Trees, 
30 ; Parasitism in Boschniakia 
glabra, E. Meyer, 31 ; Variation in 
Halesia, 3i ; Catalogue of Plants 
collected in July, 1883, during an 
Excursion along the Pacific Coast 
in Southeastern Alaska, 56, 76 ; 
Botanical Notes: Evolution of 
Heat in Plants, Relation of Heat 
to the Sexes of Flowers, Specific 
Differences in Picea nigra, the 
Flowers of Platanus, Variation in 
Symplocos foBtidus, Sugar in Ola- 
dastris tinctoria, 116 ; The Natuie 
of a Fasciated Branch, 140 ; On 
Rapid Changes in the History of 
Species, 142; Opposite Leaves in 
Salix nigra, 151 ; On Elasticity in 
the til amenta of Helianthus, :sOO ; 
Sexual Characters in Zinnia, 210 ; 
On derivation in Pinus edulis and 
Pinus monophylla, 295 ; Immedi- 
ate Influence of Pollen on Fruit, 
297 ; Report of the Botanical Sec- 
tion, 343. 

Meek, Seth E. A Review of the 
American Species of the Genus 
Synodus, 113, 130. 

Meek, iSeth E., and Robert Newland. 
A Review of the American Species 
of the genus Sphyisena, 56, 67 ; A 
Review of the Amei lean Species of 
Scomberomorus, 219, 232. 

Meek, Seth £., and David K. Goss. 
A Rei^iew uf the American Species 
of the genus Trachynotus, 118, 
121 ; A Review of the American 
Species of the genus Hemiram- 
phus, 219, 221. 

Meek, Seth E., and Martin L. Hoff- 
man. A Review of the American 
Species uf the genus Teuthis, 219, 
227. 

Meyer, Otto. Notes on Tertiary 
Shells, 66, 104. 

Mineialogical and Geological Sec- 
tion, report of, 345. 

Museum, additions to, 851. 

Nolan, Edw. J. Report of the Re- 



1884.] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA. 



395 



cording Secretory, 823 ; Report of 
the Librarian, 828. 

Officers for 1885, 849. 

Osbom, Henry F. Preliminary Ob- 
servations on the Brain of Meno- 
poma, 260, 262. 

Potts, Edw. Note on Manayunkia 
speciosa, 21 ; Fresh- water Sponges 
as Improbable Causes of the Pol- 
lution of River- water, 28 ; Some 
modifications observed in the form 
of Sponge Spicules, 184 ; On a sup- 
posed new Species of Cristatella, 
185, 198 ; On Paludicella erecta, 
' 218 ; On the wide Distribution of 
some American Sponges, 215 ; On 
the Minute Fauna of Fairmount 
Reservoir, 217 ; An unfamiliar 
Rhizopod, 292. 

Poultney, Chas. W. Announcement 
of death of, 236 

Price; Eli K. Announcement of 
death of, 282. 

Professor of Invertebrate Paleontol- 
ogy, report of, 845. 

Professor of Mineralogy, report of, 
846. 

Professor of Invertebrate Zoology, 
report of, 847. 

Professor of Ethnology and Archse- 
ology, report of, 848. 

Putnam, F. W. Indian Mounds on 
the Miami River, 20. 

Rand, Theo. D. Report of the Min- 
eralogical and Geological Section, 
845. 

Randolph, N. A. A Preliminary 
Note on a Reaction common to 
Peptone and Bi]e-salt4, 115 ; On 
the Digestion of Raw and of Boiled 
Milk, 120; On the Behavior of 
Petrol Htum in the Digestive Tract, 
278, 281 ; Cutaneous Absorption of 
Nicotine, 280. 

Recording Secretary, report of, 828. 

Redfield, J. H. Report of the Bo- 
tanical Section, 342. 

Repoi t of the Recording Secretary, 
828. 

Report of the Corresponding Secre- 
tary, 826. 

Repoit of the Librarian, 828. 

Report of the Cui*atoi*s, 832. 

Report of the Treasurer, 888. 

Report of the Curator of the Wm. 
S. Vaux Collecticms, 836. 

Report of the Biological and Micros- 
copical Section, 888. 



Report of the Conchological Section, 
889. 

Report of the Entomological Section, 
841. 

Repoit of the Botanical Section, 842. 

Rei'ort of the Mineralogical and 
Geological Section, 845. 

Report of the Professor of Inverte- 
brate Palaeontology, 845. 

Report of the Professor of Miner- 
alogy, 846. 

Report of the Professor of Inverte- 
brate Zoology, 347. 

Report of the Professor of Ethnology 
and Ai chsBology, 348. 

Ridings, James H. Report of the 
Entomological Section, 341. 

Ringueberg. Eugene N. S. New 
Fofesils from the Four Groups of 
the Niagara Period of Western 
New York. 120, 144. 

Roberts, 8. R. Report of the Con- 
chological Section, 339. 

Rogers, Robt. E. Announcement 
of death of, 217. 

Rothrock, J. H. Relation of Medul- 
lary Rays to tlie Strength of Tim- 
bers, 14. 

Schaeffer, W. L. Announcement of 
death of, 215. 

Scribuer, F. Lamson. Observations 
on Cinna, with De^criptiou of a 
New Specie^ 279, 289. 

Sharp, Benj. Visual Organs of 
Lamellibranchs, 10 ; On Semper's 
Method of making Dried Prepara- 
tions, 20, 24; Introductory Lec- 
ture, 66 ; Homologies of the Ver- 
tebrate Crystalline Lens, 297, 800 ; 
Report of the Professor of Inver- 
tebrate Zoology, 347. 

Strecker, Herman. Descriptions of 
New Species of North American 
Heterocera, 279, 283. 

Swain, JoH., and Seth E. Meek. Notes 
on a Collection of Anchovies from 
Havana and Key West, with an 
account of a New Species, Stole- 
phorus eurystole, fi-om Wood's 
Holl, Mass., 28, 34. 

Treasurer, Report of, 333. 

Weber, Robt. L. Announcement 
of deatli of, 297. 

Willcox. Jos. Notes on the Geology 
and Natural History of the West 
Coast of Florida, 184, 188. 

Wm. 8. Vaux Collecti«ms, Report nf 
Curator of, 886. 



PROC. A. N, S, PHILA. I 



PL. I. 



■-^ 



'■^C 



^^'l-.,. , 





=-7 



■■i] 



/■■' 



r. 



GENUS APSILUS. 



PROC, A. N, S. PHIU. 1884. 


PL. 1, 




h 


•A "^- i , 




h ■;, 


,>'■■■ ' -^-V-^'<.. 


e-. 




i- 


C ■ 




..^. - 


^■ 


z. 


,..'-''' ' '^^- 


;"- 


.,.4%-^. 


i ' - -. L.. ' ■ .r-' 


'^ \jj|y*^^ 


*-.l- .- : . ' 


^m5 


■' '<" ^, ■ ".^ 


i. " '- 


g- 


.-f^ ■ 




kA 1 / 




J .^A:^ 




u s 




/"" 




^-- 





GENUS APSILUS. 



PROC. A, N. S. PHIIA. 




RINGUEBERG, FOSSILS OF NUGARA PERIOD 



PROC. A. N, S. PHILA. 




RINGUEBERG, FOSSrLS OF NIAGARA PERIOD. 



PROC. *. N. S. PHIU. 1884. 



PI. IV 




POTTS ON CRISTATELU, &e. 



PRGC. A. N. S. PHILA. 



PL. V. 



GEOLOGICAL MAP OF NORTHERN DELAWABJS. 



SCALE ] IN.>4MI.< 

"1 



\m 



Vi 1^ ^ 



lA 









ir*iy 



TCRTIARy 



^atmiL^wmi^itei r- 



,\ 



• J I I ' ' . 1 . 1 1 1 Li 







MIDDLE MARL 



iiii'i'i • I 

|I|I||M |, 



INDURfiT£DMA»L 



LOWER MARL 



lELAWARE CtTY 




SAND MAUL 






I 



,|i|'l|Ti 









il 



ii 






MfCAC^OUS ROCKS 









\v 



nn^ 



V\ 



N O 



fXONTOm MILLS, 



\\ 






v\V 




MAQNFSIAN MARBLES 



P0T5DAM QUART2ITS 



t A A < 






LAVRENTIAN? 



O 



^.AcAtMu 




^<y 



, N«T. sa PHiuP'*. 18S4- 



SCRIBNER ON CINNA. 



-'' 1 



k 
R 



w^ 



■l ' 



I^i^ 



1 

I